Welcome to the Rangeland Ecology & Management archives. The journal Rangeland Ecology & Management (RE&M; v58, 2005-present) is the successor to the Journal of Range Management (JRM; v. 1-57, 1948-2004.) The archives provide public access, in a "rolling window" agreement with the Society for Range Management, to both titles (JRM and RE&M), from v.1 up to five years from the present year.

The most recent years of RE&M are available through membership in the Society for Range Management (SRM). Membership in SRM is a means to access current information and dialogue on rangeland management.

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Print ISSN: 0022-409x

Online ISSN: 1550-7424


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Recent Submissions

  • Vegetation Response on Allotments Grazed Under Rest-Rotation Management

    Eckert, R. H.; Spencer, J. S. (Society for Range Management, 1986-03-01)
    The effects of grazing management systems on plant communities in the Great Basin are largely unknown. This study is a quantitative description of the response of vegetation from 1973 to 1983 on the Goldbanks and Pueblo Mountain cattle allotments in northern Nevada managed under a 3-pasture rest-rotation grazing system. Shrub canopy cover, basal-area cover of herbaceous species, and frequency of occurrence of all species were used to estimate change in vegetation characteristics on macroplots representing 9 community types. Forage use was heavy in all years and averaged 65% in June, 75% in July and August, and 80% in October. Sandberg bluegrass [Poa sandbergii Vasey] and sagebrush [Artemisia spp. L.] were the most responsive species. Long-term increases or decreases in frequency and cover of desirable grasses were found on very few sites. Perennial forbs increased on a number of sites. Short-term changes in frequency and cover of Sandberg bluegrass and in frequency of sagebrush seedlings and young plants were attributed to a sequence of dry and wet years and to level of competition from herbaceous species. Frequency data indicated more significant changes in species composition than did cover data. The management system, forage utilization levels imposed, and climatic conditions present maintained prestudy range condition throughout the study on most sites at Pueblo Mountain. An increase in frequency and cover of Wyoming big sagebrush [A. tridentata wyomingensis Beetle] and a decrease in the cover of desirable grasses at Goldbanks suggest a downward trend in range condition on some sites where either Thurber needlegrass [Stipa thurberiana Piper] or bluebunch wheatgrass [Agropyron spicatum (Pursh) Scribn. & Smith] is the potential dominant grass.
  • Technical Notes: Reference Unit-based Estimates of Winterfat Browse Weights

    Cabral, D. R.; West, N. E. (Society for Range Management, 1986-03-01)
    Precise and accurate plant weight data are important to range managers, but difficult and expensive to obtain. Indirect and nondestructive estimates are especially desirable where vegetation is sparse and slow-growing on permanent plots. A new indirect, nondestructive approach developed in Australia, the reference unit method, was quantitatively related to clipped weights of winterfat (Ceratoides lanata) browse in Curlew Valley, Utah. The reference unit method was quite precise, accurate, and efficient in predicting browse weights even though size and form of the shrubs differed greatly. The only major disadvantage was mental fatigue created by the requirement of greater sustained concentration.
  • Sulfur or Sulfur Plus Nitrogen Increases Beef Production on California Annual Range

    Wolters, G. L.; Eberlein, G. P. (Society for Range Management, 1986-03-01)
    A 6-year study was conducted to evaluate the response of California annual range to triennial applications of sulfur only and sulfur plus nitrogen fertilizer. Range response was evaluated in terms of length of the green season, steer weight gain, total beef production and steer days of grazing/ha. Neither fertilization treatment consistently lengthened the green season nor influenced steer weight gain compared to nonfertilized range. Steer days of grazing and total beef production/ha were greatest on sulfur plus nitrogen-treated range, intermediate on sulfur only-fertilized range and least on nonfertilized range. Sulfur only-fertilized range increased beef production about 60 kg/ha compared to nonfertilized range, and range fertilized with sulfur plus nitrogen increased beef production nearly 50 kg/ha more than sulfur only-fertilized range.
  • Seasonal and Annual Changes in Biomass Nitrogen and Carbon of Mesquite and Palo Verde Ecosystems

    Barth, R. C.; Klemmedson, J. O. (Society for Range Management, 1986-03-01)
    Biomass components of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC) and palo verde (Cercidium floridum (Benth)) soil-plant systems were collected during spring, winter, and fall for 3 years to study the temporal distribution of the mass of understory vegetation and litter and the dynamics of nitrogen and carbon in all biomass components. Mass of palo verde litter changed seasonally while that of mesquite did not change. With exception of mesquite litter, mass of understory vegetation and litter did not change annually for either shrub. Seasonal and annual changes were observed in both N and C of selected shrub, understory, and litter components, but these changes were more prevalent in mesquite than palo verde. Seasonal changes appeared primarily related to N and C demand in regions of rapid growth. Annual changes appear related to weather phenomena which regulate decomposition, uptake, and growth.
  • Rumen Digestive Capability of Zebu Steers in Wet and Dry Seasons

    Hansen, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1986-03-01)
    Most authors have suggested that the rumen's capability to digest foodstuff is influenced by the conditions resulting from microbial populations which are regulated by composition of the diets. Presumably the greatest ecological differences within the rumens of cattle grazing tropical semiarid range plants would be during wet and dry seasons. Rumen dry matter digestion indexes were determined by the nylon bag technique during wet and dry seasons for 4 different plant materials at the National Range Research Station near Kiboko, Kenya. The rumen digestive capability of 3 Zebu steers was not different between wet and dry seasons when these rumen fistulates selected their own foods from natural range vegetation.
  • Responses of Vegetation and Ground Cover to Spraying a High Elevation, Big Sagebrush Watershed with 2,4-D

    Sturges, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1986-03-01)
    Total production of aboveground biomass on a 238-ha watershed was not affected when big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) was controlled by aerial application of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). Grass production increased in the 5 years following treatment, but forb production was not affected by treatment because forbs were in an early phenological stage when sprayed. Five years after treatment, there was a 37% decrease in bare ground, and a 29% and 61% increase in litter and grass cover, respectively, on the treated watershed compared to an adjacent untreated watershed.
  • Nutrient Composition of Atriplex Leaves Grown in Saudi Arabia

    Khalil, J.; Sawaya, W. N.; Hyder, S. Z. (Society for Range Management, 1986-03-01)
    Leaves of 6 Atriplex species (saltbush) grown in Saudi Arabia were studied for their nutritive characteristics. Crude protein contents varied between 16.7 - 25.2%, crude fat between 1.0 - 1.6%, crude fiber between 7.8 - 10.4%, and ash between 18.5 - 27.2%, on a dry matter basis. A. undulata had the lowest and A. nummularia had the highest protein and fiber contents. Ash content was lowest in A. canescens and highest in A. undulata. The level of Na was extremely low (0.21%) in A. canescens compared to that in the other species (2.38 - 5.57%). The level of K (6.06%) was highest in A. canescens compared to 2.48 - 3.54% in other species. Ca content was significantly higher in A. vesicaria (2.48%) than that in the remaining species (1.12 - 1.50%). Variations in the levels of P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn were only minor. Sulphur amino acids (methionine + cystine) were the most deficient essential amino acids in all species (chemical score = 45 - 61) while lysine contents were 75 - >100% of the FAO/WHO (1973) reference protein. Predicted digestible dry matter ranged between 74.5 - 78.8% and digestible energy (M Cals/Kg) between 3.215-3.399. These data suggest that Atriplex leaves as a range forage for livestock would have good nutritive value.
  • Miserotoxin Levels In Fertilized Astragalus miser var. serotinus

    Majak, W.; Wikeem, B. M. (Society for Range Management, 1986-03-01)
    The effect of fall application of urea fertilizer on toxicity of timber milkvetch was examined in 2 growing seasons at 2 rangeland sites in southern British Columbia. On the grassland site, aerial application of urea at 100 kg N/ha did not affect levels of miserotoxin in timber milkvetch. At the forest clearcut site, 200 kg N/ha reduced toxin levels at later stages of growth in the first growing season. In the second year, however, an increase in the level of miserotoxin was detected at the clearcut.
  • Influence of Climatic Conditions on Production of Stipa-Bouteloua Prairie Over a 50-Year Period

    Smoliak, S. (Society for Range Management, 1986-03-01)
    Range forage yields obtained over a 50-year period at the Research Substation near Manyberries in southeastern Alberta were analyzed in relation to several climatic factors. The basic variables were precipitation, pan evaporation, temperature, hours of sunlight, and wind velocity. The precipitation from April through July was highly correlated with range forage production and this relationship could be utilized to predict the annual forage production by 1 August each year. A slightly better correlation was obtained when range forage production was related to the total of the previous September plus the current April through July precipitation. Pan evaporation totals, mean temperature, and hours of sunlight were negatively correlated with forage production, while wind velocity during the growing season showed a low relationship to forage production. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the inclusion of May and June mean temperatures with June and July precipitation accounted for 63% of the variation in range forage production. The predicted forage yield would be useful in making management decisions or adjustments, especially during drought periods, while the long-term forage yield data can be utilized in range forage models or in validating their effectiveness.
  • Infiltration and Sediment Production Following Chemical Control of Sagebrush in New Mexico

    Balliette, J. F.; McDaniel, K. C.; Wood, M. K. (Society for Range Management, 1986-03-01)
    Terminal infiltration rates under sagebrush canopies were about 35% higher than interspace areas at 3 study sites in northern New Mexico. Differences in infiltration rates among strata may largely be attributed to a greater amount of litter yield and basal cover, and 2 to 3 times higher percentage of organic carbon under the canopy of sagebrush compared to the interspace. Infiltration rates and sediment concentration of runoff within the canopy zone and interspace areas were not affected chemical control treatments. Total sediment production was about 29 to 41% higher under the canopy of tebuthiuron treated sagebrush compared to the canopy zone of untreated rangeland. However, these differences were not consistent and were significant at only 1 study site. Total sediment production was related primarily to a combination of soil texture, sagebrush canopy cover, and total vegetation production.
  • Impacts of Black-tailed Jackrabbits at Peak Population Densities on Sagebrush-Steppe Vegetation

    Anderson, J. E.; Shumar, M. L. (Society for Range Management, 1986-03-01)
    In the northern Great Basin, populations of black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) are cyclic, reaching high densities at approximately 10-year intervals. This project examined impacts of jackrabbits during a peak in their cycle on sagebrush-steppe vegetation in southeastern Idaho. Total vascular plant cover was significantly lower on plots open to jackrabbit herbivory than on exclosure plots, but in no case was cover of a specific species significantly reduced on open plots. The most severe impacts were on shrubs during winter; most aboveground tissues of both winterfat (Ceratoides lanata) and green rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus) plants were completely eaten by spring. However, these impacts were largely ameliorated by compensatory growth during the following growing season, and there was no difference in total biomass for either species between the open and protected plots by July. New growth of winterfat plants that had been browsed the previous winter was significantly greater than that of protected plants. Thus, although the cumulative effects of herbivory reduced total plant cover, no single species was irreparably impacted. Over a year, jackrabbits exert feeding pressure on nearly all of the important species in these communities; therefore, these hares do not appear to apply differential grazing pressure that would alter the course of vegetation development on northern Great Basin rangelands.
  • Honey Mesquite Control with Pelleted Hexazinone in Western Texas

    Potter, R. L.; Ueckert, D. N.; Petersen, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1986-03-01)
    Hexazinone [3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4(1H, 3H)-dione] applied as 1.2 cm3 (20% ai) pellets in a grid pattern at 2.2 kg active ingredient (ai)/ha killed 11 to 22% of undisturbed honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa) 26 months after treatment in experiments at 3 locations in western Texas. Honey mesquite plants <1 m tall were less susceptible to grid pattern applications of hexazinone than were larger plants, probably because the smaller plants lacked sufficient root systems to contact herbicide columns in the soil. Efficacy of hexazinone applied in grid patterns for honey mesquite control increased as soil clay and organic matter contents decreased and as the amount of rock increased. Results from a single experiment indicated that hexazinone pellets applied at 0.8 g ai/plant near the stem base killed 48 to 60% of the honey mesquite plants <2 m in height, but this treatment did not control plants >2 m tall.
  • Growth of Forbs, Shrubs, and Trees on Bentonite Mine Spoil Under Greenhouse Conditions

    Uresk, D. W.; Yamamoto, T. (Society for Range Management, 1986-03-01)
    Revegetation on raw bentonite spoil with or without treatments is often more practical than replacing topsoil in areas where it is scarce or nonexistent. The effect of raw bentonite spoil treated with ponderosa pine sawdust on plant survival and growth was compared to other treatments including perlite, gypsum, straw, vermiculite, and no treatment. Plants tested were the drought- and salt-resistant species of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.), rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseousus (Pallo) Britt.), big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata tridentata Nutt.), common winterfat (Ceratoides lanata (Pursh) Moq.), Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum Sarg.), Russian olive (Elaegnus angustifolia L.), common yarrow (Achillea millifolium L.), and desert globemallow (Sphaeralcea ambigua Gray). Desert globemallow, fourwing saltbush, and rubber rabbitbrush had substantial growth and survival on sawdust, perlite, and vermiculite treated spoil. The growth promoting effect of sawdust is particularly promising; it is readily available and cost is minimal.
  • Gradient Analysis of Vegetation Dominated by Two Subspecies of Big Sagebrush

    Shumar, M. L.; Anderson, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 1986-03-01)
    Stands of vegetation dominated by basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. subspecies tridentata) intergrade with stands dominated by Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. subspecies wyomingensis) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in southeastern Idaho. Detrended correspondence analysis and correlation were used to elucidate potential relationships between vegetation patterns and soil factors along a gradient from stands having only the subspecies tridentata to stands having only the subspecies wyomingensis. Distributions of the subspecies were consistently associated with gradients in soil texture. Basin big sagebrush was most abundant on sandy soils and Wyoming big sagebrush was dominant on finer textured soils. Mixed stands occurred on central portions of the gradient. Similar results for 3 study areas were observed, despite differences in soil texture between areas. Thus, the distributional patterns are associated with changes in soil texture rather than actual amounts of sand, silt, or clay.
  • Flora and Fauna Associated with Prairie Dog Colonies and Adjacent Ungrazed Mixed-grass Prairie in Western South Dakota

    Agnew, W.; Uresk, D. W.; Hansen, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1986-03-01)
    Vegetation, small rodents, and birds were sampled during the growing seasons of 2 years on prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies and adjacent mixed-grass prairie in western South Dakota. Prairie dog grazing decreased mulch cover, maximum height of vegetation, plant species richness, and tended to decrease live plant canopy cover compared to that on ungrazed mixed-grass prairie. Buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides) was the dominant plant on prairie dog towns and western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii) and blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) were most common on mixed-grass prairie sites. Prairie dog towns supported greater densities of small rodents but significantly fewer species compared to undisturbed mixed-grass sites. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and northern grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster) were more abundant on prairie dog towns than on undisturbed mixed-grass sites. Density and species richness of birds were significantly greater on prairie dog towns. Horned larks (Eremophila alpestris) were most common on prairie dog towns, whereas western meadowlarks (Sturnella neglecta) were most common on mixed-grass prairie.
  • Effects of N and P Fertilizer Placement on Establishment of Seeded Species on Redistributed Mine Topsoil

    McGinnies, W. J.; Crofts, K. A. (Society for Range Management, 1986-03-01)
    The effects of fertilizer on the establishment of seeded grass and legume stands when reclaiming coal strip mines have not been evaluated in northwest Colorado. Nitrogen (0, 28, 56, and 112 kgN/ha) and phosphorus (0 and 56 kgP/ha) were applied in all combinations to the spoils before topsoiling or to the surface after topsoiling. In the greenhouse, herbage yield and yield of roots in the 28 cm of topsoil replaced over the spoil increased as rate of N increased; phosphorus did not increase yield. Nitrogen content of the herbage increased from 1.02% to 1.33% as rate of N increased from 0 to 112 kgN/ha. In a field study in northwest Colorado, neither N nor P fertilizer improved stand establishment ratings. Both the amount and placement of N at time of seeding affected herbage yield during the third growing season. Alfalfa yields were increased 20% by buried P and 44% by surface P in the third growing season. Applying N fertilizer at time of seeding is not recommended.
  • Effect of 20 Years of Low N Rate Pasture Fertilization on Soil Acidity

    Berg, W. A. (Society for Range Management, 1986-03-01)
    Soil acidity resulting from nitrification of ammonium in fertilizer can limit plant growth. In this study on weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees) and Caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasica (Trin.) Hubb) pastures on sandy soil in northwestern Oklahoma, 20 years of N fertilization at an average rate of 37 kg N ha-1 yr-1 reduced the pH of the surface 5 cm of soil from 6.7 to 5.3. Sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) had symptoms of manganese toxicity when grown in the acidified soil in a glasshouse. The growth of warm-season grasses was not adversely affected when grown in the acidified soil. The lime requirement of the acidified soil was 896 kg CaCO3 ha-1 greater than the lime requirement of adjacent unfertilized pastures. The lime requirements in relation to the amount of acid producing N fertilizer applied was similar to or less than lime requirements reported in the literature for larger N applications to farmlands. Continued use of N fertilizer at low rates will eventually require that once near-neutral soils be limed if species sensitive to acid soil are grown.
  • Differences in Big Sagebrush (Artemisia Tridentata) Plant Stature along Soil-Water Gradients: Genetic Components

    Barker, J. R.; McKell, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1986-03-01)
    Genotypic and phenotypic variations are characteristic among big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) plants. One obvious expression is the variability of big sagebrush plant stature along soil-water gradients. Large plants are usually associated with mesic habitats such as drainages or swales, while small plants occupy the xeric portions of the gradients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic influence on big sagebrush plant stature along soil-water gradients. Leaf morphological, phenological, chromatographical, and cytological investigations evaluated potential genetic differences and examined possible subspecies status of the large and small plants. The results of these studies revealed a genetic difference between the large and small plants and confirmed subspecies status. The large plants were identified as basin big sagebrush (A. tridentata spp. tridentata) while the small plants were Wyoming big sagebrush (A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis). Three additional studies examined possible differences in growth potential between the subspecies. A greenhouse and uniform garden study compared seedling and juvenile plant growth. Annual leader growth of mature plants was measured in native populations. Basin big sagebrush plants outgrew Wyoming big sagebrush in the greenhouse, uniform garden, and leader growth experiments. Difference in growth potential between the subspecies may be a consequence of ploidy differences.
  • Cattle Weight Gains in Relation to Stocking Rate on Rough Fescue Grassland

    Willms, W. D.; Smoliak, S.; Schaalje, G. B. (Society for Range Management, 1986-03-01)
    The effects of 4 stocking rates (1.2, 1.6, 2.4, and 4.8 AUM/ha) on cattle production were examined, over a 35-year period, on a Rough Fescue (Festuca scabrella Torr.) Grassland. Forage productivity was reduced at the higher stocking rates. This resulted in a shortened grazing season in the field stocked at 4.8 AUM/ha. Although individual animals' weights decreased with increased stocking rate, cattle gains per unit area increased. Average daily gain of cows was greatest in May but declined to become a loss in September. Calves showed maximum gains from June to July and never lost weight. Stocking rate affected the relative magnitude of average daily gain as well as the trend over the grazing season.

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