• Drilling versus imprinting for establishing crested wheatgrass in the sagebrush-bunchgrass steppe

      Haferkamp, M. R.; Ganskopp, D. C.; Miller, R. F.; Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      Effectiveness of a land imprinter and rangeland drill for establishing 'Nordan' crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum) from fall plantings on loose and firm seedbeds was compared in the northern Great Basin in 1982 and 1984. Seedbed treatments applied on a Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata subsp. wyomingensis)-Thurber needlegrass (Stipa thurberiana) habitat type included brushbeating, brushbeating plus disking, and no treatment. Crested wheatgrass seed was planted at 6.7 kg/ha by broadcasting before imprinting broadcasting after imprinting, with a rangeland drill equipped with depth bands and at 3.4 kg/ha with a rangeland drill with deep-furrow openers. Maximum seedling emergence occurred on brushbeat-disked seedbeds planted by broadcasting before imprinting in 1982 (37/m2) and 1984 (22/m2) and by drilling with regular openers in 1982 (23/m2). Seedling emergence was almost twice as good with imprinting compared to drilling on loose-brushbeat-disked seedbeds, but 2 to 4 times more seedlings emerged from drilling than imprinting on firm-unprepared seedbeds. Maximum yields produced 2 and 3 years after planting averaged 500 to 1,000 kg/ha on brushbeat-disked seedbeds planted by broadcasting before imprinting and regular drilling. Imprinting may be a viable alternative to drilling in this region on loose seedbeds.
    • Seasonal diets of herded sheep grazing Douglas-fir plantations

      Leininger, W. C.; Sharrow, S. H. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      Use of livestock for biological weed control in timber plantations is gaining popularity in the United States and elsewhere. Efficient use of livestock to control unwanted brush relies upon knowledge of livestock feeding habits. A study was conducted during 1981 and 1982 to determine seasonal diets of herded sheep grazing cutover Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in the Coast Range of Oregon. Study sites included both 4- to 6-year-old non-grass-seeded and 2-year-old grass-seeded plantations. Sheep grazing was monitored in spring, summer, and late summer. Forage on offer ranged from 764 to 2,459 kg/ha. Vegetational composition of sheep diets varied by year, season, and plantation age class. Averaged over the 2 years of grazing, graminoids and forbs were nearly equal, at approximately 40% each, in sheep diets in older plantations. In contrast, diets of sheep in young grass-seeded plantations averaged 70% graminoids and only 16% forbs. Ferns were a minor component (<2%) of sheep diets in both plantation age classes. Browse averaged 15 and 12% of sheep diets in old and young plantations, respectively. Douglas-fir was most palatable to sheep in spring soon after bud break. It was generally avoided, however, and never comprised more than 3% of sheep diets. Our data suggest that sheep can be most effectively used for biological control of unwanted brush species during summer and late summer when differences in relative preference indices for target brush species and Douglas-fir are greatest.