• Use of ornamental lilac and honeysuckle phenophases as indicators of rangeland grasshopper development

      Kemp, W. P.; Berry, J. S.; Caprio, J. M. (Society for Range Management, 1991-11-01)
      Comparisons were made between phenological phase dates of 2 common ornamental shrubs, purple common lilac (Syringa vulgaris L.) and Zabeli honeysuckle (Lonicera krolkowii Stapf, var. Zabelii (Rehd. Rehder)), and rangeland grasshopper (composite of 6 common species) development for 3 years at 9 sites throughout Montana. Results indicated that spring hatch (75% instar 1) occurred about 10 days after the begin bloom phase of purple common lilac. Peak occurrence of grasshoppers for instar 2 coincided, on average, with the end bloom phase of Zabeli honeysuckle, whereas peak instar 3 occurred about 10 days later. On average, peak instar 4 preceded the first red berry phase of Zabeli honeysuckle by about 8 days, and 75% adult stage occurred about 14 days after red berries first appeared. Our results provide rangeland managers and ranchers with a simple method for the improved timing of assessment and control of rangeland grasshoppers.
    • Utilization of larkspur by sheep

      Ralphs, M. H.; Bowns, J. E.; Manners, G. D. (Society for Range Management, 1991-11-01)
      Sheep are more resistent to larkspur (Delphinium spp.) poisoning than are cattle, and may be used as a biological tool to graze larkspur prior to cattle turn-in to reduce the risk of cattle poisoning. Sheep utilization of 3 species of larkspur was measured at 3 phenological growth states (vegetative, bud, and flower) at 5 locations. Utilization of waxy larkspur (D. glaucescens Wats), varied among years at Ruby, Mont. Use of duncecap larkspur (D. occidentals. Wats) at Oakley, Ida., was uniformly higher in all 3 growth stages due to closed herding practices. Use of tall larkspur (D. barbeyi Huth) increased as it matured. Trailing sheep through larkspur patches, or bedding them in patches greatly increased trampling of larkspur stalks and utilization of heads and leaves.
    • Wyoming big sagebrush control with metsulfuron and 2,4-D in northern New Mexico

      McDaniel, K. C.; Anderson, D. L.; Balliette, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1991-11-01)
      Field experiments conducted between 1982 to 1988 compared 2,4-D [(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid] and metsulfuron [2-[[[[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl) amino)carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]benzoic acid) for control of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis Beetle and Young) in northern New Mexico. Precipitation was near or above normal during years of herbicide applications. Broadcast sprays of 2,4-D at 2.2 kg/ha were most efficacious during rapid shoot elongation, but mortality averaged less than 38% from treatments applied over 4 separate years. Wyoming big sagebrush shoot growth was greatest in April and May compared to other months, but growth was highly variable among shrubs and probably reduced effectiveness of 2,4-D sprays. The optimum application timing for metsulfuron was during the late-flower growth and fruiting stages. Fall-applied metsulfuron at 0.035 kg/ha provided 65% Wyoming big sagebrush mortality compared to 27% when spring-applied. When metsulfuron was fall-applied at 0.07 kg/ha or higher, control averaged 88% following 3 annual applications. Combining metsulfuron at .0175 kg/ha plus 2,4-D at 1.1 kg/ha was comparable to or more effective than either herbicide applied alone in spring or fall. Total standing crop of grasses increased by nearly 300% after 1 or 2 growing seasons when Wyoming big sagebrush canopy cover was reduced by at least 75% following herbicide treatments.