• Ecology and management of kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.) shrublands in Greece: A review

      Tsiouvaras, C. N. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.) shrublands occupy more than 0.4 million ha in Greece and are the typical browse rangelands for 4.5 million goats. Five "range types" of kermes oak were identified based on morphological differences. Clipping of kermes oak improves growth rate of twig length, increases the production of new twigs, and alters the nutritive value of browse. Kermes oak can withstand very heavy (100%) clipping of twigs for 2 consecutive years, yielding the highest growth rate and twig number. Browse production varies among different forms of kermes oak shrublands. The low form (0.5-0.8 m height) yielded the highest production (3,467 kg ha-1). Goat liveweight gain of tall form (2 m height) of kermes oak shrubland was 25 kg ha-1 yr-1; improved shrublands, by topping, produced double liveweight gain when their form was altered. Liveweight gain was almost quadrupled when kermes oak shrublands were converted to grasslands.
    • Selective control of annual bromes in perennial grass stands

      Currie, P. O.; Volesky, J. D.; Hilken, T. O.; White, R. S. (Society for Range Management, 1987-11-01)
      Three soil-active herbicides: atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl]-N1-(1-methyethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine]; propham (1-methylethyl phenyl carbamate); and pronamide [3,5-dichloro(N-1,1-dimethyl-2-propynyl)benzamide] were applied in the fall, postemergence to annual bromegrasses at 2 rates. These herbicides were evaluated for their efficacy in selective control of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus Thunb.) in perennial stands of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum [L.] Gaertn.), pubescent wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium Host), Russian wildrye (Psathrostachys juncea [Fisch.] Nevski), and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) Löve) and blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) [H.B.K.] Lag. Ex Griffiths. Yields of annual bromegrasses and perennial grasses and crude protein (CP), phosphorus and total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) content of perennial grasses were measured 2 consecutive years after the single herbicide application. Yields of annual bromegrasses from the 3 herbicide treatments averaged 91 and 47% less than those of the control the first and second year posttreatment, respectively. Pronamide provided substantially better control the second year posttreatment than the other 2 herbicides. Yields of perennial grasses in the majority of the herbicide treatment-study site combinations were significantly increased the first year posttreatment (P<0.10). Crude protein of perennial grasses was increased in the atrazine treatment. Atrazine at 0.6 kg/ha was the most cost-effective herbicide for decreasing competition of annual bromegrasses and increasing yield of perennial grasses.