Welcome to the Rangeland Ecology & Management archive. The journal Rangeland Ecology & Management (RE&M; v58, 2005-present) is the successor to the Journal of Range Management (JRM; v. 1-57, 1948-2004.) The archive provide public access, in a "rolling window" agreement with the Society for Range Management, to both titles (JRM and RE&M), from v.1 up to five years from the present year.

The most recent years of RE&M are available through membership in the Society for Range Management (SRM). Membership in SRM is a means to access current information and dialogue on rangeland management.

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Print ISSN: 0022-409x

Online ISSN: 1550-7424


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  • Winter forb control for increased grass yield on sandy rangeland

    Dahl, B. E.; Mosley, J. C.; Cotter, P. F.; Dickerson, R. L. (Society for Range Management, 1989-09-01)
    Four separate studies evaluated several herbicides for reducing competition from overwintering weeds on sandy rangeland in west Texas. Air temperature was 10 degrees C with soil moisture adequate for plant growth at herbicide application (0.28 kg ae/ha) on 14 March 1985. Trichlopyr ([3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy]acetic acid); 2,4-D [(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid]; and dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) plus 2,4-D were ineffective, while picloram 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid); picloram plus 2,4-D; and dicamba alone adequately controlled western ragweed (Ambrosia psilostachya DC.), the major targeted weed. These treatments were repeated on 4 April 1986 when air temperature was 24 degrees C but with dry surface soils. Results were similar to those of 1985, except trichlopyr also controlled western ragweed under the warmer temperature. In another study, various rates of picloram and trichlopyr aerially applied 5 April 1986 showed that 0.07 kg ae/ha of picloram or 0.28 kg ae/ha of trichlopyr reduced (P < 0.05) western ragweed with a corresponding increase in grass production. Picloram more effectively controlled targeted forbs while trichlopyr suppressed sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii Rydb.) more effectively. Two companion studies also evaluated picloram and picloram plus 2,4-D. In one study 0.28 kg ae/ha of picloram was applied to sand shinnery oak range on 11 March 1985. Grass yield increased from 359 kg/ha in untreated plots to 1,222 kg/ha in treated plots. Grass yield in treated areas remained greater (P < 0.05) for 3 growing seasons post-treatment. Sand shinnery oak plants at the bud burst stage were top-killed by picloram. On 14 March 1985 picloram (0.056 kg ae/ha) plus 2,4-D (0.224 kg ae/ha) was applied to sand shinnery oak rangeland. This treatment reduced forb production with a corresponding increase in grass production the year of application (P < 0.05), but effects did not persist into the second growing season. Picloram plus 2,4-D did not suppress sand shinnery oak.
  • Viewpoint: Do your digits betray you or does rounding raises your reputation?

    Wheeler, J. L.; Prasetyo, L. H.; Davies, H. I. (Society for Range Management, 1989-09-01)
  • Vegetational response to herbicide treatment for brush control in Tanzania

    Msafiri, D. N.; Pieper, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1989-07-01)
    Dense stands of small trees restrict understory production and provide suitable habitat for tsetse-fly in many areas in Tanzania. Three methods (ring barking, cut stump and frilling) of applying a mixture of esters of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) and 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid) for tree control were compared. There were no significant differences in mortality (P<0.10) of Combretum species among the application methods. Mortalities for all species ranged from 37 to 48%. Applications in June had pronounced effects on Combretum molle and Combretum ternifolium on the reddish-brown soil and black soils sites, respectively. Combretum binderanum on the reddish-brown soil site tended to respond differently in June and December to cut stump and ring barking treatments. Overall, Combretum molle and Combretum ternifolium were more susceptible to the herbicide treatments than was Combretum binderanum. Total herbage standing crop in the reddish-brown soil site was not affected by method or the season of herbicide application (P>0.10). On the black soil site Andropogon gayanus and forbs produced more herbage standing crop under the ring barking treatment in June compared to the control. Percent composition of Panicum infestum on the reddish-brown soil site was higher in the June herbicide applications than that in December applications. On the black soil site, composition of Andropogon gayanus was significantly lower in the December ring barking treatment than in the control, whereas forb composition was significantly higher (P<0.10) in the June ring barking treatment compared to the control. The frilling treatment applied in June appeared to give the most positive response for management objectives.
  • Vegetation and soil responses to short-duration grazing on fescue grasslands

    Dormaar, Johan F.; Smoliak, Sylvester; Willms, Walter D. (Society for Range Management, 1989-05-01)
    The effects of animal impact on soil chemical and physical properties as well as range condition were measured over a 5-year period to test the hypothesis that animal impact can improve the nutrient and water status of the soil and promote grassland succession. A seventeen-pasture short-duration grazing system was established in 1981 on 972 ha. The pastures were stocked on average with 278 cows with calves from 1982 to 1986, which was about twice to triple the recommended rate of 0.8 AUM/ha. Increased grazing pressure reduced range condition as reflected by a loss of desirable species such as rough fescue (Festuca scabrella Torr.). Soil moisture was always higher in soils of ungrazed exclosures. Soil bulk density increased while hydraulic conductivity decreased with grazing. Litter was not significantly incorporated into the soil with hoof action. Chitin-N, as a measure of fungal biomass, decreased significantly under the increased grazing pressure. The hypothesis that animal impact would improve range condition was rejected since impact, in the manner applied during the study, resulted in retrogression of the grasslands.
  • Variability for Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Zn, and K/(Ca + Mg) ratio among 3 wheatgrasses and sainfoin on the southern high plains

    Kidambi, S. P.; Matches, A. G.; Griggs, T. C. (Society for Range Management, 1989-07-01)
    The objective of this study was to determine the variability of Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Zn, and K/(Ca+Mg) ratio in 'Jose' tall wheatgrass [Thinopyrum ponticum (Podp.) Barkw. & D.R. Dewey], 'Luna' pubescent wheatgrass [T. intermedium subsp. barbulatum (Schur.) Barkw. & D.R. Dewey], and 'Hycrest' crested wheatgrass [Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. × A. desertorum (Fisch. ex Link.)]. Each grass was grown alone and in paired rows with 'Renumex' sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) on a Pullman clay loam soil (a fine, mixed thermic Torrertic Paleustoll). Each species or mixture was evaluated under 3 cutting schedules in 1985 and 1986 and their mineral concentrations were compared to the recommended daily requirements of beef cattle. The concentration of minerals was similar in grasses grown as monocultures and in binary mixtures. The concentrations of all minerals and the ratio varied with harvest time, phenological stage, and year. Therefore, seasonal dynamics of mineral concentrations should be kept in mind when evaluating the mineral status of different forages. Among grasses, Hycrest had a better mineral profile for beef cattle than Luna or Jose. Sainfoin had higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, Cu, and Zn and much lower K/(Ca+Mg) ratio than the grasses. Hence, sainfoin-Hycrest mixtures may provide mineral concentrations more in balance with beef cattle requirements and help alleviate the problem of hypomagnesemia.
  • Understory-overstory relationships in ponderosa pine forests, Black Hills, South Dakota

    Uresk, Daniel W.; Severson, Kieth E. (Society for Range Management, 1989-05-01)
    Understory-overstory relationships were examined over 7 different growing stock levels (GSLs) of 2 size classes (saplings, 8-10 cm d.b.h. and poles, 15-18 cm d.b.h.) of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Black Hills, South Dakota. Generally, production of graminoids, forbs, and shrubs was similar between sapling and pole stands. Trends among GSLs were also similar between these tree size classes. Graminoids and forbs were most abundant in clearcuts and the 5 m2/ha basal area. Intermediate amounts were produced at GSLs of 14-23 m2/ha and lowest in unthinned stands which had basal areas ranging from 27-33 m2/ha and 37-40 m2/ha in sapling and pole stands, respectively. Total understory production followed the same trends. Shrubs, however, appeared to produce most at intermediate stocking levels but were variable. Graminoid and forb production were best estimated by the model logY=a+bX. Relationships for total production were better described by Y=a+bX. However, variability of shrub production precluded selection of a single model; the best model varied between tree size classes. Standard errors of the estimate indicate that reasonably good predictive models can be developed for pole and sapling stands considered separately or combined. When years were combined, however, SEs increased markedly, indicating less reliable models.
  • Tree canopy effects on herbaceous production of annual rangeland during drought

    Frost, W. E.; McDougald, N. K. (Society for Range Management, 1989-07-01)
    Seasonal herbaceous production was measured beneath tree canopies of blue oak (Quercus douglasii Hook & Arn.), interior live oak (Quercus wislizenii DC), and digger pine (Pinus sabiniana Dougl.), and in adjacent open grassland during 2 drought years (1986-87 and 1987-88) at the San Joaquin Experimental Range, California. Early and mid-growing season herbaceous production was variable, with no increase in production beneath the canopies the first year and a 60 to 150 kg/ha increase the second year compared to the herbage produced in open grassland. Peak standing crop was about 1,000 kg/ha greater beneath blue oak canopies than in open grassland in both years. Peak standing crop beneath interior live oak canopies was about 700 and 1,000 kg/ha greater than in open grassland the first and second years of the study, respectively. Peak standing crop beneath digger pine canopies was about 500 kg/ha greater the first year and similar the second year to that of the open grassland.
  • Toxicological investigations on Toano, Wasatch, and stinking milkvetches

    Williams, M. C. (Society for Range Management, 1989-09-01)
    Toano milkvetch (Astragalus toanus Jones) synthesizes the beta-D-glucoside of 3-nitro-1-propanol (miserotoxin), a highly toxic aliphatic nitro compound, and also accumulates toxic levels of selenium. The toxicity of Toano milkvetch to 1-week-old chicks was compared with Wasatch milkvetch [Astragalus miser var. oblongifolius (Rydb.) Cronq.], which contains only miserotoxin but does not accumulate selenium; stinking milkvetch (Astragalus praelongus Sheld.), which accumulates selenium but does not contain miserotoxin; and a combination of Wasatch milkvetch and stinking milkvetch. The LD50 for chicks fed Toano milkvetch was 67.8 mg NO2/kg plus 2.7 mg Se/kg of body weight. The LD50 for Wasatch milkvetch was 105 mg NO2/kg and for stinking milkvetch 5.9 mg Se/kg. The LD50s of a combination of Wasatch milkvetch and stinking milkvetch were 66.1 mg NO2/kg and 2.7 mg Se/kg. When miserotoxin and selenium were fed together, either in Toano milkvetch or the Wasatch-stinking milkvetch combination, the LD50 for each compound was significantly lower than when they were fed separately. If seleniferous and nitro-bearing species grow sympatrically, livestock might be poisoned at lower concentrations of the individual toxic compounds if they grazed both species.
  • The effects of intra-row spacings and cutting heights on the yields of Leucana leucocephala in Adana, Turkey

    Tuckel, Tuncay; Hatipoglu, Rustu (Society for Range Management, 1989-11-01)
    This research was conducted in Adana, Turkey, between 1985 and 1987. The study investigated the effects of the intra-row spacings and cutting heights on yields of 2 cultivars of Leucaena leucocephala, K8 and Peru. The trial was a split-split plot design in randomized blocks with 4 replications. The main plots were the cultivars, K8 and Peru; subplots were intra-row spacings, 25, 50, and 75 cm; and sub-sub plots were cutting heights, 20, 40, and 60 cm. Row spacing was 1m. Peru had higher leaf yields than K8. Increased intra-row spacing decreased both thin and thick dried stem yields and foliage yield per ha. The effects of cutting heights varied with the years. The highest dried foliage yield was obtained from the plots cut at 40 cm in the first year and 60 cm in the second year.
  • The effect of cattle grazing on the growth and miserotoxin content of Columbia milkvetch

    Quinton, D. A.; Majak, W.; Hall, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1989-09-01)
    The growth and miserotoxin content of Columbia milkvetch (Astragalus miser Dougl. var. serotinus (Gray) Barneby) were examined following grazing of early growth by cows at a grassland site in southern British Columbia. Grazing behavior and forage consumption of cows were observed. Growth of Columbia milkvetch was determined by measuring the freeze-dried weight of each plant and miserotoxin levels were determined by a rapid screening method. Cows had a tendency to either avoid Columbia milkvetch or to consume it incidentally with other forage so long as there was adequate grass available. As grass became scarce the use of Columbia milkvetch increased. After being grazed, the rate of growth and the toxicity of Columbia milkvetch were substantially reduced. In comparison to ungrazed plants, the aboveground biomass of grazed plants was reduced by more than 50% and the average miserotoxin content per plant was reduced by more than 75% during a 6-week period of regrowth. While early grazing may reduce the potential hazard of Columbia milkvetch to livestock, the plant is not a preferred species and may not be consumed by cattle until other forage becomes scarce. Heavy grazing intensity may, in turn, result in low vigor of bunchgrasses and a deterioration of range condition which may result in more weeds in the plant community. Clearly these aspects of management require further study.
  • Test of Grazing Compensation and Optimization of Crested Wheatgrass Using a Simulation Model

    Olson, B. E.; Senft, R. L.; Richards, J. H. (Society for Range Management, 1989-11-01)
    We developed a simulation model based on tiller population processes to test grazing compensation and optimization in crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum (Fisch. ex Link) Schult.). Model functions describing tiller dynamics and growth were derived from field observations in west-central Utah. Predicted tiller growth and new tiller production following defoliation were verified against additional data from the same site; total production was validated against a 30-year-old data set from a different site. We then simulated 2 grazing experiments. First, grazing compensation was determined as a function of the timing of a single defoliation during the growing season. Response variables included tiller density, plot growth rates, standing crop, and seasonal production. Second, grazing optimization, a combination of grazing frequency and intensity that increases primary production above that of ungrazed plants, was assessed by the systematic variation of these defoliation parameters under simulated dry, average, and wet winters (September-May). Results of the first experiment indicated that compensation depended mainly on the timing of defoliation, presumably because of phenological constraints to regrowth and the short growing season in this cold-desert region. Overcompensation only occurred when plants were defoliated before the traditional start of the grazing season. Although defoliation increased tiller growth rates, the second experiment failed to reveal an optimum combination of defoliation frequency and intensity resulting in maximum biomass production except after a dry winter. Results from the second experiment indicated that implementing intensive rotational grazing systems will seldom increase crested wheatgrass production in these cold-desert systems.
  • Temperature responses and calculated heat units for germination of several range grasses and shrubs

    Jordon, G. L.; Haferkamp, M. R. (Society for Range Management, 1989-01-01)
    Quantitative effects of temperature on germination were determined for 17 cool-season grasses, 19 warm-season grasses, and 18 miscellaneous forbs and shrubs associated with semiarid rangelands. These effects, expressed as the reciprocal of days to 50% germination, were used in linear regression analyses to predict the temperature at which the germination rate approaches zero from which heat units to 50% germination and germination indexes were derived. The regression relationships appeared to be linear if data were restricted to the lower range of germination temperatures. The germination rate approached zero at temperatures ranging from 3.7 to 6.3 degrees C for cool-season and from 7.8 to 13.7 degrees C for warm-season grasses. No particular trend was evident among the forbs and shrubs. The reciprocal of the slope of the regression equation was a constant expressing heat units to 50% germination. It was characteristic of each accession. The product of heat units and the zero rate temperature was used to calculate a germination index. This index compared well with selected germination responses observed in the field.
  • Technical Notes: Direct effect of parasitism by Dinarmus acutus Thomson on seed predation by Acanthoscelides perforatus (Horn) in Canada milkvetch

    Boe, A.; McDaniel, B.; Robbins, K. (Society for Range Management, 1989-11-01)
    Canada milk-vetch (Astragalus canadensis L.) is a widespread North American legume considered to be good forage in some regions but potentially dangerous to livestock when it contains high levels of 3-nitropropionic acid. Larvae of the seed predator Acanthoscelides perforatus (Horn) (Coleoptera:Bruchidae) occurred in 77% of the mature pods from 10 genotypes of the legume growing in a nursery at Brookings, S. Dak., in autumn 1987. Dinarmus acutus Thomson (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitized 48% of the A. perforatus larvae and reduced numbers of seeds consumed by A. perforatus larvae by 23%. This study identified D. acutus as a parasitoid of A. perforatus and indicated parasitoids may play an important role in recruitment of native legumes.

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