• Use of new rangeland seedings by black-tailed jackrabbits

      McAdoo, J. K.; Longland, W. S.; Cluff, G. J.; Klebenow, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      Black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus) use of 2 new rangeland seedings in northern and central Nevada was determined by fecal pellet counts for the first growing seasons following seeding establishment. Jackrabbit use was an inverse function of seeding size (as indicated by distance from seeding edges to midpoints). Use was uniformly high for a small (50-ha) seeding from its edge to its midpoint. A larger (400-ha) seeding received significantly higher use at the edge than at 100-m intervals extending to the 400-m midpoint. Jackrabbit use of seedings was higher during late summer than during early summer. Jackrabbit abundance was significantly higher in sagebrush habitat adjacent to a new seeding than in similar habitat away from the seeding. Our results suggest that forage availability is a factor influencing use of seedings, and predation risk may also be involved.
    • Selective control of annual bromes in perennial grass stands

      Currie, P. O.; Volesky, J. D.; Hilken, T. O.; White, R. S. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      Three soil-active herbicides: atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl]-N1-(1-methyethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine]; propham (1-methylethyl phenyl carbamate); and pronamide [3,5-dichloro(N-1,1-dimethyl-2-propynyl)benzamide] were applied in the fall, postemergence to annual bromegrasses at 2 rates. These herbicides were evaluated for their efficacy in selective control of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus Thunb.) in perennial stands of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum [L.] Gaertn.), pubescent wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium Host), Russian wildrye (Psathrostachys juncea [Fisch.] Nevski), and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) Löve) and blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) [H.B.K.] Lag. Ex Griffiths. Yields of annual bromegrasses and perennial grasses and crude protein (CP), phosphorus and total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) content of perennial grasses were measured 2 consecutive years after the single herbicide application. Yields of annual bromegrasses from the 3 herbicide treatments averaged 91 and 47% less than those of the control the first and second year posttreatment, respectively. Pronamide provided substantially better control the second year posttreatment than the other 2 herbicides. Yields of perennial grasses in the majority of the herbicide treatment-study site combinations were significantly increased the first year posttreatment (P<0.10). Crude protein of perennial grasses was increased in the atrazine treatment. Atrazine at 0.6 kg/ha was the most cost-effective herbicide for decreasing competition of annual bromegrasses and increasing yield of perennial grasses.
    • Seasonal dynamics of minerals in forages at the Texas Experimental Ranch

      Greene, L. W.; Pinchak, W. E.; Heitschmidt, R. K. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      Range livestock derive the bulk of their dietary mineral intake from forages that are often deficient in one or more essential minerals. The objective of this study was to quantify the seasonal dynamics of phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) concentrations in the dominant native forages at the Texas Experimental Ranch. Concentrations were estimated by class of tissue (live and dead) for 5 species/species groups: sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula Michx.), Texas wintergrass (Stipa leucotricha Trin. and Rupr.), annual grasses, other warm-season grasses, and forbs. The study spanned a period of 2 years and included 16 sample dates. Although P, Mg, and K concentrations varied significantly among species and date, they varied primarily as a function of class of tissue. Averaged across dates and species, concentrations of P, Mg, and K in live tissue averaged 0.12, 0.13, and 2.02%, respectively, while concentrations in dead tissue averaged 0.04, 0.09, 0.57%, respectively. As a result, seasonal differences in whole plant concentrations of P, Mg, and K were closely linked to seasonal growth dynamics as they affect live/dead ratios. Ca concentrations were affected more by species than class of tissue. Averaged across dates, Ca concentrations in live tissue averaged 0.55, 0.40, 0.42, 0.35, and 1.80% in annual grasses, Texas wintergrass, sideoats grama, other warm-season grasses and forbs, respectively, while concentrations in dead tissue averaged 0.41, 0.40, 0.41, 0.36, and 0.96%, respectively. It is concluded that considerations must be given to the potential effect that a given treatment may have on plant growth dynamics to properly interpret its effect on whole plant concentrations of minerals.
    • Seasonal diets of herded sheep grazing Douglas-fir plantations

      Leininger, W. C.; Sharrow, S. H. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      Use of livestock for biological weed control in timber plantations is gaining popularity in the United States and elsewhere. Efficient use of livestock to control unwanted brush relies upon knowledge of livestock feeding habits. A study was conducted during 1981 and 1982 to determine seasonal diets of herded sheep grazing cutover Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in the Coast Range of Oregon. Study sites included both 4- to 6-year-old non-grass-seeded and 2-year-old grass-seeded plantations. Sheep grazing was monitored in spring, summer, and late summer. Forage on offer ranged from 764 to 2,459 kg/ha. Vegetational composition of sheep diets varied by year, season, and plantation age class. Averaged over the 2 years of grazing, graminoids and forbs were nearly equal, at approximately 40% each, in sheep diets in older plantations. In contrast, diets of sheep in young grass-seeded plantations averaged 70% graminoids and only 16% forbs. Ferns were a minor component (<2%) of sheep diets in both plantation age classes. Browse averaged 15 and 12% of sheep diets in old and young plantations, respectively. Douglas-fir was most palatable to sheep in spring soon after bud break. It was generally avoided, however, and never comprised more than 3% of sheep diets. Our data suggest that sheep can be most effectively used for biological control of unwanted brush species during summer and late summer when differences in relative preference indices for target brush species and Douglas-fir are greatest.
    • Potential for hydrocyanic acid poisoning of livestock by indiangrass

      Vogel, K. P.; Haskins, F. A.; Gorz, H. J. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      Hydrocyanic acid or prussic acid poisoning of livestock by sorghums [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] and sudangrasses [Sorghum sudanese (Piper) Stapf] is caused by the digestive liberation of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) from the cyanogenic compound, dhurrin [(S)-p-hydroxymandelonitrile β-D-glucopyranoside] found in tissue of these plants. Recent research documented that dhurrin is also present in indiangrass [Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash] seedlings. The purpose of this study was to determine the hydrocyanic acid potential (HCN-p) of forage from established stands of indiangrass. Five cultivars representative of indiangrass germplasm of the Great Plains were sampled during the growing season for 2 years from 2 sites in eastern Nebraska. The HCN-p of the indiangrass sampled in this study exceeded 750 mg-1 kg dry wt. (dangerous level) only in spring when new growth was 20 cm tall or less. Levels were less than 500 mg-1 kg (safe) when new growth was at least 40 cm tall and were very low (<200 mg-1 kg) or not detected when the forage was over 1 m tall. Pure stands of indiangrass that are grazed when the new growth is less than 20 cm tall could be lethal to livestock.
    • Optimal economic timing of range improvement alternatives: southern High Plains

      Ethridge, D. E.; Pettit, R. D.; Sudderth, R. G.; Stoecker, A. L. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      Profit maximizing combinations of livestock enterprises, plant control practices, and grazing management systems for ranches in the southern High Plains were examined. A typical ranch and a multi-period linear programming model were used to determine the combinations and timing of improvement practices and enterprises to maximize discounted net income with different investement capital constraints, cattle prices, and discount rates. All solutions included chemical control of sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) and a rotation grazing system. Timing of improvements and net income were affected by size of investment capital constraint.
    • Interplanting crested wheatgrass with shrubs and alfalfa: effects of competition and preferential clipping

      Pendery, B. M.; Provenza, F. D. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      Planting palatable shrubs and legumes into an established stand of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum and A. cristatum) could increase forage yield and nutritional quality. Preferential grazing of the grass and legume in spring may enhance establishment of shrub seedlings. Seedlings of 3 species of shrubs (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Kochia prostrata, and Atriplex canescens) were transplanted into plots of crested wheatgrass using a replacement series design. Each species of shrub was grown with the grass, and with the grass and alfalfa (Medicago sativa cv. 'Ladak'); each of the 5 species was also grown in monoculture. Swards were either uncut or the grass and alfalfa were clipped while actively growing in late May and early June. Shrubs had greater current annual growth (CAG) (P is lesser than or equal to 0.001), higher relative yields (P is lesser than or equal to 0.05), lower mortality (P is lesser than or equal to 0.001), and more inflorescences (P≤0.001) in monoculture than in mixture. The grass had greater CAG in mixture than in monoculture (P is lesser than or equal to 0.05), and the grass and alfalfa had greater relative yield in mixture than in monoculture (P is lesser than or equal to 0.05). Clipping crested wheatgrass and alfalfa increased shrub CAG (P is lesser than or equal to 0.01), reduced mortality (P is lesser than or equal to 0.001), and increased the number of inflorescences (P is lesser than or equal to 0.01), but the increase in shrub CAG and flowering due to clipping was not as great as when shrubs were grown in monoculture. There were no interactions between competition and clipping (P>0.05). In terms of CAG, mortality, and flowering, A. tridentata grew better than K. prostrata, which grew better than A. canescens, but these relationships involved complex interactions. The contribution of shrubs to the biomass in mixture was minor; although alfalfa dominated three-way mixture yields, the grass also made a substantial contribution. Since competition was more important in determining shrub response than clipping and the 2 effects were independent, it is probably more important to reduce interspecific competition than to modify grazing practices when planting shrubs in a crested wheatgrass stand.
    • Germination rate at low temperature: rubber rabbitbrush population differences

      McArthur, E. D.; Meyer, S. E.; Weber, D. J. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      The concept that low-temperature germination response is a population rather than a species characteristic has implications for range seeding. The success of a seeding could depend on the ability of the seed source to associate the appropriate degree of risk with germination in the cold at a particular site. Germination rate at 3 degrees C was determined for 27 seed collections of rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus [Pall.] Britt) belonging to 9 subspecies and collected in 5 states. Marked differences in low-temperature germination rate were observed. Relative percentage of germination at 14 days varied from 0.4 to 100, while the period required to reach 50% relative germination varied from 5 to 96 days. Germination rate was negatively correlated with a climatic index of winter frost risk to seedlings at the site and seed origin. Warm desert collections germinated fastest, while montane and high latitude collections germinated slowest. Many collections from mid-elevation sites showed the bet-hedging strategy of asynchronous germination in the cold. Germination rate was not correlated with subspecific identity. Subspecies of wide ecological amplitude showed nearly the whole range of germination rate response. The possibility that other important range species might show similar patterns of variation in low-temperature germination response merits investigation.
    • Germination of downy brome from southern Kansas, central Oklahoma, and north Texas

      Milby, T. H.; Johnson, F. L. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      Mature downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) seeds collected in Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas in mid-June did not germinate at summer temperatures even when supplied with adequate moisture. The after-ripening of seeds for 3 months produces germination of 50% or more in most populations, as does subjecting fresh seeds to November temperature regimes. These results are similar to those reported for downy brome seeds from eastern Washington, central Idaho, and central California in which fresh seeds are dormant. They differ from those reported for seeds from Montana, northern California, northern and western Nevada, southern Idaho, and northern Utah in which fresh seeds germinate at high percentages. Dormancy of fresh seeds from the Southern Great Plains delays downy brome germination until the fall season at which time rainfall and other climatic conditions are more favorable for its survival.
    • Factors affecting dietary preferences for genotypes of a hybrid wheatgrass

      Truscott, D. R.; Currie, P. O. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      Interspecific hybridization of grasses represents a valuable plant breeding procedure for developing new species with superior grazing value for livestock. Evaluations were made of the hybrid cross between quackgrass (Elytrigia repens [L.] Beauv.) × bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh.] Scribn and Smith) to determine how animal preferences for these hybrids were influenced by grazing season and year. Significant differences in the preference shown by steers as measured by bite counts in 1981 and percent utilization (P<0.01) in 1982 existed among the 46 clonal lines for each of the 2 successive years. Preference rankings for lines selected the first year were not identical to those selected a second year although lines with high preference rankings the first year were generally preferred the second year. A clonal line, designated line 30, was most preferred in 7 of 8 subtrials in 1981 and ranked in the top 3 preferred plants in all trials in 1982. There was a 4-week period in early summer when preference differences were minimal. It was attributed to the abundant regrowth on all lines at this time and was found to have a significant (P<0.01) effect on steers' dietary choices.
    • Evaluation of a single probe capacitance meter for estimating herbage yield

      Currie, P. O.; Hilken, T. O.; White, R. S. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      A single probe electronic capacitance meter for estimating herbage yields was field tested on 2 western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) Löve), a blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. ex Griffiths), crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.), and Russian wildrye (Psathrostachys juncea (Fisch.) Nevski) stands in the Northern Great Plains. This single probe meter is lightweight, portable, and allows the user to estimate yields of single plants to determine productivity of individual species. Linear regression equations were fitted between probe readings and the green and dry weight of forage clipped from individual plants within a $78.5-cm2 circular plot. An overall coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.50 was obtained with linear relationships being statistically significant between the probe readings and green and dry weight of forage for all regressions (P=0.10). Considering the regression estimates for r2, standard error of the estimate and F values, the best model fit occurred in the western wheatgrass and crested wheatgrass stands. Presence of a litter mat in 1 western wheatgrass stand had little influence on the precision of the instrument, but phenology of the plants strongly influenced meter readings. Therefore, regression lines within a species could not be pooled across all sampling dates. Comparing yields of individual species from the small plots of the single probe meter to yields from a larger, $1,858-cm2 rectangular plot estimated with a multi-probe capacitance meter showed comparisons were not statistically different 50% of the time. A sample size of approximately 150 plots per species was required for each sample period for the single probe meter.
    • Ecology and management of kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.) shrublands in Greece: A review

      Tsiouvaras, C. N. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.) shrublands occupy more than 0.4 million ha in Greece and are the typical browse rangelands for 4.5 million goats. Five "range types" of kermes oak were identified based on morphological differences. Clipping of kermes oak improves growth rate of twig length, increases the production of new twigs, and alters the nutritive value of browse. Kermes oak can withstand very heavy (100%) clipping of twigs for 2 consecutive years, yielding the highest growth rate and twig number. Browse production varies among different forms of kermes oak shrublands. The low form (0.5-0.8 m height) yielded the highest production (3,467 kg ha-1). Goat liveweight gain of tall form (2 m height) of kermes oak shrubland was 25 kg ha-1 yr-1; improved shrublands, by topping, produced double liveweight gain when their form was altered. Liveweight gain was almost quadrupled when kermes oak shrublands were converted to grasslands.
    • Drilling versus imprinting for establishing crested wheatgrass in the sagebrush-bunchgrass steppe

      Haferkamp, M. R.; Ganskopp, D. C.; Miller, R. F.; Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      Effectiveness of a land imprinter and rangeland drill for establishing 'Nordan' crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum) from fall plantings on loose and firm seedbeds was compared in the northern Great Basin in 1982 and 1984. Seedbed treatments applied on a Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata subsp. wyomingensis)-Thurber needlegrass (Stipa thurberiana) habitat type included brushbeating, brushbeating plus disking, and no treatment. Crested wheatgrass seed was planted at 6.7 kg/ha by broadcasting before imprinting broadcasting after imprinting, with a rangeland drill equipped with depth bands and at 3.4 kg/ha with a rangeland drill with deep-furrow openers. Maximum seedling emergence occurred on brushbeat-disked seedbeds planted by broadcasting before imprinting in 1982 (37/m2) and 1984 (22/m2) and by drilling with regular openers in 1982 (23/m2). Seedling emergence was almost twice as good with imprinting compared to drilling on loose-brushbeat-disked seedbeds, but 2 to 4 times more seedlings emerged from drilling than imprinting on firm-unprepared seedbeds. Maximum yields produced 2 and 3 years after planting averaged 500 to 1,000 kg/ha on brushbeat-disked seedbeds planted by broadcasting before imprinting and regular drilling. Imprinting may be a viable alternative to drilling in this region on loose seedbeds.
    • Digestive physiology of steers grazing fertilized and non-fertilized blue grama rangeland

      Krysl, L. J.; Galyean, M. L.; Judkins, M. B.; Branine, M. E.; Estell, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      Eight field trials [early August 1983 (EAUG83), late August 1983 (LAUG83), early November 1983 (ENOV83), early January 1984 (EJAN84), May 1984 (MAY84), late July 1984 (LJUL84), late August 1984 (LAUG84), late November 1984 (LNOV84)] were conducted on blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) rangeland in southern rangeland in southern New Mexico to examine relationships among nitrogen (N) fertilization of forage, stage of plant growth, diet botanical and chemical composition, forage intake, digesta kinetics, and ruminal fermentation in beef steers. A fertilized pasture (45 kg N/ha) was evaluated during the year of and year after fertilizer application and compared with an adjacent nonfertilized pasture. Two esophageal- and 4 ruminally cannulated steers/pasture were used in a split-plot design. Dietary organic matter percentage was not affected by fertilization; however, fiber components increased as plants approached dormancy on both fertilized and nonfertilized rangeland. Dietary crude protein levels were numerically higher in the fertilized pasture within all trials. Fertilization had no consistent effect on rate or extent of in vitro organic matter digestibility. Fertilization increased (P<0.05) ruminal ammonia ( NH3) concentrations in all but one trial and levels were adequate for maximal microbial protein synthesis; however in the nonfertilized pasture, ruminal NH3 levels were potentially inadequate during periods of dormancy. Ruminal pH was numerically higher for steers on the fertilized pasture than for those on the unfertilized pasture each sampling trial except LNOV84. Fertilization had little effect (P>0.05) on total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration or molar proportion of individual acids. Total ruminal VFA concentration was highest in steers during periods of active plant growth. Voluntary organic matter intake was usually unaffected (P>0.05) by fertilization except in EJAN 84 when intake was higher (P<0.05) in the fertilized pasture and LNOV84 when intake was higher (P<0.05) for steers grazing the nonfertilized pasture. Organic matter intake by steers averaged 21.8 g/kg body weight (BW) and 21.6 g/kg BW across the 8 trials for fertilized and nonfertilized pastures, respectively. Intake in both pastures declined with advancing season. Particulate passage rate (PPR) was not different between treatments (P>0.05) during ENOV83, MAY84 and LNOV84. However, PPR was faster (P<0.05) for steers grazing the fertilized than in the nonfertilized pasture during the remaining 5 sampling periods. Correspondingly, retention time of digesta in the gastrointestinal tract was reduced for steers grazing the fertilized pasture during these 5 trials. Estimated gastrointestinal fill was unaffected (P>0.05) by treatment except during the EAUG83 and LAUG84 trials when steers grazing fertilized pasture had reduced (P<0.05) fill compared with steers grazing nonfertilized pasture. Fluid passage rate (FPR) did not differ (P>0.05) between treatments for any trials except in LAUG84 when steers in the fertilized pasture had a lower (P<0.05) FPR than steers in the nonfertilized pasture.
    • Digestibility of an arboreal lichen by mule deer

      Robbins, C. T. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      Arboreal lichens are commonly consumed by wintering cervids in temperate forests, but their nutritional value is poorly understood. The digestibility of an arboreal lichen (Alectoria sarmentosa) fed with alfalfa pellets to mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was estimated. The lichen contained 2% crude protein, 13.4% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 0.9% acid detergent fiber (ADF). Apparent digestibilities were very high for lichen dry matter (85.2%), NDF (91.9%), and cell solubles (84.2%). The apparent digestibility of protein was very low (-218.0%) and reflects the impossibility of balancing MFN losses with a forage containing such minimal nitrogen. This lichen can be an important source of energy to wintering cervids.
    • Demand for Forest Service grazing in Colorado

      Kehmeier, P. N.; Quigley, T. M.; Taylor, R. G.; Bartlett, E. T. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      Linear programming ranch models were constructed for size of ranch and species of livestock operation within 5 regions of Colorado. Options to improve existing ranch resources and regional forage supply were included in each model. Parametric programming was used to derive shadow prices to approximate demand for USFS grazing in Colorado. Demand was derived under 3 livestock price scenarios and 2 herd management assumptions. USFS grazing demand was found to be very sensitive to livestock price changes. Variable herd management maximized profits and was able to capitalize on high livestock prices, increasing herds, thereby increasing the price of USFS forage for any given quantity. With herd size constant, ranches that could not cover variable costs ceased operation and demanded no USFS forage. Higher livestock prices could not induce increased USFS forage demand as with variable herd management. Regional differences in demand were also noted, reflecting differential transportation costs and ranch productivity.
    • Decision-analysis approach to brush management planning: ramifications for integrated range resources management

      Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      Simulation, optimization, and other modeling paradigms for systems ecology and economics have not been broadly applied to development of models for range resource management in real-world settings. The lag in emergence of applicable management models may be attributed to the lack of a conceptual context for their application. Recent appreciation of the decision-analysis approach to natural resource management and the general availability of high-speed computing capabilities have provided viable bases for using increasingly sophisticated analytical tools to solve management problems. Decision models may be used to generate proforma contrasts of selected management alternatives for multi-enterprise firms and implementation protocols for the selected management program(s). Such models, operating from a computer-managed information base, become decision-support systems (DSS) for approaching specific management problems; Integrated Brush Management Systems (IBMS) is one example. These DSS are proposed at the first step toward creating comprehensive decision-making models for total resource management (i.e. Integrated Range Resource Management or Integrated Range Resource Analysis). The next generation of models will link qualitative information and rules-of-thumb (heuristics) with hard (experimentally derived) data. These knowledge-based or expert systems, one facet of the growing field of artificial intelligence, hold great promise as vehicles for achieving Integrated Range Resource management. Bringing Integrated Range Resource Management Systems to fruition can be expedited by interdisciplinary research and educational programs for potential user groups.