Welcome to the Rangeland Ecology & Management archives. The journal Rangeland Ecology & Management (RE&M; v58, 2005-present) is the successor to the Journal of Range Management (JRM; v. 1-57, 1948-2004.) The archives provide public access, in a "rolling window" agreement with the Society for Range Management, to both titles (JRM and RE&M), from v.1 up to five years from the present year.

The most recent years of RE&M are available through membership in the Society for Range Management (SRM). Membership in SRM is a means to access current information and dialogue on rangeland management.

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Print ISSN: 0022-409x

Online ISSN: 1550-7424


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  • Winterfat diaspore morphology

    Booth, D. T. (Society for Range Management, 1988-07-01)
    Diaspores are disseminules specialized for dispersal and for other functions contributing to seedling establishment and seedling vigor. The winterfat (Eurotia lanata) diaspore consists of hairy bracts enveloping a utricle. Testa, embryo, and perisperm make up the enclosed seed. This general diaspore morphology also occurs in Atriplex and Grayia. The potential for seedling establishment is not equal between diaspores and diaspore subunits; therefore, authors should take care to use terminology that refers to the correct entity.
  • Vigor of needleandthread and blue grama after short duration grazing

    Reece, P. E.; Bode, R. P.; Waller, S. S. (Society for Range Management, 1988-07-01)
    Grazing treatments were applied to pastures in western Nebraska from 1980 through 1983 to examine the influence of short duration grazing (SDG) on plant vigor. The 3 treatments were: (1) 4 years of SDG, (2) 3 years of SDG followed by 1 year of rest, and (3) 4 years of rest. Total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) concentrations of stem bases, mean tiller weight, and tiller number/plant of etiolated growth, and paired differences in spring growth between covered and uncovered plants were used to evaluate vigor of needleandthread (Stipa comata Trin. & Rupr.) and blue grama [Bouteloua gracilis (HBK) Lag. ex Griffiths]. Two 7-pasture, 1-herd SDG systems were used. Length of use and deferment periods, stocking density, stocking rate, and sequence of pasture use were constant throughout the study. Grazing treatments reduced the vigor of both study species, but the vigor of blue grama was more sensitive to treatments than needleandthread. Levels of TNC in needleandthread were not affected by grazing treatments. Concentrations of TNC in blue grama recovered to levels of ungrazed plants after 1 year of rest in some but not all pastures. Grazing increased the number of tillers/plant, but reduced total organic reserves of both species as measured by etiolated growth. Assimilates produced in early spring growth appeared to be more important for tiller initiation in plants that had been grazed than in ungrazed plants.
  • Vegetation response to the Santa Rita grazing system

    Martin, S. C.; Severson, K. E. (Society for Range Management, 1988-07-01)
    Changes in vegetation under yearlong grazing were compared with those under the Santa Rita grazing system, a rotation system designed for southwestern US rangelands where 90% of the forage is produced in mid- to late-summer. The study was conducted on the Santa Rita Experimental Range near Tucson, Arizona, from 1972 to 1984. In 1984 there were no differences (P<0.05) in grass densities (16 vs. 17 to 18 plants/m2), forb densities (0.6 vs 0.7 to 1.4 plants/m2), shrub densities (2.0 vs 1.9 to 2.4 plants/m2), or shrub cover (20 vs 21 to 26%) on pastures grazed yearlong or in the Santa Rita rotation, respectively. Lack of response to grazing schedules is attributed to initial plant densities near the maximum the sites could support and to moderate grazing during the study period. Average herbage yields of pastures were not related significantly to grazing treatments but correlated strongly (r = 0.909) with long-time summer rainfall means. Results support the observation that rotation grazing may not improve ranges that are in good condition. It is concluded, however, that the Santa Rita Grazing System may accelerate recovery of ranges in poor condition.
  • Using the Green and Ampt infiltration equation on native and plowed rangeland soils

    Hutten, N. C.; Gifford, G. F. (Society for Range Management, 1988-03-01)
    Soil textural relationships were used on 3 soil series on both plowed and native rangeland to predict Green and Ampt infiltration equation parameters. Infiltration rates predicted from the Green and Ampt soil texture relationships were regressed against field infiltration rates. Good predictability was found on only 4 of 94 plots, all of which were in the agricultural area. Results indicate that current soil texture relationships developed for estimating infiltration rates may not be sufficient for use in either agricultural or rangeland semiarid environments. At this point in time, if infiltration values are important, then they should be measured (not estimated) using appropriate methodologies.
  • Use of leader lengths and diameters to estimate production and utilization of Cercocarpus breviflorus

    Mahgoub, E. F.; Pieper, R. D.; Ortiz, M. (Society for Range Management, 1988-03-01)
    Weight relations for twig lengths and diameters were determined for hairy mountain mahogany plants in southern New Mexico. Both twig lengths and twig diameters were related linearly to twig weights. Twig length and twig diameters explained more than 80% of the variation in twig weight. The equation ŷ(g) = -0.68 + 0.3 (length) + 6.33 (diameter) resulted in the highest r2 (0.88) value compared to either length or diameter alone. Thus, twig length and diameter measurements could be used to determined production and utilization of hairy mountain mahogany. These relationships probably, however, vary with environmental context.
  • Trace element intake via soil ingestion in pronghorns and in black-tailed jackrabbits

    Arthur, W. J.; Gates, R. J. (Society for Range Management, 1988-03-01)
    Soil ingestion ratios were estimated for 2 primary herbivore species utilizing a sagebrush ecosystem in southeastern Idaho to determine the relative importance of soil and vegetation pathways in trace element ingestion and to make predictions of the importance of these pathways for toxic and radioactive elemental intake. The mean (mean and 95% CI) soil intake rates for pronghorns (Antilocapra americana) and black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) were 48.7 (45.0-52.7) and 9.7 (9.0-10.6) g/day, respectively, with seasonal peaks occurring in spring (March-May) and in fall (August-October). We did not determine whether soil intake resulted from direct soil ingestion or soil attachment to ingested forage. Soil comprised 5.4% and 6.3%, respectively, of the pronghorn and jackrabbit total dry matter intake. Relating trace element concentrations in soil and vegetation to the daily soil and forage intake rates permitted an estimate of the importance of these 2 ingestion pathways. For both pronghorn and jackrabbits, the estimated percentage of elemental intake attributable to soil was 75% (Na, Fe, V, and F) and 10-50% (Mn, Cr, Mg, Ni, K and Zn).
  • The influence of climate and soils on the distribution of four African grasses

    Cox, J. R.; Martin-R., M. H.; Ibarra-F., F. A.; Fourie, J. H.; Rethman, N. F. G.; Wilcox, D. G. (Society for Range Management, 1988-03-01)
    Around 1900 temperate and semidesert grassland productivity declined, soil erosion increased, and drought destabilized the livestock industry in the northern and southern hemispheres. As government leaders throughout the world began to recognize the importance of grassland productivity and soil conservation, a massive experiment began to evolve. Government and private individuals collected seed from every continent, and planted seed at experimental stations and ranches in their respective countries. Hundreds of individuals who conducted thousands of seeding trials observed that buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), weeping lovegrass [Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees], kleingrass (Panicum coloratum L.), and lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees) plants from seed collected in Africa were easier to establish and persisted longer than other grasses. Between 1930 and 1986 scientists in many countries evaluated the establishment and persistence of these grasses, but no attempt was made to synthesize the data base and determine the effects of climate and soil on plant establishment and persistence. Our objective was to: (1) determine the climatic and edaphic characteristics of areas where the seed of each grass was collected in Africa, and where each grass has been successfully established in both hemispheres, and (2) identify characteristics which influence long-term persistence. Where buffelgrass predominates and spreads, summer rainfall varies from 150 to 550 mm, winter rainfall is less than 400 mm, mean miminum winter temperatures rarely fall below 5 degrees C, and soil texture is loamy. Weeping lovegrass can be established and plants persist when spring, summer, and fall rainfall varies from 400 to 1,000 mm on deep sandy soil and mean minimum winter temperatures rarely fall below -5 degrees C. The invasion of adjacent nonplanted sites occurs only in Africa where growing season rainfall infrequently cycles between 750 and 1,000 mm and soils remain wet in mid-summer. Kleingrass can be established where mean maximum daily summer temperatures are above 30 degrees C, mean minimum daily winter temperatures rarely fall below 0 degrees C, summer growing season rainfall varies from 400 to 990 mm, and soils are clayey or silty. Kleingrass, like weeping lovegrass, spreads to nonplanted sites only in Africa where a mid-summer drought does not occur. Lehmann lovegrass predominates and spreads only in southern Africa, southeastern Arizona, and northern Mexico when summer rainfall in 30 to 40 days exceeds 150 mm, and soil textures are sandy or sandy loam.
  • The effect of clipping on the growth and miserotoxin content of Columbia milkvetch

    Majak, W.; Quinton, D. A.; Douwes, H. E.; Hall, J. W.; Muir, A. D. (Society for Range Management, 1988-01-01)
    The growth and miserotoxin content of Columbia milkvetch (Astragalus miser Dougl. var. serotinus (Gray) Barneby) were examined in clipping trials at 2 rangeland sites in southern British Columbia during 1984 and 1986. Growth was determined by measuring the freeze-dried weight of each plant and miserotoxin levels were estimated by a rapid screening method that simplified sample preparation for spectrophotometric determination. In both years and at both sites, growth and toxicity were substantially reduced in response to early clipping in the spring. In comparison to untreated plants, the aboveground biomass of clipped plants was reduced by at least 50% during a 6-wk period of regrowth. A similar reduction was also observed in the miserotoxin content of clipped plants. The results indicate that early grazing may reduce the potential hazard of timber milkvetch to livestock.
  • Temperature requirements for mountain rye, Hycrest crested wheatgrass, and downy brome germination

    Buman, R. A.; Abernethy, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1988-01-01)
    In this study we determined that mountain rye (Secale montanum), crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum × desertorum 'Hycrest'), and downy brome (Bromus tectorum) have similar germination temperature requirements and thus have the potential to germinate under similar soil temperature regimes, a feature which could be advantageous for subsequent seedling competition of mountain rye or crested wheatgrass against downy brome. Germination temperature profiles were compared using a thermogradient germination plate. Fifty-six different day/night temperature regimes were utilized for the comparisons. The bivariate spline model was found to be the best model for predicting germination-temperature response of the 3 species. Mountain rye and downy brome produced high germination under widely fluctuating (20-30 degrees C, 16 hr day/5-10 degrees C, 8 hr night) temperature regimes with crested wheatgrass demonstrating an optimum germination temperature over a 10-20 degrees C day/25 degrees C night regime. One of the 2 downy brome sources evaluated exhibited a much broader optimum germination temperature range. However, the differences in germination temperature profiles obtained were not of a magnitude likely to be biologically or ecologically significant due to the relatively high germination obtained over a wide range of fluctuating day/night temperatures for all 3 species.
  • Technical Notes: The grass spikelet formula: an aid in teaching and identification

    Allred, K. W.; Columbus, J. T. (Society for Range Management, 1988-07-01)
    The structure and arrangement of the grass spikelet may be summarized by use of a spikelet formula. The parts of the formula are stacked vertically to correspond to the parts of the grass spikelet. Nerves and numbers of parts are indicated by super- and subscripts. Spikelet formulae may be a useful teaching tool, as well as a convenient field notation.
  • Technical Notes: Secar bluebunch wheatgrass as a competitor to medusahead

    Goebel, C. J.; Tazi, M.; Harris, G. A. (Society for Range Management, 1988-01-01)
    A search continues for native perennial range grasses which will compete successfully with introducted annual grasses. Secar blue-bunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum) is a recently released cultivar selected for seedling vigor. Medusahead (Taeniatherum asperum) seeds germinated in about one third the time, were less inhibited by cold temperatures typical of range conditions, and seedlings grew more than twice as fast as Secar in a 30-day trial. Indications are that even this new cultivar will not compete successfully with vigorous medusahead seedlings without initial weed control.
  • Technical Notes: A mapping table for obtaining plant population data

    Chambers, J. C.; Brown, R. W. (Society for Range Management, 1988-05-01)
    The construction and use of an acrylic mapping table for obtaining basic demographic information from plant populations is described. The table permits accurate and precise location of mapping quadrats and study plants from acetate "maps."
  • Successional patterns in bitterbrush habitat types in north-central Washington

    Youtie, B. A.; Griffith, B.; Peek, J. M. (Society for Range Management, 1988-03-01)
    Twenty-five plant communities were classified within 3 bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) habitat types along the Columbia River in north-central Washington. Topography, indicator species, and soils data were used to assign stands to habitat type. Ordination across 3 habitat types reflected a moisture gradient: bitterbrush/Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis) communities occupied the moist end, bitterbrush/needle-and-thread (Stipa comata) communities the xeric end, and bitterbrush/bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum) an intermediate position. Solar radiation index and elevation accounted for 76% of the variation in the major axis. Ordinations of communities within habitat types described the sere. High-seral communities were not present on the study area. Mid-seral communities had greater perennial grass cover and lower bitterbrush density than low-seral communities.
  • Some vegetation responses to selected livestock grazing strategies, Edwards Plateau, Texas

    Thurow, T. L.; Blackburn, W. H.; Taylor, C. A. (Society for Range Management, 1988-03-01)
    Understanding the temporal response of vegetation to selected livestock grazing strategies is necessary for the continued maintenance or increased productivity of rangelands. Vegetation cover and above-ground biomass were sampled bimonthly from 1978-1984 on pastures grazed continuously (MCG) and moderately stocked (8.1 ha AU-1); continuously (HCG) and heavily stocked (4.6 ha AU-1); high-intensity, low-frequency (HILF) and moderately stocked (8-1; 17:119 day stocked at 8.1 ha AU-1); short-duration grazing (SDG) and heavily stocked (14-1; 4:50 day, stocked at 4.6 ha AU-1); and livestock exclusion (LEX). Prior grazing history, vegetation cover, soils, and slope were similar among pastures. Midgrass cover was eliminated in the HCG pasture, and declined in the heavily stocked SDG pasture. Midgrass cover was maintained under the moderately stocked HILF grazing strategy and increased under MCG or LEX. During 1984, sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.) basal diameter in the MCG and LEX pastures was significantly greater than in the SDG pasture. By the end of the study, total organic cover and total aboveground biomass in the MCG or LEX pastures were significantly greater than in the SDG and HCG pastures. The heavy grazing intensity used in this study, regardless of the grazing strategy, does not appear suited for long-term maintenance of midgrass species.

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