Welcome to the Rangeland Ecology & Management archives. The journal Rangeland Ecology & Management (RE&M; v58, 2005-present) is the successor to the Journal of Range Management (JRM; v. 1-57, 1948-2004.) The archives provide public access, in a "rolling window" agreement with the Society for Range Management, to both titles (JRM and RE&M), from v.1 up to five years from the present year.

The most recent years of RE&M are available through membership in the Society for Range Management (SRM). Membership in SRM is a means to access current information and dialogue on rangeland management.

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Print ISSN: 0022-409x

Online ISSN: 1550-7424


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Recent Submissions

  • White-tailed deer use of rangeland following browse rejuvenation

    Bozzo, J. A.; Beasom, S. L.; Fulbright, T. E. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
    Mechanical top growth removal of certain shrub species stimulates sprouting and temporarily increases nutritional quality, availability, and yield of browse. We determined the effects of (1) roller chopping separate portions of rangeland, dominated by guajillo (Acacia berlandieri Benth.) and blackbrush acacia (A. rigidula Benth.), during consecutive years and (2) disking separate portions of rangeland, dominated by dense whitebrush (Aloysia lyciodes Cham.) thickets, during consecutive years on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Raf.) use of the treated areas. Separate, adjacent portions of guajillo and blackbrush acacia-dominated rangeland were roller chopped in a pattern of alternating treated and untreated strips each year during summer for 4 consecutive years (1985-1988) on an area in Duval County, Tex., and for 2 years (1988-1989) on areas in Duval and McMullen counties, Texas. Whitebrush-dominated rangeland was disced in a similar pattern during 2 years (1988-1989). Twenty percent of each study site was treated each year. Estimated deer density in the roller-chopped area in Duval County was higher than estimated deer density in an untreated area during 1985-1987 and in 1989. Roller chopping in study areas in Duval and McMullen counties increased deer fecal pellet-group densities (groups ha-1 day-1) relative to untreated sites in winter, spring, and summer 1989 and when averaged over the 21-month study. Discing dense whitebrush-dominated sites increased pellet-group densities relative to untreated sites in spring and summer 1989 and when averaged across the 21-month study period. Increased deer use of treated areas was probably a function of several factors, including increased forb availability and increased nighttime visibility for predator detection.
  • Viewpoint: Range site/ecological site information requirements for classification of riverine riparian ecosystems

    Leonard, S. G.; Staidl, G. J.; Gebhardt, K. A.; Prichard, D. E. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
    Few ecological sites have been described sufficiently to interpret the specific functions and processes unique to riverine riparian areas. The utility of using ecological site concepts for riparian classification has also been debated due to the dynamic nature of the systems and the paucity of unaltered vegetation. We evaluated riparian sites associated with streams or rivers in 9 western states to determine the feasibility of using ecological site concepts in describing and evaluating riverine riparian ecosystems. Associated water features must be described in riparian site descriptions to establish relationships and understand "process pathways." A concept of "site progression" is proposed to differentiate between secondary succession associated with vegetation changes within a given physical environment and physical "state" changes that lead to a "new" or different potential natural plant community (i.e., a change in ecological site and secondary succession sequences). We have concluded that ecological site classification and inventory techniques utilized on uplands can be used on riparian areas with some enhancements to maintain consistency in evaluations at a "management unit" level.
  • Technical Note: Chemical enhancement of germination in curly mesquite seed

    Ralowicz, A.; Mancio, C.; Kopec, D. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
    Curley mesquite (Hilaria belangeri (Steud.) Nash), an important range grass in the southwestern United States, is being evaluated for soil and resource conservation, and range reseeding. Experiments were performed on seed from plants grown with supplemental irrigation to investigate the effects of chemical treatments on germination. Gibberellic acid (GA) at 0.7, 1.4, 2.1, and 2.8 mM significantly enhanced total germination over the control. Low concentrations of GA (0.14, 0.28, 0.42, and 0.56 mM) did not significantly improve germination compared to the control. These results suggest that 0.7 mM GA is the critical concentration to positively affect total germination of curly mesquite seed. Previous reports indicate that curly mesquite seed do not germinate well. However, rapid germination and high percentages in these experiments suggest that our current concept of germinability in curly mesquite seed may be incorrect.
  • Survival and growth of blue grama seedlings in competition with western wheatgrass

    Samuel, M. J.; Hart, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
    Competition from other plant species may inhibit establishment and reduce phytomass production of blue grama [Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Griffiths] on rangeland. Varying levels of competition were achieved by transplanting four-week-old blue grama seedlings into openings 0, 4, 8, or 16 cm in diameter in a western wheatgrass [Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) A. Love] sod or in fallow soil. After the first growing season, 42, 79, 88, and 92% of blue grama seedlings survived in 0, 4, 8, and 16 cm openings, respectively, in sod. All plants survived the first growing season in all treatments on fallow, but 86% of the plants in fallow died the first winter. In the first growing season, blue grama plants averaged over 13 seed heads per plant in fallow but less than 1 seed head per plant in sod. Both above- and below-ground phytomass of blue grama and western wheatgrass were reduced by competition. Plant height in fallow was about twice that in sod. Both survival and vigor of blue grama seedlings were reduced with increasing levels of western wheatgrass competition. For successful establishment of blue grams in an existing sward, artificial or natural openings must be created.
  • Shrub control and seeding influences on grazing capacity in Argentina

    Passera, C. B.; Borsetto, O.; Candia, R. J.; Stasi, C. R. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
    Total vegetation cover, forage species cover, litter cover, and carrying capacity were determined during 3 growing seasons (1979-80, 1980-81, and 1981-82), for plots cleared of shrubs with or without sowing of native grasses in a site characteristic of the Monte Phytogeographical Province in mid-west Argentina. We tested the hypothesis that shrub removal with or without sowing of native grasses increases aerial cover of forage, especially species capable of quick establishment ("pioneers"), that ultimately results in a greater carrying capacity. When shrubs were removed and the cut material was left on the soil surface, average cover of forage species increased 156% over the control at the end of the third growing season. Increased carrying capacity (229%) also resulted from shrub control on the study area. Sowing with grasses produced a response in only 1 species. Thus, shrub control with or without additional sowing of native grasses appears capable of improving the carrying capacity of shrub communities of low forage value, typical of this temperate arid zone.
  • Runoff prediction from sagebrush rangelands using water erosion prediction project (WEPP) technology

    Wilcox, B. P.; Sbaa, M.; Blackburn, W. H.; Milligan, J. H. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
    Runoff prediction is an important component of any process-based soil erosion model. In this paper we evaluate the runoff prediction capabilities of a new soil erosion model, WEPP, on sagebrush rangelands. Particular attention was given to the parameter estimation techniques used in WEPP to predict infiltration. Runoff volume predicted by WEPP is based on the Green and Ampt infiltration equation. Predicted runoff was compared to observed runoff from 90 large plot rainfall simulation experiments on sagebrush rangelands. There was a poor correlation between predicted and observed runoff when the Green and Ampt parameters were estimated using the parameter estimation techniques. Runoff prediction was improved when parameters were determined from field measurements. Additional refinement of the Green and Ampt parameterization techniques is needed for continued improvement of WEPP.
  • Regulation of tillering by apical dominance: Chronology, interpretive value, and current perspectives

    Murphy, J. S.; Briske, D. D. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
    The range science profession has traditionally relied upon the concept of apical dominance to explain tiller initiation in perennial grasses. The physiological mechanism of apical dominance is assumed to follow the direct hypothesis of auxin action, which was originally proposed during the 1930's. This hypothesis indicates that the plant hormone auxin (IAA), produced in the apical meristem and young leaves, directly inhibits axillary bud growth. The direct hypothesis was, and continues to be, the sole interpretation of the physiological mechanism of apical dominance since the concept was initially adopted by the range science profession. However, the direct hypothesis was abandoned by plant physiologists during the 1950's because of experimental and interpretive inconsistencies and the demonstrated involvement of a second hormone, cytokinin, in apical dominance. The cytokinin deficiency hypothesis has replaced the direct hypothesis as the current hormonally based interpretation of apical dominance. This hypothesis indicates that IAA produced in the apical meristem blocks the synthesis or utilization of cytokinin within axillary buds inhibiting their growth. Despite wide acceptance, numerous issues remain unresolved concerning this hypothesis, suggesting that it may also be an incomplete interpretation of the physiological mechanism of apical dominance.
  • Pre-inoculation of clover seed for aerial seeding on logged sites

    Brooke, B. M.; Stout, D. G.; Tucker, R.; Preston, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
    In 1989 a mixture of clover (Trifolium hybridum L. and T. repens L.) seed pre-inoculated with Rhizobia by 2 commercial techniques (GuardcoatTM(1) and DormalTM(1)) were compared to bare seed. The Guardcoat produced nodulation on 30% of the clover plants. Dormal and bare seed produced no nodules. Fifty-nine percent of the N in clover top growth in 1990 was derived from atmospheric nitrogen. Use of a pre-inoculated treatment, such as Guardcoat, is an effective method of delivering Rhizobia to aerially seeded clover.
  • Optimal vegetation management under multiple-use objectives in the Cross Timbers

    Bernardo, D. J.; Engle, D. M.; Lochmiller, R. L.; McCollum, F. T. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
    The relatively low productivity of the herbaceous stratum of the oak-hickory forests of North America has prompted land managers to evaluate alternative means of increasing large herbivore production. A mathematical programming model was developed to evaluate alternative vegetation management programs for large herbivore production in the Cross Timbers Region of the Ozark Plateaus. The optimization determined the combination of livestock enterprises, lease-hunting enterprises, and vegetation management practices that maximized discounted net returns over a 15-year period. Results indicated that by integrating both herbicides and prescribed fire into vegetation management programs, sufficient herbivory can be sustained to support an economically viable level of livestock production. Vegetation management programs derived under multiple-enterprise objectives differ significantly from those in conjunction with a single enterprise. Economic returns from cattle production are maximized by applying herbicides that induce large increases in grass production, and thus, allow for significant expansion of the cattle enterprise. Under multiple-enterprise objectives, 2 herbicides and prescribed burning may be integrated effectively to sustain sufficient production of grasses, forbs, and browse to support expanded cattle, Angora goat, and white-tailed deer populations. Economic returns from the land resource can be increased approximately 46% as a result of employing multiple-enterprise management objectives.
  • Increasing bitterbrush nutrient quality with 2,4-D, mowing, and burning in southcentral Wyoming

    Kituku, V. M.; Powell, J.; Smith, M. A.; Olson, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
    Effects of burning, mowing, and 2,4-D on antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata Pursh.) nutrient contents were evaluated in southcentral Wyoming. During the first growing season following treatments, spraying of 2,4-D increased bitterbrush nitrogen (N) contents from 1.5 to 1.9%, phosphorus (P) from 0.12 to 0.15%, and in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) from 44.1 to 48.4%. Mowing increased N from 1.5 to 1.7%, P from 0.12 to 0.16%, and IVDDM from 44.1 to 46.1%. Burning increased N from 1.4 to 1.9%, P from 0.11 to 0.17%, ash from 3.7 to 5.3%, and IVDDM from 47.4 to 51.0%, and decreased gross energy from 4,640 to 4,380 kcal/g. There were no differences in N and IVDDM contents among treatments at the end of the second growing season, but P content was still greater in mowed bitterbrush regrowth than on untreated bitterbrush. Ash contents were not affected by treatments, but were higher in summer (3.9%) than in winter (2.4%). Gross energy contents varied only 5 to 10% among all treatments and seasons. Correlation coefficients between N, P, ash, and IVDDM contents varied from +0.54 to +0.76, and all of these nutrients were negatively correlated with gross energy. Bitterbrush nutrient contents can be increased by shrub management practices, but short-term responses require that small portions of the total area be treated annually in a rotational shrub management program.
  • Hydrologic characteristics immediately after seasonal burning on introduced and native grasslands

    Emmerich, W. E.; Cox, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
    Fire on rangelands used as a management tool or as an unwanted wildfire removes vegetation cover. Vegetation cover is thought to be a dominate factor controlling surface runoff and erosion. Vegetation removal by a burn should have an immediate effect on runoff and erosion. Surface runoff and sediment production were evaluated immediately after fall and spring season burns at 2 locations with different soil and vegetation types for 2 years in southeastern Arizona. The evaluations were conducted with a rainfall simulator at 2 precipitation intensities. Immediately after a burn there was not a significant change in runoff and erosion, therefore, vegetation cover by itself was concluded not to be a dominate factor controlling surface runoff and erosion. The increase found in surface runoff and sediment production from the burn plots was not significantly greater than the natural variability for the locations or seasons. Significantly higher surface runoff and sediment production was measured in the fall season compared to the spring at 1 location.
  • Enhancing control of eastern redcedar through individual plant ignition following prescribed burning

    Engle, D. M.; Stritzke, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
    Fire-scorched crowns of live eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) were ignited using a propane torch in 3 studies to quantify the efficacy and to determine the feasibility of the technique as a follow-up treatment for killing trees that survived prescribed burns. In the first study, we ignited 98 fire-scorched, live trees 20 to 64 days following a prescribed burn. Igniting scorched trees in several positions killed 90% of the crown and two-thirds of the trees regardless of tree size. Logistic regression models indicated reburning was more effective on trees highly damaged after prescribed burning. In the second study, one person equipped with a self-contained backpack propane burner used single-point ignition to treat in average of 1 tree every 17 seconds (range 11 to 20 seconds) on 0.25-ha plots. Effectiveness of the single-point ignition declined with increasing tree size. In the third study, the average time required to burn a tree was 19 seconds in eight 32-ha pastures. Cost in this field-scale study for labor, propane, fuel, and equipment depreciation was 0.03/ignited tree.
  • Effects of sericea lespedeza residues on warm-season grasses

    Kalburtji, K. L.; Mosjidis, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
    Soil incorporation of sericea lespedeza [Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. de Cours) G. Don.] residues has been reported to inhibit growth of some forage grasses. No information is available on the performance of sericea lespedeza grown in association with warm-season perennial grasses. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine if sericea lespedeza residues affect seed germination and seedling growth of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] and bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge); if any such response was cultivar dependent; and if the response was subject to manipulation by N fertilization. Sericea lespedeza residues inhibited bermudagrass and bahiagrass growth, but did not affect their seed germination and emergence. No differences among cultivars of bermudagrass and bahiagrass in response to sericea lespedeza residues were found in the greenhouse. Nevertheless, differences among bermudagrass cultivars for tolerance to sericea lespedeza residues were observed in the laboratory. The harmful effects of sericea lespedeza residues were small (17 and 16% reduction of dry weight for bermudagrass and bahiagrass, respectively) compared to the positive effects of N fertilization.
  • Effects of cattle grazing on blue oak seedling damage and survival

    Hall, L. M.; George, M. R.; McCreary, D. D.; Adams, T. E. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
    Cattle grazing has been suggested as a principal cause for poor oak recruitment in California's hardwood rangelands. This study evaluated the effects of stock density and season of grazing on blue oak (Quercus douglasii H. & A.) establishment. In December 1989, seven hundred and twenty blue oak seedlings were planted on 3-m centers in 30 plots in 3 annual grassland pastures at the Sierra Foothill Research and Extension Center east of Marysville, Calif. The treatments consisted of 3 seasons X 3 stock densities plus 1 nongrazed control. During January, April, and July of 1990, steers and heifers (mean = 318 kg) were allowed to graze 1 plot per week at low, medium, and high stock densities (2.5, 7.5, and 15.0 head/ha, respectively). Control plots were used to monitor wildlife browsing. One half of all seedling sites received an application of glyphosate prior to transplanting to eliminate grass competition. Browsing and trampling damage were estimated at the end of each treatment. Total damage (sum of browsing and trampling damage), browsing damage, trampling damage, and survival to April 1991 were significantly different for the 9 season and stock density treatments (P < 0.05). Spring and summer grazing tended to be most damaging and resulted in the lowest survival rates. Within each season total damage increased with stock density but survival did not change significantly. Weed control around oak seedlings had no apparent effect on total damage or survival. There were significant differences in browsing damage between seasons but not between control and grazed plots within seasons (P < 0.05). Survival in ungrazed plots was not significantly different (P < 0.05) from the spring and summer grazed plots. Consequently, the contribution of wildlife to reduced blue oak seedling survival in grazed oak woodlands should not be underestimated.
  • Effect of temperature and photoperiod on growth and reproductive development of goatsrue

    Patterson, D. T. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
    Goatsrue (Galega officinalis L.) was introduced into northern Utah from Europe as a potential forage crop in 1891. Subsequent testing indicated goatsrue was unpalatable and toxic to livestock. The test plots were abandoned, and goatsrue escaped to become established as a weed. Goatsrue now is targeted for eradication under the Federal Noxious Weed Act, and information about its environmental requirements and potential for further range expansion in the United States is needed. In controlled environment chambers, plants were grown for 89 days in 4 day/night temperature regimes. Goatsrue produced 88, 100, 57, and 86% of its maximum dry matter at 26/14, 26/22, 34/14, and 34/22 degrees C, respectively. Dry matter production was closely correlated with leaf area duration. When 20-day-old plants were transferred from a 12-hour photoperiod to longer photoperiods, flower buds appeared after 20, 26, and 69 days in photoperiods of 18, 16, and 14 hours, respectively. Plants in these longer photoperiods subsequently flowered and produced fruit, but no reproductive development occurred after 130 days in the 12-hour photoperiod. Goatsrue is not well-adapted to the large diurnal variation in temperature typical of summer conditions in the Intermountain region of the United States. Temperature conditions in the Midwest or South would be more favorable to its growth.
  • Characterizing gene response to drought stress in fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canescens (Pursh.) Nutt.]

    Adair, L. S.; Andrews, D. L.; Cairney, J.; Funkhouser, E. A.; Newton, R. J.; Aldon, E. F. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
    New techniques in molecular biology can be used to characterize genes whose expression is induced by drought stress. These techniques can be used to understand responses of range plants to environmental stresses at the biochemical and molecular level. For example, they can be used to characterize genes that respond to drought stress conditions in the native shrub Atriplex canescens (Pursh.) Nutt. Complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries constructed from drought-induced messenger RNA (poly A+ RNA) were used to characterize genes which are associated with the stress response. A cDNA library from A. canescens was prepared. This library from stressed shrubs was differentially screened with radiolabeled cDNA probes from stressed and nonstressed shrubs, and apparent drought-induced clones were identified. This is the first report of molecular characterization of drought responsive genes in four-wing saltbush. The identification of genes specific to responses to drought stress could provide a basis for understanding drought tolerance in this important range species.
  • Application of nonequilibrium ecology to management of Mediterranean grasslands

    George, M. R.; Brown, J. R.; Clawson, W. J. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
    The state and transition model and the ball and cup analogy are used to organize the vegetation dynamics knowledge base for California's annual-dominated Mediterranean grasslands. These models help identify irreversible transitions and alternate stable states. Mechanisms that facilitate movement between successional stable states are categorized as demographic inertia, seedbank and germination, grazing impacts, establishment and competition, fire feedback, and irreversible changes in soil conditions. While theoretical work needs to continue to further describe states and transitions, managers can begin to use existing knowledge to develop management plans with realistic species composition objectives and to select the appropriate tools for reaching objectives.
  • A comparison of drills for direct seeding alfalfa into established grasslands

    Waddington, J. (Society for Range Management, 1992-09-01)
    Information is presented on the suitability of various drills for direct seeding into permanent pastures and rangelands in Saskatchewan. Strips of sod 30 to 100-cm wide were killed during the growing season by glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine) in grazing lands at several sites in Saskatchewan. Six drills: 1 with a powered disk furrow opener, 2 with hoe openers, and 3 with rolling disk openers were used to seed measured amounts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed in the killed strips in late fall of the same year or early the subsequent spring. Drill performance was assessed during the seeding operation, and emerged seedlings were counted early the following growing season. Seedling emergence ranged from near 0 to 48% of seed sown. Soil moisture conditions in early spring, which in turn were a function of winter precipitation, were a major limitation on seed germination. All of the furrow-opening mechanisms were capable of placing seed at a suitable depth for successful establishment in some situations. The best seedling emergence was obtained with drills having each opener suspended independently with sufficient weight to penetrate dead thatch and hard ground, and with mechanisms to control seeding depth and pack the soil around the seeds.