• Discing and Seeding Effects on Sod Bound Mixed Prairie

      Hart, M.; Waller, S. S.; Lowry, S. R.; Gates, R. N. (Society for Range Management, 1985-03-01)
      A silty range site (720 mm average annual precipitation) in the Mixed Prairie of south-central Nebraska dominated by Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), blue grama [Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag.], western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii Rydb.), and buffalograss [Buchole dactyloides (Nutt.) Englem.] was protected from grazing, disced, seeded and/or treated with glyphosate to increase tall and midgrasses. Discing did not stimulate western wheatgrass yield or cover. After 2 growing seasons, yields and cover were similar on untreated and disced areas. However, species composition data indicated a treatment × year interaction between the second and third growing season for proportion of warm-season shortgrass sod to dominant cool-season vegetation. Warm-season shortgrasses increased on the disced area and decreased on the control during that period. Lo-till sod-seeding using glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl glycine)] as a sod suppressant provided rapid establishment of desirable warm-season grasses: big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), indiangrass [Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash], switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and sideoats grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.]. Seeding with a rangeland drill into a disced area or an area disced and then sprayed with glyphosate resulted in slower stand establishment compared to sod seeding. All seeding treatments had similar stand frequency during the third growing season and similar yield at the end of the fourth growing season. All seeding methods provided adequate stands.
    • Comparison of Heifer Weight Gains and Forage Quality for Continuous and Short-duration Grazing Systems

      Jung, H. G.; Rice, R. W.; Koong, L. J. (Society for Range Management, 1985-03-01)
      A study of animal performance and forage quality under continuous and short-duration grazing (SDG) systems was conducted with post-weaning heifer calves on smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis) pasture for 2 years. There were 8 paddocks for each SDG cell. The animals were on pasture from early May through the middle of August in both years. Heifers assigned to the SDG system were moved among the rotational paddocks approximately every 2.5 days. In 1982, the grazing treatments were stocked at equal levels (2.9 animals/ha). The stocking rate was increased to 3.8 animals/ha on the SDG treatment in 1983, while the continuous system remained at 2.9 animals/ha. Animals were weighed and forage samples were collected at the completion of each rotation cycle. Average daily gain (ADG) was similar (continuous 0.48 kg/d vs. SDG 0.47 kg/d, P>.05) in 1982 when both systems were stocked equally. Available forage tended to be greater under the SDG system (3,141 vs. 3,786 kg/ha), but this difference was not significant. Forage quality did not differ (P>.05) between the grazing systems but did decline significantly in both systems during the grazing season. Individual paddocks of the SDG system did not differ significantly in forage quality. In 1983, ADG was similar for both grazing systems (0.56 and 0.52 kg/d, P>.05) and available forage also was similar (2,551 vs. 2,159 kg/ha). Crude protein content of the forage tended to be greater for the SDG system (7.9 vs. 8.5%, P<.05) in 1983. In vitro digestibility and crude protein content were lower, and cellulose and lignin concentrations were higher in forage from paddocks grazed later in the rotation sequence in 1983. The SDG system increased available forage when stocking rates were equal for the grazing systems, and this forage was effectively utilized at a higher stocking rate for the SDG system to produce more grain per ha (165.6 vs. 205.6 kg/ha) without sacrificing individual performance.
    • A Precision Planter for Seedling Emergence Evaluation

      Frasier, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1985-03-01)
      A modified version of the laboratory vacuum plate seed counter was developed for precision planting of small seeds in soil. The planter, a vacuum chamber constructed from rigid plastic plate, would palce 100 seeds on a 228 × 228 mm plot. The individual seed holders were hypodermic needles inserted into the bottom of the chamber on a square grid at a 25 mm spacing. When a vacuum was applied to the chamber, a single seed was held at the tip of each needle. Seedbed preparation consisted of forming small impressions in the soil surface with a grid spacing identical to the planter. With the planter properly aligned, a single seed was dropped into each impression. This technique was successfully used with seeds ranging in size and shape of Panicum antidotale Retz to Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees. Three people were able to seed 120 plots with 100 seeds in less than 4 hours.
    • A New Esophageal Plug

      Walker, J. W.; Stuth, J. W.; Heitschmidt, R. K.; Dowhower, S. L. (Society for Range Management, 1985-03-01)
      An esophageal fistula plug was constructed from polyvinyl chloride pipe at a material cost of approximately $3.50. The plug has a plastisol and metal washer and is held together with a hose clamp. The hose clamp is adjusted to exert light pressure on the neck by the washers to reduce scar tissue around the fistula. The size of the plug can be varied by changing the diameter of the pipe allowing it to be used as a fistula dialator.