• An Evaluation of Random and Systematic Plot Placement for Estimating Frequency

      Whysong, G. L.; Miller, W. H. (Society for Range Management, 1987-09-01)
      A computer simulation study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pattern on the precision of frequency estimates as determined from random and systematic plot placement. Computer graphics were used to generate artificial population maps containing 40 or 80 clumps of differing spatial intensity with known frequencies of 20, 35, and 50%. The maps were repeatedly sampled both randomly and systematically using a 200-plot sample size to obtain frequency estimates. Three systematic plot spacings (4, 8, and 12) along randomly located transects were evaluated. Analysis indicated that frequency means from systematic plot placement were significantly affected by clumping, pattern intensity, and plot spacing. Random sampling resulted in frequency means that were unaffected by clumping or pattern intensity, and more consistently estimated population frequencies. An evaluation of probabilities of occurrence of Type I errors when statistically comparing frequency estimates from systematic plot placement indicated higher Type I error rates as compared to random sampling.
    • Soil Seed Banks Associated with Individual Broom Snakeweed Plants

      Osman, A.; Pieper, R. D.; McDaniel, K. C. (Society for Range Management, 1987-09-01)
      The influence of individual broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae [Pursh] Britt. & Rushby) plants on the distribution of buried viable seed and the distribution of plants in the field was studied in a desert grassland in southern New Mexico. Surface soil samples collected at 3 distances from a central broom snakeweed plant were watered in pots in a greenhouse and numbers of each species emerging were counted. Densities of each species were also determined in the field. Some species (Sporobolus flexuosus [Thurb.] Rybd., S. contractus Hitchc., Descurainia pinnata [Walt.] Britton, and Dithyrea wislizenii Engelm.) emerged in greatest numbers from soil collected in the zones closest and at the greatest distances from the broom snakeweed. Emergence of other species declined in relation to distance from the central snakeweed plant. In the field, grasses generally increased in relation to distance from the central broom snakeweed plant while the pattern for forbs was not consistent.