• Controlling Shrubs in the Arid Southwest with Tebuthiuron

      Herbel, C. H.; Morton, H. L.; Gibbens, R. P. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      Various rates of tebuthiuron pellets were aerially applied on rangelands in the Southwest to determine effects on noxious shrubs. Creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) and tarbush (Flourensia cernua) shrubs were controlled with 0.4 and 0.3 kg active ingredient (a.i.)/ha, respectively, of tebuthiuron pellets. About 1.1 kg a.i./ha of tebuthiuron pellets controlled honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) growing on loamy sands or sandy loams. About 0.6 and 0.5 kg a.i./ha of tebuthiuron pellets controlled whitethorn acacia (Acacia constricta) and desert zinnia (Zinnia pumila), respectively. Higher rates of tebuthiuron are needed to control those shrubs on deep, fine textured soils than on shallow, coarse textured soils.
    • Viewpoint: Forage and Range Research Needs in the Central Great Plains

      Vogel, K. P.; Gorz, H. J.; Haskins, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      In the central Great Plains, pastures and rangelands often are not economically competitive with grain crops. This has led to increases in acreages of row crops at the expense of rangelands, pastures, and hay crops on marginal lands resulting in severe erosion problems. The productivity of forages, pastures, and rangelands needs to be increased to levels that would make them economically competitive with grain crops. Innovative research will be needed to develop the required knowledge and technology upon which productivity increases can be based. Pastures and rangelands in this area are usually components of production systems which may also include the feeding of hay, silage, crop residues, and other feeds. Coordinated research teams need to be formed that can focus on all components of these production systems. Research needs and objectives of these research teams can be categorized by the land capability classes of the three major ecological regions in this area, the tall-grass, mid-grass, and short-grass prairie. In all of these regions, a classification system that is production-oriented rather than climax-oriented is needed for both pastures and rangelands if effective control of soil erosion and optimal income per land unit are to be achieved. Interstate cooperation in establishing a research team for major ecological region would facilitate the most efficient use of research resources.
    • Cattle Diets on Shortgrass Ranges with Different Amounts of Fourwing Saltbush

      Shoop, M. C.; Clark, R. C.; Laycock, W. A.; Hansen, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      Inadequate data have existed concerning cattle preferences for fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.] on ranges where it is dominant, and concerning composition of cattle diets on the central shortgrass plains. In this study, food habits of cattle were estimated from fecal analyses on winter and summer pastures containing either abundant or sparse fourwing saltbush (saltbush). The abundant saltbush was on overflow and/or sandy plains range sites; sparse saltbush was on loamy plains range sites. Saltbush was a major constituent of cattle diets where abundant. The proportion of saltbush in winter diets peaked during March (55%) and declined during April. Saltbush was absent from summer diets during July, peaked during August (42%), and declined abruptly during September. Where abundant, saltbush was also the primary constituent of the forb-shrub component of diets during both winter (mean=72%) and summer (mean=44%). Deleting saltbush from the data, cattle foods consumed on pastures with sparse and abundant saltbush were correlated (0.84) during summer, but were not correlated (0.25) during winter. Relative to species frequencies in pastures, cattle diets on loamy plains range sites (sparse saltbush) contained notably larger portions of sedges (Carex spp. L.), goosefoots (Chenopodium spp. L.), and fringed sagewort (Artemisia frigida Willd.), during winter and goosefoots and scarlet globemallow [Sphaeralcea coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb.] during summer, than diets on sandy plains and overflow sites (abundant saltbush). Saltbush is a preferred and valuable forage for cattle on the central shortgrass plains, and it should be managed to maintain or improves its productivity.
    • Video Imagery: A New Remote Sensing Tool for Range Management

      Everitt, J. H.; Nixon, P. R. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      A multi-video system that provides immediately useful narrowband black-and-white imagery within the visible to near-infrared light (0.40- to 1.10-micrometer waveband) region of the electromagnetic spectrum was evaluated as a remote sensing tool to assess several ecological rangeland ground conditions in southern Texas. The system provided imagery to detect many variables including: the presence of weeds, heavy grazing, fertilized grassland, burned areas, and gopher and ant mounds. Certain narrowband filters provided better discrimination among vegetation than others. For example, a red narrowband filter provided the best imagery to distinguish between fertilized and nonfertilized bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]. These results demonstrated that narrowband multi-video imagery could assist in assessing some ecological ground conditions of rangelands.
    • Cattle Diets in a Ponderosa Pine Forest in the Northern Black Hills

      Uresk, D. W.; Paintner, W. W. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      A cattle diet study was conducted in the northern Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Forty-eight plants were identified in cattle fecal material. Grasses in the feces averaged 54%, forbs 17%, and shrubs-trees 28% over the grazing season. Sedges (Carex spp.) and wheatgrass (Agropyron spp.) were the most abundant plants found in the feces throughout the season. Bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and Oregon grape (Berberis repens) were common in the diet. Shrubs and trees made up 37% of the diet in September. Similarities and rank order correlations of diets with available forage were low in August, indicating that cattle were selectively grazing.