• Forage value of native and introduced browse species in Tanzania

      Msangi, R. B. R.; Hardesty, L. H. (Society for Range Management, 1993-09-01)
      The nutritional value of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit was compared with that of 3 browse species native to western Tanzania: Antidesma venosum Mey. & Tul., Margaritaria discoides Baill., and Phyllanthus reticulatus Lodd. Foliage samples were collected monthly throughout the dry season from replicated sites on 3 different soil types and analyzed for crude protein, total ash, and in vitro dry matter digestibility. The crude protein content of L. leucocephata (17.60-29.69%) was higher (P<.05) than that of the native species (8.51-16.33%) throughout the study. Phyllanthus reticulatus had the highest crude protein of the native species. Abscised leaves had only half the crude protein of green leaves of the same species. All species showed a significant increase in crude protein when new leaves appeared. L. leucocephala had as much or more ash (6.96-9.77%) than the native species. Margaritaria discoides was more (P<.05) digestible (56.75- 74.06%) than all other species on ail dates but one. The in vitro dry matter digestibility of green and abscised leaves of the same species did not differ (P<.05) until July when green leaves ofikf. discoides, were more digestible. Soil type affected the in vitro dry matter digestibility of ail species except A. venosum (P<.05), but did not affect crude protein values. Both the native species and L. leucoce- phaIa can contribute significantly to meeting animal nutrient demands in the dry season.
    • Nutritional quality of browse after brush management on cross timbers rangeland

      Soper, R. B.; Lochmiller, R. L.; Leslie, D. M.; Engle, D. M. (Society for Range Management, 1993-09-01)
      We evaluated seasonal changes in browse quality 5-6 years after experimental manipulations to control unwanted woody vegetation using combinations of herbicide and fire on cross timbers rangeland in central Oklahoma. The study area consisted of two 32-ha replications of untreated controls and 4 brush treatments (tebuthiuron and triclopyr used singly or in combination with periodic prescribed burning); herbicides were applied in 1983 and fires initiated in 1985. Nutritional quality of blackberry (Rubus spp.), coralberry, (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Moench), rough-leaf dogwood (Cornus drummondii Meyer), elm (Ulmus spp.), greenbrier (Smilax spp.), hackberry (Celtis spp.), and smooth sumac (Rhus glabra L.) were assessed by measuring crude protein, in vitro dry matter digestibility, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and moisture content. Crude protein concentrations of browse were 14% higher on herbicide-treated areas compared to untreated controls and 11% higher on triclopyr treatments compared to tebuthiuron treatments. In vitro dry matter digestibility was 9% higher on herbicide-treated areas compared to untreated controls. Fiber constituents and moisture content were not influenced by brush treatments. Prescribed burning combined with herbicide applications did not improve the quality of browse. Our results indicate that browse quality can be improved for white-tailed deer by applications of tebuthiuron or triclopyr and improvements persist for up to 6 years post treatment.