• Crude Terpenoid Influence on Mule Deer Preference for Sagebrush

      Personius, T. L.; Wambolt, C. L.; Stephens, J. R.; Kelsey, R. G. (Society for Range Management, 1987-01-01)
      Samples of current year's growth of leaves and stems were collected in February 1983 from basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. tridentata), Wyoming big sagebrush (A.t. wyomingensis Beetle and Young), mountain big sagebrush (A.t. vaseyana [Rydb.] Beetle), and black sagebrush (A. nova Nels.) on a mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) winter range near Gardiner, Montana. Samples were from both lightly and heavily used plants (form classes) within each taxon. Crude terpenoids were separated into 3 groups: headspace vapors, volatile, and nonvolatile crude terpenoids. Compounds in each group are thought to stimulate the sensory organs of mule deer. Individual compounds were identified and quantified for comparison with preference ranks among taxa and between utilization form classes. Seven compounds were selected by discriminant analysis as indicators among the 4 taxa, with methacrolein + ethanol, ρ-cymene, and the sesquiterpene lactones the most probable preference determinants. Seven other compounds were found useful for separating plants within taxa into form classes. Chemical differences between the 2 form classes, however, were less distinguishable than were those among the 4 taxa.
    • Elk, Mule Deer, and Cattle Habitats in Central Arizona

      Wallace, M. C.; Krausman, P. R. (Society for Range Management, 1987-01-01)
      Elk (Cervus elaphus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) distribution and use of habitats shared with cattle (Bos spp.) on a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)-bunchgrass range in central Arizona was examined. Cattle were removed from the range in 1961 and reintroduced in 1980. A 48-km survey route was driven through pastures containing cattle and through pastures without cattle to document the effects cattle had on native ungulates during the summers of 1981 and 1982. Location and number of elk, mule deer, and cattle observed along the route were recorded. Locations where animals were seen were used as sample sites to measure habitat variables: forest overstory, plant species composition, elevation, slope, exposure, and distance to water, fencing, meadow, cover, and draws. Distribution of elk and mule deer and habitats used by elk changed when cattle were introduced to the range. Significantly (P<0.05) fewer elk and mule deer were seen on pastures grazed by cattle than on pastures not grazed by cattle. Use of habitats by elk shifted from open mesic and silviculturally disturbed areas to more closed forest after cattle introduced. Use of habitats by deer was not altered when cattle were introduced to the range.