Welcome to the Rangeland Ecology & Management archives. The journal Rangeland Ecology & Management (RE&M; v58, 2005-present) is the successor to the Journal of Range Management (JRM; v. 1-57, 1948-2004.) The archives provide public access, in a "rolling window" agreement with the Society for Range Management, to both titles (JRM and RE&M), from v.1 up to five years from the present year.

The most recent years of RE&M are available through membership in the Society for Range Management (SRM). Membership in SRM is a means to access current information and dialogue on rangeland management.

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Print ISSN: 0022-409x

Online ISSN: 1550-7424


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Recent Submissions

  • Temperature responses and calculated heat units for germination of several range grasses and shrubs

    Jordon, G. L.; Haferkamp, M. R. (Society for Range Management, 1989-01-01)
    Quantitative effects of temperature on germination were determined for 17 cool-season grasses, 19 warm-season grasses, and 18 miscellaneous forbs and shrubs associated with semiarid rangelands. These effects, expressed as the reciprocal of days to 50% germination, were used in linear regression analyses to predict the temperature at which the germination rate approaches zero from which heat units to 50% germination and germination indexes were derived. The regression relationships appeared to be linear if data were restricted to the lower range of germination temperatures. The germination rate approached zero at temperatures ranging from 3.7 to 6.3 degrees C for cool-season and from 7.8 to 13.7 degrees C for warm-season grasses. No particular trend was evident among the forbs and shrubs. The reciprocal of the slope of the regression equation was a constant expressing heat units to 50% germination. It was characteristic of each accession. The product of heat units and the zero rate temperature was used to calculate a germination index. This index compared well with selected germination responses observed in the field.
  • Standing crop patterns under short duration grazing in northern Mexico

    Soltero, S.; Bryant, F. C.; Melgoza, A. (Society for Range Management, 1989-01-01)
    Patterns of end-of-season standing crop were evaluated during a 4-year period on an oak-bunchgrass range site under short-duration grazing in northern Mexico. Patterns were determined as a function of reduction of standing crop biomass of grasses within strata (300 m each) from a central watering point. Significant differences in end-of-season standing crop (P<0.05) were found among the strata. Four-year average standing crop biomass was 383 kg/ha within 300 m from the central watering point; whereas, standing crop biomass was 538, 691, 855, and 805 kg/ha within strata 300-600, 600-900, 900-1,200, and 1,200-1,500 m from the central watering point, respectively.
  • Sheep grazing as a silvicultural tool to suppress brush

    Sharrow, S. H.; Leininger, W. C.; Rhodes, B. (Society for Range Management, 1989-01-01)
    The possibility of using livestock as a biological agent to control unwanted ground vegetation in Pacific Northwest coniferous forests has been discussed for over 50 years. However, little quantitative information has yet been published documenting the efficacy of livestock in suppressing brush and other ground vegetation in commercial Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) plantations. Therefore, a study was conducted in 1981 and 1982 to evaluate the potential for using herded sheep to control competing vegetation in Douglas-fir plantations in Pacific Northwest coniferous forests. Three 4- to 6-year-old plantations were grazed once each year during the May to September grazing season. Estimates of current year's growth present in October, both inside and outside a livestock exclosure on each study plantation, were used to evaluate the effects of grazing. In general, utilization of brush by sheep was moderate to heavy, except in the spring of 1982, when brush was lightly utilized. Sheep grazing effectively reduced (p<0.01) both total understory plant growth and brush net current year's growth on all plantations. Reduced brush biomass on grazed areas was associated with greater Douglas-fir diameter growth in 1981-82 and 1982-83. By 1985, trees in grazed areas were 5% taller (p<0.05) and 7% greater in diameter (p<0.01) compared to ungrazed controls. Our data and observations suggest that sheep may be effectively used as a biological control agent for brush control in coastal Douglas-fir forests.
  • Seed germination characteristics of selected native plants of the lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas

    Vora, R. S. (Society for Range Management, 1989-01-01)
    Experiments were conducted to identify treatments that increased emergence of seeds of 24 woody plant species native to the lower Rio Grande Valley of southern Texas. Sulfuric acid (18.4M H2 SO4) scarification significantly increased emergence of huisache (Acacia smallii), huisachillo (A. schaffneri), Texas ebony (Pithecellobium flexicaule), tenaza (P. pallens), tepeguaje (Leucaena pulverulenta), retama (Parkinsonia aculeata), and western soapberry (Sapindus drummondii); treatments such as soaking in distilled water, gibberellic acid (0.3 or 1.4 mMol), or other scarification techniques were not as effective as acid. Fresh guajillo (A. berlandieri) seeds required no treatment, but 8-month-old seeds had higher emergence with acid scarification. Texas ebony emergence was higher from 10-month-old seed treated with acid than from fresh seeds. No pre-treatment seemed necessary for seeds of coral bean (Erythrina herbacea), Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana), sugarberry (Celtis laevigata), granjeno (C. pallida), pigeon-berry (Rivina humilis), Texas baby-bonnets (Coursetia axillaris), guajillo (A. berlandieri), and lotebush (Ziziphus obtusifolia). Results with blackbrush (A. rigidula), Wright's acacia (A. wrightii), rattlebush (Sesbania drummondii), guayacan (Guaiacum angustifolium), brasil (Condalia hookeri), elbowbush (Forestiera angustifolia), and anacua (Ehretia anacua) seeds were inconclusive. Plants of 16 woody species achieved mean heights of 25 cm in 45 to 150 days.
  • Revegetation of a salt water blowout site

    Halvorson, G. A.; Lang, K. J. (Society for Range Management, 1989-01-01)
    A salt water blowout at an oil drilling site in 1982 in a badlands area of western North Dakota caused severe damage to the native vegetation. A study was initiated to measure the effect of reclamation on soils and revegetation of the affected area. Basal cover and plant density were measured on a portion of the contaminated area following the blowout and in 1984 following reclamation of the site. The contaminated soil was reclaimed by adding CaCl2 to irrigation water which was used to leach the upper 15 cm of the soil profile. In July 1982, after the blowout, Distichlis stricta was essentially the only species growing at the site. In July 1984, following reclamation, species with the highest percent basal cover on the reclaimed half were Agropyron smithii (Rydb.), Bouteloua gracilis (H.E.K. Lag.), and Distichlis stricta (Torr.) Rydb. On the unreclaimed half Agropyron smithii, Distichlis stricta, Lepidium denisflorum Schrad., and Opuntia polycantha Haw. had the highest percent basal cover. In 1984, basal cover of the grasses on the reclaimed site was two-thirds of that on a site with no visible damage from the salt water. The percent bare ground was still 25% on the reclaimed half of the contaminated site in 1984, but had increased on the unreclaimed half to 43% leaving the surface open to potentially serious erosion. Soil data indicated that reclamation had successfully reduced sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) values in the surface 15 cm to more acceptable levels for vegetation recovery.
  • Observations on vegetation responses to improved grazing systems in Somalia

    Thurow, T. L.; Hussein, A. J. (Society for Range Management, 1989-01-01)
    Vegetation community response is an important factor determining the potential for improvement of rangeland dormant season forage availability through implementation of grazing systems. Heavy continuous grazing (HCG) (5 ha AU-1) of communal rangelands in coastal southern Somalia has resulted in a herbaceous vegetation community dominated by short-lived annual forbs of low palatability that provide little forage during the dormant season. Changes in the plant community resulting from implementation of 2 grazing systems were compared: complete livestock deferral (LEX) and moderately stocked short-duration grazing (MSDG) (10-1; 3:30 day, stocked at 10 ha AU-1). After 2 years, the LEX pasture was dominated by palatable forbs (primarily Commelina forskalaei and Ipomoea garckeana), which formed a vine mat that overtopped other herbaceous species. These vines died and decomposed soon after the rainy season ended and thus were not a useful source of dry season forage. The periodic grazing in the MSDG opened the vine mat and enabled grasses to establish, thus grass cover became significantly greater on the MSDG pasture compared to either the LEX or HCG pastures and provided forage for livestock in the dry season.
  • Nutrient utilization of acacia, haloxylon, and atriplex species by Najdi sheep

    Bhattacharya, A. N. (Society for Range Management, 1989-01-01)
    Two digestibility and nitrogen balance studies were conducted to evaluate nutrient utilization of 3 commonly browsed range plants by the desert sheep in Northern Saudi Arabia. In experiment 1, 15 Najdi wether lambs (40 kg) divided in 3 lots of 5 were randomly allotted to 3 diets of 200 g ground barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain and 800 g either alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.), dried Acacia cynophylla Lind., or Haloxylon persicum Bge. clippings. In experiment 2, 8 Najdi wethers were randomly alloted to treatments of 2 kg green alfalfa or 2 kg green Atriplex halimus L. clippings per day. Salt content of the soil and salt bush, Atriplex sp., were also determined. The organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), and crude fiber (CF) on dry matter basis (DMB) were, respectively, 90, 15, 31% for alfalfa; 90, 13, 30% for acacia forage; and 87, 10, 37% for haloxylon shrub. In experiment 1, the OM digestibility was 66, 56, 53%; CP digestibility was 73, 68, and 55%; and CF digestibility was 44, 33, and 16%, respectively, for alfalfa, haloxylon, and acacia diets. The daily nitrogen balance was +4 g for both alfalfa and acacia groups. The haloxylon group had a negative nitrogen balance (-1.9%), showing no apparent retention of absorbed nitrogen. In experiment 2, the atriplex clippings contained 73% OM, 18% CP, and 24% CF on DMB, the respective digestibility values being 61, 79, and 39%. Even though the digestibility of as well as percent retention of absorbed nitrogen in atriplex group were markedly higher than those in alfalfa group, the digestibility of CF was lower (P<.01) in the former (39%) as compared to that in latter group (54%). The sodium, potassium, and chloride concentration of soils of high and low salinity had no influence on their contents in atriplex forage, with average values being 10, 2.5, and 16.5% respectively.
  • Investigation of maternal and embryo/fetal toxicity of Ephedra viridis and Ephedra nevadensis in sheep and cattle

    Keeler, R. F. (Society for Range Management, 1989-01-01)
    Ephedra viridis and Ephedra nevadensis were gavaged at high doses to pregnant livestock to determine whether there existed any maternal or embryo/fetal toxicity. E. viridis was tested in both sheep and cows and was toxic, and generally induced ruminal impaction, diarrhea, vomition or anorexia. E. nevadensis was tested only in sheep, but was devoid of toxicity. Neither plant induced apparent adverse effects in unborn offspring of animals gavaged. They were normal at birth.
  • Growth regulators' effect on crested wheatgrass forage yield and quality

    White, L. M. (Society for Range Management, 1989-01-01)
    If crested wheatgrass [Agropyron desertorum (Fisch.) Schult.] could be maintained in an immature growth stage, it would improve forage quality and thus extend the grazing season. In 1981 and 1982, plant growth regulators were applied to crested wheatgrass 0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after first floral primordium initiation to determine which compound, date, and rate of application would maximize forage quality yet minimize reduction of forage yield when harvested at seed ripe stage. Mefluidide [N-(2,4-dimethyl-5-{[(trifluoromethyl)-sulfonyl]amino}phenyl)acetamide] at 4 rates [0.0, 0.28, 0.56, and 0.84 kg/ha active ingredient (a.i.)], maleic hydrazide (MH) (1,2-dihydro-3,6-pyridazinedione) at 4.5 kg/ha a.i., and MH (3.36kg/ha a.i.) plus chlorflurenol (methyl-2-chloro-9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylate) at 1.12 kg/ha a.i. were applied to crested wheatgrass growing on a Shambo loam (Typic Haploborolls) in northeast Montana. Application of MH or MH plus chlorflurenol generally gave a similar response in heading, forage yield, CP, and in vitro organic matter digestibility on a dry matter basis (IVDOMD) as did melfluidide at 0.56 kg/ha. Mefluidide (0.56 kg/ha) applied 2 weeks after first floral primordium initiation decreased heading 80 and 95%, decreased forage yield 20 and 30%, increased CP 1.7 and 2.3 percentage units, and increased IVDOMD 1.8 to 4.2 percentage units compared to untreated, depending upon year.
  • Factors influencing interrill erosion from semiarid slopes in New Mexico

    Wilcox, B. P.; Wood, M. K. (Society for Range Management, 1989-01-01)
    This rainfall simulation study evaluates the effects of slope, vegetation, rock, and soil characteristics on interrill erosion of semiarid slopes of the Guadalupe Mountains of New Mexico. A single-nozzle rainfall simulator applied rainfall on slope gradients ranging from 0-70%. Multicollinearity in the data was corrected for by using partial correlation analysis. Interrill erosion was most influenced by slope gradient; however, the effect of slope gradient was modified by other factors, particularly vegetation. Vegetation greatly lessened interrill erosion, especially during the initial stages of runoff. Shrubs decreased interrill erosion more than did either grasses, litter, or forbs. Sediment concentration was greater from erosion pavements than from well-vegetated plots. Increases in rock cover, however, without corresponding decreases in vegetal cover, afforded additional protection against interrill erosion. Soil texture and soil depth were the most influential soil factors, particularly on steep slopes.
  • Estimating production and utilization of jojoba

    Roundy, B. A.; Ruyle, G. B.; Ard, J. (Society for Range Management, 1989-01-01)
    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a major evergreen browse species for livestock and wildlife throughout its range from central Arizona to northwest Mexico and Baja California. Current guidelines for grazing management are based on utilization levels as estimated from determining the percentage of twigs grazed. Utilization can be estimated more accurately from twig diameter measurements. On 3 sites in southern Arizona, leaf weight, stem weight and total weight were correlated with the square of twig internode diameter, having average r2 values of 0.81, 0.73, and 0.83, respectively, for small diameter twigs (less than or equal to 3mm) most frequently browsed. Estimates of twig weight from regression equations for the 3 sites varied less than 0.3 g and low standard errors of estimate (less than or equal to 0.33) indicate twig diameter measurements can give precise estimates of twig weight. Percent utilization of current year's growth can be calculated from estimates of twig weight remaining and twig weight removed by grazing from diameter measurements at initiation of current year's growth and at the point of grazing, respectively. On 2 sites, mean grazed twigs and mean weight utilization were similar for shrubs moderately grazed by cattle. However, regressions of weight utilization on percent twigs grazed indicated that percent twigs grazed could overestimate weight utilization of total twigs and underestimate weight utilization of current year's twigs, especially when utilization is high. An alternative to basing management of jojoba on time-consuming utilization measurements and arbitrary utilization limits is to monitor size of marked shrubs and manage for stable or gradually increasing shrub size.
  • Effects of organic amendments on soil biota on a degraded rangeland

    Whitford, W. G.; Aldon, E. F.; Freckman, D. W.; Steinberger, Y.; Parker, L. W. (Society for Range Management, 1989-01-01)
    Rehabilitation of degraded rangeland requires rebuilding the soil, including soil biota. In this study wheat straw, bark and wood chips, and dried municipal sludge were placed on native range plots in northcentral New Mexico. Organic amendments had little or no effects on decomposition of straw, litter respiration, soil respiration, biomass of soil microflora, and populations of most of the soil biota in the second year of the study. The differences in soil nematode and microarthropod population densities and straw decomposition occurred only in the bark and wood chip mulched plots in year 1. The absence of differences in year 2 may have been the result of below-average rainfall. The wood chip bark mulch was visibily present at the end of year 2 but the other mulches were not. There may be long-term benefits from application of recalcitrant mulches like wood chips and bark, but the less recalcitrant mulching materials like straw and low application rates of sludge produce no measurable benefit.
  • Effects of clipping and sheep grazing on dyers woad

    West, N. E.; Farah, K. O. (Society for Range Management, 1989-01-01)
    Dyers woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) is an introduced cruciferous forb that is rapidly expanding on intermountain rangelands and is apparently reducing production and regeneration of more desirable forage plants. Mechanical and chemical controls are expensive as well as having deleterious effects on nontarget species. Limitations to controlling this noxious weed by early spring grazing were investigated with clipping experiments at 1 site in the Wasatch foothills of northern Utah. These results were compared with actual utilization of woad by sheep at a poor condition example of that site. Significant mortality and reduction in reproductive performance occurred when at least 60% of the aboveground phytomass had been removed on or after 23 May. Clipping twice, to remove as much as 90% of aboveground tissue before 23 May, did not significantly affect woad mortality, percent flowering, or fruit production. Sheep did not graze this weed heavily enough at late enough dates to significantly affect mortality or seed production. Even on a poor condition range, these animals switched to other forages after about 15 May. Stocking rates required to restrict dyers woad at our clipping site would likely result in further range deterioration. More host-specific biological control agents should be examined.
  • Comparison of weight estimate and rising-plate meter methods to measure herbage mass of a mountain meadow

    Laca, E. A.; Demment, M. W.; Winckel, J.; Kie, J. G. (Society for Range Management, 1989-01-01)
    A rising plate meter (RPM) and ocular estimation of herbage fresh weight (OCES) were compared as double sampling methods to measure herbage dry weight (DWT) in a mountain meadow grazed by cattle (0, 2.5, 3.2, and 6.9 AUM/ha) and deer. On 8 dates, 5 to 10 plots were clipped and 50 to 100 plots were estimated in 2 or 4 pastures, each of which had 6 vegetation types, resulting in 120 groups of observations. Whereas 11 different calibration lines were necessary to calibrate the OCES (r2 =0.74$ to 0.91), 17 lines were needed for the RPM (r2=0.04 to 0.82). Average residual standard deviations (Sy.x) were 653 for OCES vs. 846 kg ha-1 for RPM. The different calibrations for OCES were caused by differences in the %DM of the herbage (dates and meadow type), whereas RPM calibrations were affected by grazing treatment, date, meadow type, and observer. When the same number of clipped and estimated plots were used for both methods, OCES was 24% more precise than RPM. To obtain a precision of +/- 200 kg ha-1 (P=0.05) OCES required 697 fewer clipped plots for the whole experiment than RPM, but OCES field costs were 3% higher. If calibrated on net readings (before-after clipping) RPM overestimated herbage mass, relative to clipped plots and OCES. The lower cost per RPM reading was counterbalanced by greater precision and generality of OCES calibrations.
  • Comparison of hydrometer settling times in soil particle size analysis

    Bohn, C. C.; Gebhardt, K. (Society for Range Management, 1989-01-01)
    Although soil texture is important to plant growth, cultivation, hydraulic conductivity, and soil strength, laboratory procedures for determining particle size distribution can be confusing. A number of settling times have been proposed for the hydrometer method used to analyze the fine earth fraction of soils. To separate sand and silt, hydrometer readings at 30 and 60 seconds, 35 seconds, or at 40 seconds have been recommended. To distinguish between silt and clay, recommendations have been made for readings at 6-8 hours and 12-15 hours, 1.5 and 24 hours, 2 and 24 hours or at 8 hours. In this study, no significant differences in estimates of sand content were found between readings made at 30 and 60 seconds and at 40 seconds. However, estimates from readings on both sides of the silt-clay separation (at 6 hours and 12 hours) showed a significant variation of clay content within the sample probably due to an inadequate method of splitting the soil samples into subsamples. Clay estimates from 2-hours readings differed significantly from the average estimate of the split sample 6/12-hours readings. Numerical differences were seen among particle size estimates from various methods; if the soil texture is near a division between 2 classes, these differences may result in different textures being assigned.
  • Characterization and germination of chasmogamous and basal axillary cleistogamous florets of Texas wintergrass

    Call, C. A.; Spoonts, B. O. (Society for Range Management, 1989-01-01)
    Texas wintergrass (Stipa leucotricha Trin. & Rupr.) is an important cool-season, perennial forage grass in Texas. Seed handling problems and a limited knowledge of germination and establishment requirements have severely limited its use in revegetation programs. This study was designed to characterize floret morphology and investigate the effects of different temperature × water potential regimes on germination responses of chasmogamous and basal axillary cleistogamous florets from 2 Texas wintergrass populations in central Texas. Germination responses were evaluated at polyethylene glycol-induced water potentials of 0, -0.25, -0.50, -0.75, and -1.0 MPa under alternating temperature regimes of 10/20, 15/25, and 20/30 degrees C in controlled environment chambers. Awns contributed most to the weight of chasmogamous florets, while caryopses contributed most to the weight of cleistogamous florets. Cleistogamous florets generally had higher cumulative germination percentages and slower germination rates than chasmogamous florets in the various temperature × water potential regimes. Cumulative germination percentages of both floret types were greatest at substrate water potentials of 0 and -0.25 MPa in the 10/20 degrees C temperature regime, and mean germination times were most rapid at the 0 MPa substrate water potential in the 15/25 degrees C temperature regime. Based upon seasonal temperature and moisture conditions in central Texas, germination from natural seed banks or artificial seedings should occur primarily between late September and mid-November, and occasionally from December through February during mild winters.
  • Cattle preferences for a hybrid grass: chemical and morphological relationships

    Truscott, D. R.; Currie, P. O. (Society for Range Management, 1989-01-01)
    Forty-six clonal lines of a hybrid cross between Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh.] Scribn. and Smith × Elytrigia repens [L.] Beauv. were used to evaluate the influence of various chemical and morphological characteristics on cattle preference. Variables examined included total carbohydrates as well as several individual sugars, silica, nitrogen, moisture, leaf and growth form, phenology and plant height. In 3 of 4 trials, over 60% of the variation in preference as measured by bite counts was accounted for in the analyses. However, dominant factors controlling preference varied from trial to trial. Predictive equations developed for each trial (N=46) produced R2 values which ranged from 0.53 to 0.81. Common variables that influenced predictions included basal area, phenology, nitrogen, leaf score, and digestibility. Basal area was the most important single variable positively related to preference with an R2 value of 0.70 over all trials. Individual sugar analyses were not significantly (P>0.05) related to bites for most trials but became important from mid-June to mid-July. Equations which included sugar analyses (n=20), accounted for 73 to 87% of the variation in bites. However, basal area and phenology were the dominant variables in these equations. Therefore no single equation could be used to accurately predict preferences.
  • Animal performance and diet quality as influenced by burning on tallgrass prairie

    Svejcar, T. J. (Society for Range Management, 1989-01-01)
    Burning on good to excellent condition tallgrass prairie in central Oklahoma yielded results which visually appeared much greater than would be expected from previous burning research. Therefore, a study was designed to quantify the effect of burning on plant and livestock responses. During 1984-1986, average daily gains of stocker cattle were monitored from late May to mid-October in replicated burned and unburned pastures. Stocking rates varied from 0.8 to 1.5 ha per animal depending on initial animal weights. Fistulated cattle were used to monitor diet quality on the pastures. Standing crops were measured at the end of the growing season (early October) in exclosures, and at the end of the grazing period (late October) in the pastures. Animal performance was improved by burning during the early part of the grazing season, and over the season animal production per ha averaged 11.2 kg higher on burned compared to unburned pastures. Dietary crude protein tended to be higher on unburned compared to burned pastures, but the opposite was true for in vitro organic matter digestibility. Standing crop remaining after the grazing period averaged 4,304 and 2,539 kg/ha for burned and unburned pastures, respectively. Standing crop was 57% higher in burned compared to unburned exclosures. Burning caused a shift in species composition to favor tallgrass species and lower production of weedy forbs in both exclosures and grazed pastures.

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