• Cattle nutrition and grazing behavior during short-duration-grazing periods on crested wheatgrass range

      Olson, K. C.; Rouse, G. B.; Malechek, J. C. (Society for Range Management, 1989-03-01)
      Daily changes in diet quality, ingestive behavior, and daily forage intake were investigated using crested wheatgrass [Agropyron desertorum (Fisch.) Schult. and A. cristatum (L.) Gaertn.] range in a 3-year study to provide an understanding of how the rapid defoliation that occurs under the high stocking density of short duration grazing (SDG) affects livestock nutrition. A 10-paddock short duration grazing cell was stocked with yearling Angus heifers. Grazing periods in paddocks varied from 1 to 4 days. Dietary quality was assessed daily within pre-selected paddocks by determining crude protein content and in vitro organic matter digestibility of extrusa samples collected from esophageally fistulated animals. Three variables of ingestive behavior were measured concurrently, including ingestion rate, biting rate, and grazing time. Daily forage intake was estimated by multiplying ingestion rate and grazing time. There were large daily changes in diet quality, ingestive behavior, and forage intake during the grazing period within particular SDG paddocks. Diet quality declined significantly during the 2 or 3 day grazing period in all 3 years. Although not as consistent throughout the study, ingestive behavioral responses changed significantly, indicating declines in forage intake during the grazing period on a particular paddock. Ingestive behavior was correlated with several characteristics of the sward that changed as it was defoliated. Ingestion rate decreased with herbage availability, apparently causing the animals to compensate by increasing biting rate or grazing time. Ingestion rate and biting rate decreased as nutritional quality of the sward declined, as indicated by decreased crude protein content and digestibility, and increased fiber content. Based on the system studied, grazing periods in SDG paddocks should be no more than 2 days to maintain high levels of livestock performance on crested wheatgrass range.
    • Genetic variability of Mg, Ca, and K in crested wheatgrass

      Mayland, H. F.; Asay, K. H. (Society for Range Management, 1989-03-01)
      Increasing available Mg in crested wheatgrass (Agropyron spp.) could reduce the incidence of grass tetany (hypomagnesemia) in ruminants grazing this forage. Raising the Mg levels might be done through genetic processes if enough variation in ion concentration existed in the Agropyrons. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic variation in Mg, Ca, and K concentrations in 2 crested wheatgrass populations. Parent plants were vegetatively propagated to provide 6 replicates each of 12 clones of crested wheatgrass (A. desertorum) and 16 F3 clones of colchicine-induced tetraploid A. cristatum X natural tetraploid A. desertorum. Each plant was selected on a basis of seedling and mature plant vigor, forage, and seed yield, leafiness, resistance to pests, and response to environmental stress. The 2 populations were grown in separate, space-planted nurseries at Logan, Utah. Herbage was harvested at the pre-boot and early flowering stage in each of 2 years. Magnesium and Ca were determined by atomic absorption and K by flame emission. A reduced tetany potential (RTP) index for each clone was calculated as the sum of normalized Mg and (Ca+Mg)/K values. Significant (P < 0.01) differences for all traits were detected among clones in each population. All traits, except K and RTP, were closely correlated. Broad-sense heritability values for most traits ranged from 0.61 to 0.84. Enough genotypic variation existed in both populations to warrant breeding lines with higher concentrations of Mg and larger RTP values. Such changes could reduce the incidence of grass tetany in livestock grazing crested wheatgrass.
    • Seeded wheatgrass yield and nutritive quality on New Mexico big sagebrush range

      Holechek, J. L.; Estell, R. E.; Kuykendall, C. B.; Valdez, R.; Cardenas, M.; Nunez-Hernandez, G. (Society for Range Management, 1989-03-01)
      Establishment, yield, and nutritional quality of 'Nordan' crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum [Fischer ex Link] Schultes), 'Fairway' crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum [L.] Gaertner), 'Arriba' western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii [Rydb.] A. Love), 'Luna' pubescent wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium subsp. barbulatum [Schur.] Barkw. and D.R. Dewey), and 'Largo' tall wheatgrass (T. ponticum [Pod] Barkw. and D.R. Dewey) were evaluated on big sagebrush range (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. tridentata) in northcentral New Mexico during a 5-year study. All the above wheatgrasses showed high initial densities and long-term persistence. Wheatgrass yields across years and seasons during the last 2 years of study averaged 760 kg/ha compared to forage yields of 355 kg/ha on surrounding ungrazed native rangeland. There were no differences (P > .05) among wheatgrasses in standing crop of current year's growth during spring, summer, or fall. Crude protein concentrations did not differ (P > .05) among wheatgrasses with seasonal advance. However, all the wheatgrasses showed a consistent decline in nutritional quality from spring to summer to fall. All the wheatgrasses we studied will provide high-quality, spring (mid-April to mid-June) forage for livestock. During summer, use of native range is advantageous because it contains a high component of warm season grasses and forbs. Interseeding shrubs in wheatgrass seedings could reduce protein supplementation costs in winter.