• An Energy Model for Adult Female Caribou of the Denali Herd, Alaska

      Boertje, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      Estimates of the energy costs of resting, activity, and productive processes from the literature were applied to caribou activity budgets and movements documented during 1978-80 to estimate seasonal and annual energy requirements of adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) in Denali National Park and Preserve. Energy requirements were 45% lower in winter than summer, primarily because of a 21% reduction in resting metabolic rate and benefits of fat catabolism in winter, and high summer costs of lactation, fat deposition, and activity. Estimated energy requirements totaled 38.2 MJ day-1 during the insect season, 36.7 during summer migration, 34.2 during fall migration, 31.9 during prerut and rut, 29.3 during calving and postcalving, 23.7 during early and late winter migrations, 21.6 during early winter, 20.9 during late winter, and 20.5 during midwinter. Annual energy requirements, including costs of pregnancy (368.6 MJ) and lactation (560.3), totaled 9,870 MJ, excluding costs of cratering through snow and apparently minor costs of physiological stress. Compared to studies of food energy requirements of penned caribou, the model gives accurate predictions of total metabolizable energy requirements when allowances are made for the relative inactivity of penned animals.
    • Browse Quality Response to Forest Fertilization and Soils in Florida

      Wood, J. M.; Tanner, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      Spring leaves of red maple (Acer rubrum) and inkberry (Ilex glabra) from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) plantations fertilized with diammonium phosphate 4 to 9 years prior to collection were higher in phosphorus (P) than leaves from an unfertilized plantation. The nitrogen (N) content of inkberry leaves also was higher in spring. During the summer, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) was higher in both species and P was higher in inkberry on fertilized plantations. However, any residual effect of fertilization on nutrient concentrations was overshadowed by a decrease in P and N and an increase in calcium (Ca) in the summer. The effect of soil series on nutrient values was negligible, with the exception of Ca, which was higher on a somewhat poorly drained Dunbar soil series than on a poorly drained Bladen soil series. Nutritive value of both browse plants was limited by low IVOMD and P concentrations, which never attained maintenance levels required by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).
    • Cattle Diets in a Ponderosa Pine Forest in the Northern Black Hills

      Uresk, D. W.; Paintner, W. W. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      A cattle diet study was conducted in the northern Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Forty-eight plants were identified in cattle fecal material. Grasses in the feces averaged 54%, forbs 17%, and shrubs-trees 28% over the grazing season. Sedges (Carex spp.) and wheatgrass (Agropyron spp.) were the most abundant plants found in the feces throughout the season. Bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and Oregon grape (Berberis repens) were common in the diet. Shrubs and trees made up 37% of the diet in September. Similarities and rank order correlations of diets with available forage were low in August, indicating that cattle were selectively grazing.
    • Cattle Diets on Shortgrass Ranges with Different Amounts of Fourwing Saltbush

      Shoop, M. C.; Clark, R. C.; Laycock, W. A.; Hansen, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      Inadequate data have existed concerning cattle preferences for fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.] on ranges where it is dominant, and concerning composition of cattle diets on the central shortgrass plains. In this study, food habits of cattle were estimated from fecal analyses on winter and summer pastures containing either abundant or sparse fourwing saltbush (saltbush). The abundant saltbush was on overflow and/or sandy plains range sites; sparse saltbush was on loamy plains range sites. Saltbush was a major constituent of cattle diets where abundant. The proportion of saltbush in winter diets peaked during March (55%) and declined during April. Saltbush was absent from summer diets during July, peaked during August (42%), and declined abruptly during September. Where abundant, saltbush was also the primary constituent of the forb-shrub component of diets during both winter (mean=72%) and summer (mean=44%). Deleting saltbush from the data, cattle foods consumed on pastures with sparse and abundant saltbush were correlated (0.84) during summer, but were not correlated (0.25) during winter. Relative to species frequencies in pastures, cattle diets on loamy plains range sites (sparse saltbush) contained notably larger portions of sedges (Carex spp. L.), goosefoots (Chenopodium spp. L.), and fringed sagewort (Artemisia frigida Willd.), during winter and goosefoots and scarlet globemallow [Sphaeralcea coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb.] during summer, than diets on sandy plains and overflow sites (abundant saltbush). Saltbush is a preferred and valuable forage for cattle on the central shortgrass plains, and it should be managed to maintain or improves its productivity.
    • Comparison of the Reference Unit Method and Dimensional Analysis Methods for Two Large Shrubby Species in the Caatinga Woodlands

      Kirmse, R. D.; Norton, B. E. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      The reference unit technique was compared with the dimensional analysis approach for estimating large shrub foliage biomass in Northeast Brazil. The techniques were tested on coppicing jurema (Mimosa acutistipula Benth.) and pau branco (Auxemma oncocalyx [Fr. Alem.] Taub.). Both methods provided good estimates of foliage weight. The coefficients of determination for the reference unit approach ranged from .890 to .985. The r2 values obtained in applying the dimensional analysis method were .937 and .948. Improvements in estimates with the reference unit method were obtained when (1) a branch unit of 19% of total plant foliage was used versus a unit of only 7%, (2) the branch unit resembled the appearance of the branching of the plant being estimated, and (3) estimations of 3 judges were averaged.
    • Controlling Shrubs in the Arid Southwest with Tebuthiuron

      Herbel, C. H.; Morton, H. L.; Gibbens, R. P. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      Various rates of tebuthiuron pellets were aerially applied on rangelands in the Southwest to determine effects on noxious shrubs. Creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) and tarbush (Flourensia cernua) shrubs were controlled with 0.4 and 0.3 kg active ingredient (a.i.)/ha, respectively, of tebuthiuron pellets. About 1.1 kg a.i./ha of tebuthiuron pellets controlled honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) growing on loamy sands or sandy loams. About 0.6 and 0.5 kg a.i./ha of tebuthiuron pellets controlled whitethorn acacia (Acacia constricta) and desert zinnia (Zinnia pumila), respectively. Higher rates of tebuthiuron are needed to control those shrubs on deep, fine textured soils than on shallow, coarse textured soils.
    • Dietary Overlap Among Axis, Fallow, and Black-Tailed Deer and Cattle

      Elliott, H. W.; Barrett, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      Seasonal diets of native Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) and exotic axis deer (Axis axis axis), fallow deer (Dama dama dama), and cattle (Bos taurus) on Point Reyes National Seashore were determined by microhistological technique to assess their dietary overlap. Throughout the year black-tailed deer ate mostly forbs, axis deer and fallow deer ate mostly grasses and forbs, and cattle ate mostly grasses. Only a few plant species comprised most of their diets. Percent composition of food species was not related to their preference indexes. Diets of axis and fallow deer overlapped more with each other and cattle than with black-tailed deer except during the summer when the dietary overlap among all species was similar at a lower level. Comparison of seasonal diets of deer with this and other studies indicated that food consumption of deer was not limited to particular food classes.
    • Effects of Controlling Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs on Plant Production

      Uresk, D. W. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      Plant production of 43 plant species was evaluated for three treatments after poisoning black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on rangelands in western South Dakota. The three pre-poison treatments were ungrazed (no cattle or prairie dogs), prairie dogs only, and cattle plus prairie dogs. Western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii) had lower production on the prairie dog, and cattle-prairie dog treatments 4 years after prairie dog control, when compared with no grazing. Buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides) showed a decrease in production on the cattle plus prairie dog grazing treatment, when compared to no grazing. Production of needleleaf sedge (Carex eleocharis) was lower on the cattle-prairie dog treatment, when compared to the prairie dog treatment. No other significant differences were observed over the 4-year period among the three treatments for all other species, including grass and forb categories. Prairie dog control did not increase plant production over a 4-year period. Additional time with reduced livestock grazing may be required to increase forage production.
    • Effects of Selected Seed Treatment on Germination Rates of Five Range Plants

      Weaver, L. C.; Jordan, G. L. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      Effects of various treatments on germination rates were determined for Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees), 'Cochise' lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees × Eragrostis tricophora Coss & Dur), Boer lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula var. conferta Nees), blue panicgrass (Panicum antidotale Retz.) and four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.) seeds. Rates were approximations of time to 50% germination, and seed treatments included applications of potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, gibberellic acid, and heat desiccation. Germination rates could be increased, but treatment effects were not uniform between seed lots within a species or among species. Desiccation at 70 degrees C for 24 hours was particularly effective in increasing germination rates of Boer and Lehmann lovegrass seeds. Increased rates of germination of certain species might aid in establishment of range seedings made under limited moisture conditions of the Southwest.
    • Evaluation of Fecal Indices to Predict Cattle Diet Quality

      Wofford, H.; Holechek, J. L.; Galyean, M. L.; Wallace, J. D.; Cardenas, M. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      A study involving 6 feeds of widely varying chemical properties fed to 6 steers in a Latin square design was conducted to evaluate the potential of fecal chemical characteristics for predicting ruminant nutritional status. Forage intake, diet in vivo digestibility %, and diet nitrogen % were used as dependent variables and fecal nitrogen %, nucleic acid %, nonfiber bound nitrogen %, ether extract %, neutral detergent fiber %, acid detergent fiber %, acid detergent lignin %, water soluble material %, and acid/pepsin disappearance % were used as independent variables in regression equations. Forage intake and diet in vivo digestibility could not be accurately predicted from any single variable or combination of independent variables. Fecal acid/pepsin disappearance was the independent variable most highly correlated with forage intake (r = .63) and diet in vivo digestibility (r = .33). Diet nitrogen % was highly correlated with fecal nitrogen % (r = .81) and fecal acid pepsin disappearance % (r = .83). Combined data from this and other studies give a generalized regression equation that shows potential for detecting nitrogen deficiencies in steer diets from fecal N % (organic matter basis) when steer diets contain low levels of soluble phenolics. When steer fecal nitrogen % drops below 1.7%, dietary nitrogen deficiencies should be suspected.
    • Green Needlegrass and Blue Grama Seedling Growth in Controlled Environments

      Fulbright, T. E.; Wilson, A. M.; Redente, E. F. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      Green needlegrass [Stipa viridula Trin.] and blue grama [Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag.] possess the C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways, respectively. Objectives of this study were to compare growth analysis traits of green needlegrass and blue grama and to determine the effects of 2 temperature regimes on seedling growth characteristics of both species. Seedlings of 2 accessions each of green needlegrass and blue grama were grown in growth chambers under 20 degrees C day-15 degrees C night (20-15 degrees C) and 25 degrees C day-20 degrees C night (25-20 degrees C) temperature regimes (with a 15-hr photoperiod). Beginning 2 weeks after planting, seedlings were harvested twice a week for 3 weeks. Growth analysis traits were calculated with data obtained from each harvest using exponential regression equations. Net assimilation rates of blue grama were higher than those of green needlegrass at both temperatures. Seedling growth of blue grama was more rapid at 25-20 degrees than at 20-15 degrees C, while seedling growth of green needlegrass did not differ between temperatures. Blue grama seedlings exhibited higher relative growth rates than green needlegrass seedlings at 25-20 degrees C but not at 20-15 degrees C. Green needlegrass accessions differed for relative growth rates at 25-20 degrees C, which indicated the possibility of selecting for rapid seedling growth.
    • Leafy Spurge Control and Improved Forage Production with Herbicides

      Lym, R. G.; Messersmith, C. G. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      An experiment to evaluate 59 long-term leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) management alternatives with resulting forage production was established at 4 sites in North Dakota in 1980. The herbicides applied included 2,4-D [(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid], dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid), and picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid). Picloram was applied as the liquid spray, granules or using a roller or pipe-wick reduced volume applicator. All original treatments applied in 1980 reduced leafy spurge density 65% or more but required retreatments in 1981 and 1982 to maintain good control. Picloram sprayed at 2.2 kg/ha followed by a herbicide retreatment provided the best leafy spurge control at 84% after 3 years, but resulted in only intermediate annual forage production. Picloram roller applied provided 84% initial leafy spurge control and increased forage production an average of 28%, but control declined rapidly without retreatment. Picloram pipe-wick applied gave poor leafy spurge control and no increase in forage production. The most cost effective treatments for both leafy spurge control and high forage production were annual applications of picloram at 0.28 kg/ha or picloram plus 2,4-D at 0.28 plus 1.1. kg/ha. These treatments increased annual forage production by 64 and 71%, respectively, and reduced leafy spurge production by 96% compared to the untreated control. Annual application of 2,4-D did not reduce the leafy spurge density but did control the top growth long enough to allow increased forage production. Several long-term management alternatives provide a choice for leafy spurge control depending on geographical location, neighboring vegetation, and economic considerations.
    • Long-Term Residual Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Western Wheatgrass

      White, L. M. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      Nitrogen (N) fertilization can be an effective way of increasing forage production. The question is how much does N fertilization increase forage yield of western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii) when there is not a shift in species composition as occurs when N is applied to a native range site. The objectives of this research were to determine the residual effects of a single application of (1) 6 geometric rates of N and phosphorus (P) on forage yield, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), crude protein (CP), and phosphorus (P) concentration (conc) of western wheatgrass grown near Sidney, Mont. during a 10-year period. Ammonium nitrate was applied at 0, 40, 80, 160, 320, and 640 kg N/ha in March 1973 and triple super phosphate at 45 kg P/ha on split plots during August 1975. A single application of N increased forage yield by 0.0, 0.0, 0.95, 0.35, 0.0, 1.16, 0.52, and 1.41 kg/ha per kg of N applied the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 10th year sampled, respectively, regardless of N rate. Nitrogen fertilization increased the accumulative forage (P<0.01) and CP (P<0.01) yield over the 8 harvest-years by 4.35 and 0.87 kg/ha per kg of N applied. Nitrogen fertilization increased the average forage IVDMD by 0.1 percentage units (P<0.05) and decreased P conc by 0.03 percentage units per 100 kg N/ha applied (P<0.01). Application of 45 kg P/ha in 1975 increased the P conc of the forage an average of 0.04 percentage units each year, increased forage yield only the 10th year by 150 kg/ha, and had no effect on IVDMD or CP. This study also showed that long-term observations are necessary to measure the residual effects of fertilization.
    • N, P, And K Fertilization of Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) Overseeded Range in Eastern Oklahoma

      Mitchell, R. L.; Ewing, A. L.; McMurphy, W. E. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      A native hay meadow in northeastern Oklahoma was overseeded with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and fertilized for 6 years with N in August and February to encourage tall fescue growth in late fall and early spring, thus extending the green forage season. The effect of P and K fertilizer on forage yield and plant nutrient concentration was determined. Cool-season N fertilization (112 kg/ha) nearly doubled tall fescue yield and increased forage nitrogen concentration without altering warm-season grass production. Additions of P (15, 29 kg/ha) and K (28, 112 kg/ha) increased cool-season forage yield marginally and increased fertilizer N recovery but had no desirable effect on forage N, P, and K content. Tall grass decreaser species were dominant at the end of the study. Available soil P increased with P fertilization and available soil K increased with K fertilization.
    • Productivity of Russian Wildrye and Crested Wheatgrass and Their Effect on Prairie Soils

      Smoliak, S.; Dormaar, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.) and Russian wildrye (Elymus junceus Fisch.) are used extensively as seeded pastures in the Prairie Provinces of Canada. Rangeland plowed in 1954 was planted to the 2 grasses in 1955. Herbage was harvested over a 25-year period, root weights were determined in 1977, and soil samples were obtained in 1965 and 1978 from the 2 seeded pastures and from adjacent native rangeland from each of 3 replicates. Forage production from the seeded pastures was greatest 4 years after seeding. Averaged over all years, crested wheatgrass yielded 113% more and Russian wildrye yielded 47% more forage than did native rangeland. Total root weight in the surface 15-cm layer of soil was greater on the native rangeland pasture than on the seeded pastures. Soils from native range pastures generally contained more organic carbon, less sodium, and had lower pH and sodium adsorption ratios than the soils from Russian wildrye pastures seeded 10 and 23 years before the soils were sampled. The organic C and pH's of the soils obtained from crested wheatgrass pastures decreased during the 23-year period while those of soils from the native range did not change.
    • Seasonal Nitrogen Translocation in Big Bluestem During Drought Conditions

      Hayes, D. C. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      This study, conducted during a severe drought in 1980, assesses the effects of burned and unburned treatments in tallgrass prairie on nitrogen content of big bluestem, Andropogon gerardii Vitman. Seasonal total nitrogen and amino-nitrogen translocations in big bluestem in the tallgrass prairie were studied on burned and unburned treatments within Konza Prairie Research Natural Area, Manhattan, Kans. Leaf total nitrogen dropped from .71% in June 1980 to .21% in November with no significant difference between treatments. Rhizome total nitrogen was significantly different between treatments with a June to November increase of .46% to .86% in unburned and .41% to .82% in burned treatments. Roots averaged 72% of rhizome total nitrogen, indicating that roots are also used as storage organs for nitrogen. Comparisons with other studies conducted in 1980 and 1971-1972 indicate that drought stress may reduce the total nitrogen content of big bluestem. In April 1980, emerging leaves on the unburned plots were significantly higher in amino acid concentration than those on the burned plots. Although leaf amino acid concentration was constant after July, the percent of total nitrogen as amino acids increased 3 to 4 fold from mid-August to October. Rhizome amino acid concentration was significantly higher on the unburned than on burned plots. The September 1980 increase in leaf amino acid concentration and percent of total nitrogen as amino acids indicates a breakdown of protein in aboveground tissue. The concurrent increase in rhizome amino acid concentration and percent of total nitrogen as amino acids supports the concept of fall translocation of nitrogen to the belowground parts which serve as storage organs.
    • Seed Predation, Seedling Emergence, and Rhizome Characteristics of American Licorice

      Boe, A.; Wynia, R. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      American licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh) is a widespread native legume that may have potential forage or soil conservation uses. Seed predation, seedling emergence, and rhizome production were studied in 41 populations of G. lepidota from North and South Dakota. Seed predation by the beetle Acanthoscelides fraterculus (Horn) reduced viable seed production by 7 to 71%. Seedling emergence in the greenhouse and stand establishment in the field varied considerably among populations. Overall mean field emergence was 41%. Five South Dakota populations exhibited lethal chlorophyll deficient seedlings. Rhizome numbers of year-old spaced-plants ranged from 3 to 32, with a mean of 13.3. Mean number of nodes/rhizome was 7.5. This study indicated that stands of G. lepidota could be established from seed and individual plants could spread rapidly by rhizomes. However, heavy seed predation by bruchid beetles and lack of inflorescence production in cultivated nurseries could seriously limit viable seed production.
    • Sheep Losses to Predators on a California Range, 1973-1983

      Scrivner, J. H.; Howard, W. E.; Murphy, A. H.; Hays, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      Predation at the University of California Hopland Field Station was evaluated for an 11-year period beginning in 1973. Of those lambs placed on range, an average of 2.7% were killed each year by predators. An average of 1.5% of the ewes were killed. When the number of missing animals which were killed was estimated, the average annual predation rate for lambs and ewes killed was 10.4 and 3.8%, respectively. For all known ewe and lamb deaths, respectively, 45% and 26% were caused by predators, 14% and 28% died from causes other than predation, and 41% and 46% died from unknown causes. Of those sheep killed by predators, 89% were killed by coyotes (Canis latrans), 8% by dogs, and 1% each by black bear (Ursus americanus), mountain lion (Felis concolor), and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). More sheep were killed by coyotes from October to March than from April to September and the annual number of sheep killed by coyotes and dogs has increased since the beginning of the study. Not including the value of missing animals which were killed, the present value of livestock killed by predators was estimated to be $62,364.
    • Site Variation in Forage Qualities of Mountain Mahogany and Serviceberry

      Kufeld, R. C.; Stevens, M. L.; Bowden, D. C. (Society for Range Management, 1985-09-01)
      Nutrient and fiber content and in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) were measured in mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus) and serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia) samples collected during January from 8 geographic areas distributed throughout the western half of Colorado. Coefficients of variation (CV) in dry matter content, cell content, crude protein, soluble carbohydrate, cell walls, holocellulose and IVDDM were 10% or less for both species. Winter variation in these parameters appears to be small enough to permit using a constant value for them in calculating winter nutritional status of big game rangelands.