• Seasonal Nutrient Estimates of Mule Deer Diets in the Texas Panhandle

      Sowell, B. F.; Koerth, B. H.; Bryant, F. C. (Society for Range Management, 1985-03-01)
      Botanical composition and estimated seasonal nutrient quality of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) diets from the Canadian River and Clarendon areas of the Texas Panhandle were determined from 1979 to 1980. Deer from the Canadian River area consumed annually 62% browse, 34% forbs, 1% grasses, and 3% unknowns. Deer from the Clarendon area averaged 56% browse, 28% forbs, 11% grasses, and 5% unknowns annually. Deer consumed more grass at Clarendon because they had access to cultivated small grains, primarily winter wheat and rye. Annual deer diets from the Canadian River area contained 8 +/- 1% crude protein (CP), 0.14 +/- .03% phosphorus (P), and 47 +/- 2% in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD). Deer diets from the Clarendon area averaged 10 +/- 3% CP, 0.15 +/- .03% P, and 50 +/- 2% IVOMD annually. Higher nutrient quality of mule deer diets at Clarendon suggests cultivated small grains/legumes have excellent potential to enhance Texas Panhandle deer herds that normally subsist on a fair to poor nutritional plane.
    • Seasonal Trends in the Chemical Composition of Ten Range Plants in South Texas

      Meyer, M. W.; Brown, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1985-03-01)
      The chemical composition of 10 range plants of dietary importance to cattle and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was determined on the Texas A&I University Range and Wildlife Research Pastures from October 1980-September 1981. Samples were analyzed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), lignin, organic matter (OM), in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca) concentration. The grasses were lower (P<.05) in CP and Ca concentration than the non-grasses, while non-grasses had lower (P<.05) NDF content. On the basis of digestibility, fiber content, protein, and mineral concentration, forage quality was highest in the spring. Winter forage samples were of a higher quality than were late summer samples. Low phosphorus concentrations were common throughout the year.
    • Technical Notes: An Effective Fecal Harness for Free-grazing Goats

      Pfister, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1985-03-01)
      A fecal harness for goats proved useful for total fecal collections under rigorous field conditions in dense brush. An important aspect of this fecal harness is that feeding mobility of goats is not impaired.
    • The Decline of the Angora Goat Industry in Three Texas Counties

      Schrivner, J. H. (Society for Range Management, 1985-03-01)
      One hundred three present and 104 past Angora goat producers in 3 Texas counties were questioned regarding the relative importance of factors contributing to the decline of the goat industry in Texas. While the distribution of past and present producers among herd-size, ownership, and age classes was similar, it differed with regard to kidding. More present producers attempted to reduce livestock losses by shed and shed/trap kidding and use of predator control and husbandry techniques. Present producers also reported fewer kids and adults killed by predators. Predation losses was the production-limitation factor of greatest concern to both present and past goat ranchers. Disease problems and concern over competition from the synthetic fiber industry were ranked second and third, respectively, by present producers whereas mohair prices were ranked second and shortage of shearers, disease problems, and competition from the synthetic fiber industry collectively were ranked third by past producers.
    • Values of Four Communities for Mule Deer on Ranges with Limited Summer Habitat

      Austin, D. D.; Urness, P. J. (Society for Range Management, 1985-03-01)
      Four plant communities were evaluated from May through September for mule deer dietary and nutritional values. The communities were dominated by Utah serviceberry, Gambel oak, big sagebrush, and mixed browse. In early summer deer diets contained many browse and forb species and were high in crude protein, but as summer progressed fewer species were selected and dietary crude protein declined, especially in the big sagebrush and serviceberry communities. Thus late summer was determined the critical period for forage quality. Range conditions were reflected by body size and condition of deer in fall.
    • Western Wheatgrass Responses to Simulated Grazing

      Stroud, D. O.; Hart, R. H.; Samuel, M. J.; Rodgers, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 1985-03-01)
      To evaluate responses of range grasses to herbage removal, removal patterns should simulate those under grazing. We compared responses of western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii Rydb.) in mixed-grass range to no clipping, conventional clipping, and clipping which simulated continuous grazing. Two years of simulated grazing did not affect herbage production or tiller numbers, but both declined under conventional clipping. Belowground phytomass decreased as herbage removal increased. Total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration in rhizomes decreased when utilization exceeded about 40%, but that of roots and crowns decreased only when utilization exceeded 60-70%.