• Cattle Use of Riparian Meadows in the Blue Mountains of Northeastern Oregon

      Gillen, R. L.; Krueger, W. C.; Miller, R. F. (Society for Range Management, 1985-05-01)
      The intensity and pattern of cattle use of small riparian meadows were studied by periodically sampling vegetative standing crop and by continuously monitoring meadows with time-lapse photography. Temperature and relative humidity were also measured in riparian and upland plant communities. Herbage standing crop at the end of the grazing season was similar under continuous grazing and the early and late grazing periods of a two pasture deferred-rotation grazing system. Early grazing tended to decrease the total cattle occupation and the frequency of cattle occupation of riparian meadows when compared to continuous grazing. Late grazing tended to increase the frequency of cattle occupation but did not change the total cattle occupation of riparian meadows when compared to continuous grazing. Cattle were present on a given meadow site on about 60% of all days but for only 3-10% of the total daylight period. Cattle occupation of riparian meadows was greater during the afternoon hours. The seasonal pattern of cattle occupation was influenced by the location where cattle entered a pasture but not by seasonal temperatures. Temperature and the temperature-humidity index did not differ between riparian and upland plant communities between 12:00 noon and 6:00 p.m.
    • Cattle Trampling of Crested Wheatgrass Under Short-Duration Grazing

      Balph, D. F.; Malecheck, J. C. (Society for Range Management, 1985-05-01)
      This paper tests 3 predictions that stem from the hypothesis that Angus heifers avoid stepping on crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) tussocks because the tussocks present an uneven surface upon which to walk: (1) hoofprints are located disproportionately more often in the open spaces between tussocks than on tussocks; (2) the disproportionality persists despite the frequency of hoof prints per unit area; and (3) the more tussocks are elevated above the surrounding substrate, the less they are trampled. The methods relate the observed and expected frequency of hoofprints on tussocks along 2 transects in a crested wheatgrass paddock. The results significantly support all 3 predictions. We conclude that under the conditions that existed, the hoof action hypothesized by some to be of benefit to short-duration grazing pastures was minimal, and so was the hoped-for destruction of standing dead vegetation that deters grazing.
    • Black Sagebrush: Mule Deer Winter Preference and Monoterpenoid Content

      Behan, B.; Welch, B. L. (Society for Range Management, 1985-05-01)
      Wintering mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) preference was determined for 7 accessions of black sagebrush (Artemisia nova) grown on a common garden. Preference as expressed as percentage of current annual growth eaten varied from 0.0 to 82.7%. An accession called Pine Valley Ridge was significantly preferred by the deer over the other 6 accessions. We also attempted to relate monoterpenoid content to preference. We found no significant relationship between the two.
    • Application of Herbicides on Rangelands with a Carpeted Roller: Evaluation of Four Herbicides for Control of Honey Mesquite

      Mayeux, H. S.; Crane, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1985-05-01)
      A carpeted roller, designed to wipe herbicide solutions onto brush stems and foliage, was evaluated for control of honey mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC. var. glandulosa (Torr.) Cockerell] at 4 locations. Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) and clopyralid (3,6-dichloropicolinic acid) top-killed honey mesquite at all locations, whether applied in spring or fall. Mortality (root-kill) of plants treated with picloram varied from 38% of plants treated under drought conditions in south Texas to 97% of plants experiencing optimum growing conditions in central Texas. Clopyralid was equal to or slightly more effective than picloram, based on mortality near the end of the second growing season after treatment, whereas glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] and triclopyr {[(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy] acetic acid} were usually less effective. Solutions containing 120 g/L of herbicide active ingredient were more effective than solutions containing 30 g/L, but differences were sometimes slight. Small, widely spaced honey mesquites were more easily controlled with the carpeted roller than larger plants growing in dense stands.
    • Above-Ground Biomass and Nitrogen Quantities in a Big Sacaton (Sporobolus wrightii) Grassland

      Cox, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1985-05-01)
      Live and standing dead biomass, standing crop, and total nitrogen, within each component, were measured in a big sacaton (Sporobolus wrightii Monro) grassland in southeastern Arizona for 3 years to determine annual fluctuations in above-ground biomass and nitrogen. Mean live biomass varied from 150 kg/ha in February to 2,000 kg/ha in August. Standing dead biomass accumulated after the summer growing season and rapidly disappeared following either fall, winter, or summer moisture, but was the predominant vegetative component for about 49 weeks of each year. Standing crop (live plus standing dead) was greatest in August and averaged 4,450 kg/ha. Total nitrogen varied from 2 to 31 kg/ha in live biomass, from 5 to 15 kg/ha in standing dead biomass, and from 9 to 40 kg/ha in standing crop. The rapid disappearance of standing dead suggests that stocking rates should be based on standing crop just prior to the grazing period rather than peak standing crop after the summer growing season.
    • A Photographic Technique for Repeated Mapping of Rangeland Plant Populations in Permanent Plots

      Owens, M. K.; Gardiner, H. G.; Norton, B. E. (Society for Range Management, 1985-05-01)
      A lightweight aluminum photograph stand has been developed to record vegetation in permanent plots. At a camera height of 7 m the plot size is 14 m2 when using a 70 mm camera with an 80 mm lens. Minor errors were detected when testing the accuracy of the stand. This stand will be useful for obtaining a record of permanent plots for many different types of research studies.