• The Relationship Between Land Ownership and Range Condition in Rich County, Utah

      Loring, M. W.; Workman, J. P. (Society for Range Management, 1987-07-01)
      A study was conducted in Rich County, Utah, to determine the relationship between land ownership and range condition. Analysis of variance and paired-plot t-tests were used to compare range condition ratings on Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), state, and private lands. Forest Service land was in the highest range condition, BLM and private land had comparable intermediate condition ratings, and state-owned rangeland was in the lowest condition. Per acre grazing program expenditures in Utah by various land management agencies show an apparent correlation between expenditures and range condition. Thus, range condition may reflect management effort rather than the structure of public land property rights.
    • Vegetation Recovery Patterns Following Overgrazing by Reindeer on St. Matthew Island

      Klein, D. R. (Society for Range Management, 1987-07-01)
      Heavy grazing by extremely high densities of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) on St. Matthew Island in the Bering Sea resulted in degradation of the lichen stands. Grasses, sedges, and other vascular plants initially increased in response to the removal of lichens under heavy grazing pressure by the reindeer. Twenty-two years following the crash die-off of the reindeer, mosses had invaded large portions of the ground area denuded of lichens, and lichens had recovered to only 10% of the standing crop of living lichen biomass occurring on adjacent Hall Island where there is no history of grazing. Lichen species dominating the recovering lichen stands on St. Matthew Island were those of relatively low preference as forage by reindeer in contrast to those in climax lichen stands.
    • Cattle Grazing White Locoweed: Diet Selection Patterns of Native and Introduced Cattle

      Ralphs, M. H.; Mickelsen, L. V.; Turner, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1987-07-01)
      Cattle preference for immature white locoweed (Oxytropis sericea Nutt.) seed pods reported in a previous intensive grazing study was confirmed using free-ranging cows under natural grazing conditions. Diets were quantified by bite count. The succulent immature seed pod was palatable and preferentially selected until its supply was exhausted. Locoweed flowers or mature seed pods were not grazed and very few locoweed leaves were consumed. Native cows (born and raised on the range) and introduced 2-year-old replacement heifers (raised in another part of the state with no prior grazing experience with locoweed) consumed similar amounts of locoweed pods.
    • Allelopathic Effects of Kochia on Blue Grama

      Karachi, M.; Pieper, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1987-07-01)
      The allelopathic effects of kochia aqueous extracts found in kochia (Kochia scoparia L. Roth.) on seed germination and seedling growth of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis [H.B.K.] Lag.) were studied in laboratory experiments. Extracts were from regrowth, whole tops, leaves, and stems, representing the vegetative and reproductive phenologies. Inhibition of seed germination did not occur. However, seedling radicle and shoot growth were significantly (P<0.05) affected. Inhibition declined significantly with concentrations of the solutions and advancing phenological stage. Similarly, hot water extracts inhibited growth more than cold water extracts. The data suggest possible inhibitory effects of kochia litter under field conditions, but detailed studies are lacking.
    • An Updated Procedure for Cecal Cannulation in Sheep and Cattle

      Caton, J. S.; Krysl, L. J.; Freeman, A. S.; Ruttle, J. L.; Branine, M. E. (Society for Range Management, 1987-07-01)
      Fifteen cattle (236-500 kg) and 38 sheep (36-55 kg) were fitted with 2 types of indwelling cecal cannulae. Cannulae were made of either clear silicone or plastic tubing. The surgery was conducted in a one-step procedure that involved pharmaceuticals and equipment that were readily available. Results indicated a success rate of 67% (33% failure due to inability to locate the cecum at the time of surgery) in cattle and 100% in sheep. Both cannula types tested were acceptable, but the cannula made from plastic tubing was more desirable because it was less bulky, more durable, and easier to construct. Animals fitted with cecal cannulae appeared to be healthy and to have normal life spans.
    • Application of Herbicides on Rangelands with a Carpeted Roller: Timing of Treatment in Dense Stands of Honey Mesquite

      Mayeux, H. S. (Society for Range Management, 1987-07-01)
      Several herbicides were evaluated for control of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) when applied with a tractor-mounted carpeted roller. Experiments were placed in stands with relatively high honey mesquite densities (2,850 to 4,930 plants/ha). An ester of 2,4,5-T was ineffective at concentrations ranging from 3 to 240 g/L when applied monthly from April through September. Equal-ratio mixtures of 2,4,5-T and picloram provided up to 80% mortality (root-kill) when applied at a total concentration of 24 g/L in June, but did not control honey mesquite if applied in September. Mortality obtained with picloram applied alone in June as a 12 g/L solution varied with year and location from 42 to 61%. Picloram provided 61 to 91% mortality at a concentration of 60 g/L when applied in June, and up to 99% mortality when applied as a 120 g/L solution. Picloram was highly effective when applied in July and August in a year of favorable growing conditions, providing 94 and 96% mortality as 60 g/L solutions, respectively. Mortality was reduced to a maximum of 79% when picloram was applied from April through September in a drought year. Clopyralid and a 1:1 mixture of picloram and clopyralid were usually equal or superior to picloram in effectiveness.
    • Cattle Grazing White Locoweed: Influence of Grazing Pressure and Palatability Associated with Phenological Growth Stage

      Ralphs, M. H. (Society for Range Management, 1987-07-01)
      Understanding the conditions in which livestock consume poisonous plants is necessary to develop management strategies to reduce losses. Three 10-day grazing trials were conducted to observe consumption of white locoweed (Oxytropis sericea Nutt.) by cattle. The trials corresponded to the phenological growth stages of white locoweed: (1) flower; (2) immature seed pod; and (3) mature seed pod/seed shatter. Six esophageally fistulated Hereford steers were used to collect diet samples. In trial 1, steers selected the locoweed flower only when supplies of grass and other forbs were depleted. In trial 2, steers voluntarily selected the immature pod, which comprised 50% of their diet by the middle of the trial. There was very little consumption of locoweed in trial 3. Few locoweed leaves were consumed throughout the experiment. Immature locoweed pods were palatable and readily selected by cattle. By restricting access at the immature pod growth stage and insuring adequate forage is available at other times, cattle consumption of white locoweed on this site should be minimized.
    • Ecotypic Variation in Selected Fourwing Saltbush Populations in Western Texas

      Petersen, J. L.; Ueckert, D. N.; Potter, R. L.; Huston, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 1987-07-01)
      Fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.] seedlings from 4 western Texas tetraploid populations were established in uniform nurseries at San Angelo, Barnhart, and Marfa, Texas, in 1981 to determine relative adaptability to these respective environments. Survival and canopy development of the ecotypes were similar at the site with the most favorable growing conditions (San Angelo), but the ecotype originating nearest the planting site tended to have greatest survival and canopy size where site conditions were less favorable. Additional shrub attributes evaluated at the San Angelo site included: leaf, current year's stem, and wood phytomass, seasonal nutrient concentrations, and floral development and phenotype. Prediction equations utilizing plant canopy measurements were used to estimate weights of plant components. Variation in canopy size and yields among individual plants within ecotypes masked detection of significant (P lesser than or equal to 0.05) differences among ecotypes, but ecotypes from arid environments tended to be larger and to have greater yields than those from more mesic environments. Concentrations of crude protein (CP), phosphorus (P), and digestible organic matter (DOM) of leaves and stems were similar among the 4 ecotypes. Floral development of the ecotype from the most mesic environment progressed at a faster rate than that of ecotypes from more xeric environments. Ecotypes from xeric environments tended to have fewer staminate plants, but more plants with no sex expression than ecotypes from more mesic areas.
    • Estimating Shrub Production from Plant Dimensions

      Hughes, H. G.; Varner, L. W.; Blankenship, L. H. (Society for Range Management, 1987-07-01)
      Relationships between current season plant production and plant measurements (crown width and volume) were investigated for 4 South Texas shrubs collected during July, 1978. Shrubs investigated were blackbrush (Acacia rigidula), guajillo (A. berlandieri), shrubby blue sage (Salvia ballotaeflora), and kidneywood (Eysenhardtia texana). Regressions of production available to white-tailed deer on both crown width and crown volume yielded coefficients of determination of 25-97%. Log-log and quadratic equations provided better results than linear, logarithmic, or exponential equations. One plant measurement (maximum crown width as an independent variable) produced results comparable to those from crown volume. Range site (sandy loam or gray sandy loam) did not affect plant production:plant measurements relationships, but mechanical treatment (shredding) did. Selecting plants representing the full range of shrub shapes and sizes is critical to the proper use of this method, and treatments which greatly modify plant form will probably require regression equations separate from those for undisturbed vegetation.
    • Soil and Vegetation Responses to Simulated Trampling

      Abdel-Magid, A. H.; Trlica, M. J.; Hart, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1987-07-01)
      An artificial hoof was used to simulate trampling effects on native shortgrass sods in a greenhouse experiment. Severe to moderate trampling was applied to sods maintained under 3 soil water regimes. Trampling was done either throughout a 32-day period to represent a continuous grazing system, or only during the last 4 of the 32 days to simulate a short-duration grazing system. Soil bulk density increased 3%, and infiltration rate declined 57% under severe trampling. Trampling throughout the 32-day period resulted in 4% higher bulk density than did a similar level of trampling that was applied only during the last 4 days of the trial. Dead vegetation was more easily removed by hoof action than was living vegetation, and severe water stress made plant material more brittle. Aboveground biomass production was 7% greater under trampling that simulated short-duration grazing, and 17% more forage remained in the standing crop under this treatment. About 38% more vegetation was detached by hoof action under simulated continuous grazing as compared with the short-duration grazing treatment.
    • Soil Bulk Density and Water Infiltration as Affected by Grazing Systems

      Abdel-Magid, A. H.; Schuman, G. E.; Hart, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1987-07-01)
      The influences of continuous, rotationally deferred, and short-duration rotation grazing systems on soil compaction and water infiltration were assessed. Bulk density and water infiltration were measured to evaluate the effects of the 3 grazing systems at moderate and heavy stocking rates. Measurements were made in the spring before grazing and at the end of the grazing season in 1983 and 1984. Bulk density was not affected by grazing systems or stocking rate; bulk density was greater in the fall than in spring of 1984, but not in 1983. Infiltration was significantly lower under the heavy stocking rate than under the moderate stocking rate at the end of the grazing season. The average water infiltration was significantly less in the fall than in the spring for the heavy stocking rate but showed no seasonal effect for the moderate stocking rate. Infiltration was significantly greater under continuous grazing than under rotational deferment but no different from that under short-duration grazing in 1983. However, in 1984 the relationship was reversed. The grazing systems evaluated did not affect soil bulk density and water infiltration in a consistent manner; however, the stocking rate resulted in reduced infiltration during the grazing season.
    • Responses of Fecal Coliform in Streamwater to Four Grazing Strategies

      Tiedemann, A. R.; Higgins, D. A.; Quigle, Quigley T. M.; Sanderson, H. R.; Marx, D. B. (Society for Range Management, 1987-07-01)
      Concentrations and loadings (output, number day-1 km-2) of fecal coliform (FC) indicator bacteria were measured from 1979 through 1984 in streamflow from 13 forested watersheds under the following range management strategies: (A) no grazing; (B) grazing without management for livestock distribution; (C) grazing with management to obtain livestock distribution, and (D) grazing with management to obtain livestock distribution and cultural practices to increase forage. Both FC concentrations (number/100 ml) and instantaneous loadings differed significantly among strategies, seasons, and water years. Differences among strategies for mean concentrations were A<C=B<D. For instantaneous loadings, significant differences were A<C, B or D; and C<D. FC concentrations were the same for winter and for snowmelt runoff seasons but concentrations of both were significantly lower than during the summer period. Loadings were different for each season with winter<summer<snowmelt runoff. A definite relationship was established between the presence of cattle on the pastures and FC concentrations. Elevated FC counts in strategy D watersheds and loadings in excess of 10^4 organisms day-1 km-2 in the winter season provide evidence that organisms live into and through the winter period in animal feces, sediment, and soil. Results provide evidence that livestock removal may not provide an immediate solution to elevated levels of FC in streamwater.
    • Radiometric Reflectance Measurements of Northern Great Plains Rangeland and Crested Wheatgrass Pastures

      Aase, J. K.; Frank, A. B.; Lorenz, R. J. (Society for Range Management, 1987-07-01)
      Calculated reflectance factors and vegetation indices derived from radiometric reflectance measurements were used in regression analyses to test for a single relationship between canopy reflectance characteristics and measured vegetation parameters from 1 moderately grazed and 1 heavily grazed native rangeland pastures and 1 crested wheatgrass [Agropyron desertorum (Fisch. ex Link) J.A. Schultes] pasture. The study was located on a Williams loam (fine-loamy mixed, Typic Argiboroll) near Mandan, North Dakota. Reflectance measurements were made near solar noon once a week during the 1983 and 1984 growing seasons. There was a statistically significant relationship (r=0.76**) between leaf area index and dry green matter among pastures and years. However, each pasture exhibited a unique relationship (statistically significant) between vegetation indices developed from the reflectance measurements and leaf area index or dry green matter. Based on the techniques and wavebands used in this study, over a given geographic region and with pasture management practices known, it may be possible to remotely estimate green dry matter.
    • Technical Notes: A Modified Sleeve and Plug Cannula for Esophageal Fistulated Cattle

      Karn, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1987-07-01)
      An inexpensive esophageal fistula sleeve and plug cannula was constructed using 38-mm diameter PVC pipe with a 4-mm wall, a Babcock float rod, and laboratory rubber stoppers. The cannulae are easily made and have proven effective in reducing and correcting injury to the lining of the esophagus. Longer sleeves and larger plugs, plus use of 130- × 3-mm circles of rubberized belting material inside the esophagus and sometimes on the outside of the fistula, effectively reduced saliva and rumen content losses from animals with extra large fistulae.
    • Use of Microsite Sampling to Reduce Inventory Sample Size

      Larson, L. L.; Larson, P. A. (Society for Range Management, 1987-07-01)
      The objective of this study was to determine if a stratification of microsites within range communities could be used to effectively reduce sampling variation and hence sample size. Two grassland communities were stratified by microrelief patterns. Random sampling designs were applied to each community as well as microsites within the community. Stratification of the community, based on local drainage patterns, reduced standard errors significantly. The pooled microsite data sets were not significantly different from simple random sample data sets for the communities. Sample size reductions of 50 and 60% were observed using the microsite sampling technique.
    • Economic Returns from Treating Sand Shinnery Oak with Tebuthiuron in West Texas

      Ethridge, D. E.; Pettit, R. D.; Neal, T. J.; Jones, V. E. (Society for Range Management, 1987-07-01)
      Net returns from control of sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) with tebuthiuron [N-(5-1,1-dimethylethyl 1,3,4,-thiadiazol-2-yl)-N, N′-dimethylurea] were evaluated for Southern High Plains ranges. A forage yield function was estimated with regression using 5 years of herbage yield data from the region. The present value of production was determined for 3 calf prices, 3 discount rates, and 4 tebuthiuron treatment rates. Discounted net returns were generally positive with high and moderate calf prices and low and moderate discount rates. The optimum tebuthiuron treatment rate varies with calf prices, discount rate, and treatment cost.
    • Diet and Forage Intake of Cattle on Desert Grassland Range

      Hakkila, M. D.; Holechek, J. L.; Wallace, J. D.; Anderson, D. M.; Cardenas, M. (Society for Range Management, 1987-07-01)
      Cattle production on desert grassland ranges in southern New Mexico has been low, although limited research shows diet nutritional quality of cattle is adequate to meet production needs during most seasons. Forage intake data are lacking for cattle on desert grassland ranges. Five esophageal-fistulated steers were used to evaluate diet quality and botanical composition on desert grassland range in southern New Mexico. Another 6 steers were used to collect feces to determine intake. Cattle changed their diet with seasonal advance to maximize diet quality. Crude protein concentrations of cattle diets were well above those needed for lactation and daily gain during spring and summer. Diet samples were high in neutral detergent fiber (66-81%), suggesting low energy in the forage. Low forage intake was the main nutritional constraint identified. Even during the summer growing season, organic matter intake never exceeded 1.5% of body weight. We speculate low intakes may have resulted from high summer temperatures that reduced grazing time. During the late fall and winter, low forage quality appears to explain suppressed intake. Protein supplementation in late fall and winter, and energy supplementation in spring, should be advantageous. We caution that data on diet quality without information on forage intake may poorly describe nutritional status of range cattle.
    • A New Sticky Trap for Monitoring Seed Rain in Grasslands

      Huenneke, L. F.; Graham, C. (Society for Range Management, 1987-07-01)
      The use of an inexpensive, commercially available device as a sticky trap for capturing dispersing seeds in the field is described. Trap performance in capturing seeds under various conditions is evaluated. The traps perform well in capturing small, lightweight seeds, particularly those with awns or ornamentation, as would be typical of many grassland plant species. The adhesive surface of the traps retains its effectiveness when moist, and in the hot, dusty conditions of the field. However, the traps have poor rates of capture for certain seed types, and for seeds dropped from considerable heights. These limitations of performance, which are probably shared with other types of sticky traps for seeds, must be considered when sticky traps are used to evaluate seed rain.
    • A Dynamic Programming Application for Short-Term Grazing Management Decisions

      Rodriguez, A.; Roath, L. R. (Society for Range Management, 1987-07-01)
      This study emphasizes short-term management decisions that are made in a yearling cattle operation in northeastern Colorado. Empirical equations describing forage and animal growth were coupled with marketing and supplementation alternatives. Four cases were modeled with high and low stocking densities and partial or total sales strategies. Net present value of yearling steer sales were maximized using dynamic programming. Early sale of cattle was an economically favorable alternative because of decreasing daily gains toward the end of the grazing season (September-October) and decreasing steer prices. Supplementation during September-October was also profitable to offset the decreasing trend in average daily gain caused by declining forage quality. Under the high stocking density and partial sales strategy, early sales regulated standing crop left at the end of the grazing season. Under the low stocking density and partial sales strategy, early sales partially offset net return losses for those animals that had to be sold at the traditional marketing date. The total sales strategy favored sales of livestock 2 weeks before traditional marketing under low and high stocking density and partial sales strategy. Net present values per pasture were slightly larger for the total sales strategy than the partial sales strategy using both low and high stocking densities.