• Impact of plant toxins on fetal and neonatal development: A review

      Panter, K. E.; Keeler, R. F.; James, L. F.; Bunch, T. D. (Society for Range Management, 1992-01-01)
      Many poisonous plants grazed by livestock on ranges and pastures in the western USA are fetotoxic causing fetrl malformations, embryonic or fetal death, abortion, or early parturition. Decreased incidence of plant-induced livestock malformations may be accomplished through grazing management strategies. To develop these strategies one must understand some basic principles of toxicology and teratology such as susceptible livestock species, type of compound and concentration in the plant and its disposition in the animal, dose response, and the susceptible gestational period. Much of this information is known for certain plants; however, additional information will enhance our ability to control livestock losses from these plants. Certain criteria may be established to maximize grazing management methods to minimize teratogenic effects of poisonous plants. When the suspect plant grows in a restricted habitat, poses a hazard only at certain growth stages or when the susceptible period of pregnancy is relatively short, minor adjustments in management methods can be considerably successful in reducing incidence of malformations and subsequent financial loss.