• Cattle Diets on Shortgrass Ranges with Different Amounts of Fourwing Saltbush

      Shoop, M. C.; Clark, R. C.; Laycock, W. A.; Hansen, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      Inadequate data have existed concerning cattle preferences for fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.] on ranges where it is dominant, and concerning composition of cattle diets on the central shortgrass plains. In this study, food habits of cattle were estimated from fecal analyses on winter and summer pastures containing either abundant or sparse fourwing saltbush (saltbush). The abundant saltbush was on overflow and/or sandy plains range sites; sparse saltbush was on loamy plains range sites. Saltbush was a major constituent of cattle diets where abundant. The proportion of saltbush in winter diets peaked during March (55%) and declined during April. Saltbush was absent from summer diets during July, peaked during August (42%), and declined abruptly during September. Where abundant, saltbush was also the primary constituent of the forb-shrub component of diets during both winter (mean=72%) and summer (mean=44%). Deleting saltbush from the data, cattle foods consumed on pastures with sparse and abundant saltbush were correlated (0.84) during summer, but were not correlated (0.25) during winter. Relative to species frequencies in pastures, cattle diets on loamy plains range sites (sparse saltbush) contained notably larger portions of sedges (Carex spp. L.), goosefoots (Chenopodium spp. L.), and fringed sagewort (Artemisia frigida Willd.), during winter and goosefoots and scarlet globemallow [Sphaeralcea coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb.] during summer, than diets on sandy plains and overflow sites (abundant saltbush). Saltbush is a preferred and valuable forage for cattle on the central shortgrass plains, and it should be managed to maintain or improves its productivity.
    • Dietary Overlap Among Axis, Fallow, and Black-Tailed Deer and Cattle

      Elliott, H. W.; Barrett, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      Seasonal diets of native Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) and exotic axis deer (Axis axis axis), fallow deer (Dama dama dama), and cattle (Bos taurus) on Point Reyes National Seashore were determined by microhistological technique to assess their dietary overlap. Throughout the year black-tailed deer ate mostly forbs, axis deer and fallow deer ate mostly grasses and forbs, and cattle ate mostly grasses. Only a few plant species comprised most of their diets. Percent composition of food species was not related to their preference indexes. Diets of axis and fallow deer overlapped more with each other and cattle than with black-tailed deer except during the summer when the dietary overlap among all species was similar at a lower level. Comparison of seasonal diets of deer with this and other studies indicated that food consumption of deer was not limited to particular food classes.