• Technical Notes: Germination of 2 legumes in leachate from introduced grasses

      Fulbright, N.; Fulbright, T. E. (Society for Range Management, 1990-09-01)
      Kleberg bluestem [Dichanthium annulatum (Forsk.) Staph and buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciIiaris L.) may produce pbytotoxic chemicals that inhibit germination and growth of legumes planted in seeding mixtures with grasses. We determined the effects of leachate from these introduced grasses on seed germination of Illinois bundleflower [Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacM.] and partridge pea (Cassia fasciculata Michx.). Percent germination of Illinois bundleflower seeds on substrata moistened with Kleberg bluestem root or buffelgrass leaf leachate was lower than that of seeds placed on substrata moistened with distilled water. Buffelgrass root Ieachate reduced germination of partridge pea more than did root leachate from Kleberg bluestem or leaf leachate from Kleberg bluestem or buffelgrass. Results of these laboratory experiments indicate that field studies are warranted to determine the effects of buffelgrass on establishment of partridge pea and Illinois bundleflower in order to help land managers select the optimum combination of species for rangeland seeding.
    • Timahdit sheep production and behavior at three stocking rates in the Moyen Atlas of Morocco

      El Aich, A.; Rittenhouse, L. R.; El Khamkhami, S.; Mhand, T. A. (Society for Range Management, 1990-09-01)
      Liveweight (LW) changes and behavior of growing rams were measured in 1981, 1982, 1985, and 1986 at the Timahdit Experiment Station in the Middle Atlas, Morocco, at stocking rates of 2.78, 4.17, and 6.67 rams/ha during the growing season. Maximum animal production would have occurred at a stocking rate greater than any imposed in the study in all years except 1982. Increased variable costs should drive stocking rates down while increased selling price would provide an incentive to increase stocking rates. Mean grazing time of animals stocked at tight, moderate, and heavy rates was 410, 436, and 504 minutes/day, respectively. Mean resting time was 206, 174, and 106 minutes/day, respectively. Rams under light, moderate, and heavy stocking rates walked 2.1, 2.4, and 3.1 km/day, respectively. Diet IVDMD was highest early in the grazing season and lowest in the nongrowing season, and was not affected by stocking rates. Early in the spring, diet diversity was low, increased during active growth, and then deciined as the season advanced. Selectivity was lowest when forage was abundant. Dry matter intake varied with season in 1985 but not 1986. There was less opportmdty to be adaptive under heavy than under light stocking, resulting in a stocking rate by season interaction in 1986. Under heavy stocking, forage intake (G/kg LW/min) was 61 and 83% of intake under light and moderate stocking, respectively, and forage intake per km walked was 71 and 84%, respectively
    • Utilization of linear prediction procedures to evaluate animal response to grazing systems

      Winder, J. A.; Beck, R. F. (Society for Range Management, 1990-09-01)
      Best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) procedures were used to separate genetic merit from environmental effects on 205-d weight (205-d wt) of calves produced by cows grazing 2 pasture systems. Phenotypic measures of 205-d wt were statistically partitioned into genetic effects (breeding value) and environmental effects. Means were regressed on year of birth of calf. Analysis of covariance was used to test difference in slope and elevation (means) of the regression lines. The continuously grazed pasture (CC) produced higher 205-d wt than did the rotationally grazed pastures (RG) (P<.10). Rate of change in 205-d wt was similar in the 2 grazing systems. Genetic merit was similar among the animals in the 2 grazing systems. The rate of change per year in genetic merit (genetic trend) was also similar. Means tended to vary sharply from year to year, indicating inequality of genetic merit should be taken into account in this type of data. Mean environmental effects resulted in greater (P<.10) 205-d weight in CG than in RG. Rate of change of environmental quality was similar in the 2 systems. These results indicate, from the animals perspective, the RG system did not improve productivity when compared to CG. The CG system was of higher nutritional quality, but the rate of change was similar to that of the RG system.
    • Warm-season grass establishment as affected by post-planting atrazine application

      Bahler, C. C.; Moser, L. E.; Griffin, T. S.; Vogel, K. P. (Society for Range Management, 1990-09-01)
      Atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N’-(l-methylethyl)-1,3,4-diamine] provides effective weed control during big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) establishment. However, most other desirable warm-season grasses are susceptible to atrazine injury at establishment. The objective of this study was to determine if atrazine application after seeding would affect susceptible warm-season grass establishment. Big bluestem, switchgrass, indiangrass [Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash] sideoats grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.], and little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash] were seeded into greenhouse flats or field plots and 2.2 kg a.i. atrazine/ha applied at 0 (atrazine control), 7, 14, or 21 days after planting. An untreated control was used also. In greenhouse experiments, Indiangrass and sideoats grama plant survival increased when atrazine applications were delayed. Switchgrass, big blue stem, and little bluestem plant survival was not affected by atrazine application. Field studies were conducted in 1983, 1985, and 1986 using the same soil type, grass species, and application periods as the greenhouse study. Delaying atrazine application 7 or more days after planting generally favored survival of lndlangrass and sideoats grama. Big bluestem, switchgrass, and little bluestem were not affected by atrazine treatment. Delaying the application of atrazine may favor the survival of atrazine sensitive species. However, further research needs to be conducted on various soil types and environmental conditions before this can be a recommended practice.
    • Water relations of honey mesquite following severing of lateral roots: influence of location and amount of subsurface water

      Ansley, R. J.; Jacoby, P. W.; Cuomo, G. J. (Society for Range Management, 1990-09-01)
      Location and amount of subsurface water may ifiuenee the degree of dependence of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) on shallow lateral roots to supply water. The objective of this study was to determine influence of lateral roots on water relations of honey mesquite on 2 sites which differed in location and amount of subsurface water. Lateral roots were severed with barriers placed to 1.5 m depth and completely surrounding individual trees in February 1985, during mesquite winter dormancy. Stomatal conductance and predawn leaf water potential were signifiicantly reduced in root-severed trees during the following growing season (May-September) at both sites, but reduction was greater on the site with less subsurface water. Daytime leaf water potential was bigger in root-severed than control trees on tbe site with less subsurface water, but not on the other site. By mid-summer 1986, no difference in stomatal conductance between treatments were detected at either site, yet daytime leaf water potential remained higher in root-severed than control trees at the site with less subsurface water. Predawn leaf water potential was greater in root-severed than control trees in 1986, which was a reversal of 1985 trends. Leaf abscission was not observed in either treatment during either growing season. These results suggest that: (1) when less subsurface water was available, trees were more dependent on lateral roots to supply water, (2) treatment effects were minimized by the second growing season following root severing, possibly from new root growth within or below the root barrier region, and (3) the lateral root system may play a significant role in regulating leaf water relations on sites with limited subsurface water.