• Effect of Forage Depletion on the Feeding Rate of Wapiti

      Hudson, R. J.; Nietfeld, M. T. (Society for Range Management, 1985-01-01)
      We evaluated forage intake rates of wapiti (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) during the depletion of a grass sward over a 7-day period. Bite sizes increased linearly with forage biomass and plant height within the range of our data. Maximum foraging rates of 45 cropping bites per minute declined exponentially at bite sizes greater than 0.2 g. Consumption rates increased asymptotically with forage biomass to a predicted asymptote of 17.6 g/min although the highest value observed was 12.6 g/min at a biomass of 2367 kg/ha. Average daily forage removals through grazing and trampling (not distinguished) were 9.5 kg per animal and did not decline as biomass was reduced from approximately 2,400 kg/ha to 800 kg/ha.
    • Evaluation of Pedometers for Measuring Distance Traveled by Cattle on Two Grazing Systems

      Walker, J. W.; Heitschmidt, R. K.; Dowhower, S. L. (Society for Range Management, 1985-01-01)
      The precision and accuracy of pedometers for measuring distance traveled by cattle on production size grazing systems were studied. Pedometer calibration factors were similar among cattle, but varied because of differences in the sensitivity of pedometers to movement and/or the tightness of the case around the animal's leg. Adjusting pedometer readings by their individual calibration factor provided a precise and accurate measure of travel distance. Cattle on a short duration grazing system tended to walk farther, and travel distance was more variable than with animals on a continuous grazing system.
    • Nutrient Removal Rates from Ruminoreticula of Cattle Grazing Kansas Flint Hills Range

      Forwood, J. R.; Owensby, C. E.; Towne, G. (Society for Range Management, 1985-01-01)
      A Hereford steer and heifer were used to compare rumen removal rates of forage nutrients from Kansas Flint Hills range over a 2-year period. Rumens were emptied after an overnight fast and the contents sampled, weighed, and returned to the rumen. The cattle were then fed a known amount of range forage and fasted for 12 hours, at which time the rumen evacuation procedure was repeated. Removal rate calculations were based on change in rumen contents during the 12-hour fast. All nutrients studied passed the rumen more rapidly during spring and summer months than fall and winter months. Fibrous fractions were removed more rapidly than cell solubles and crude protein, which may indicate that optimum utilization of native Flint Hills range forage is not being achieved. Methods which increase microbial attack of plant cell wall contents may significantly improve livestock production on native rangeland.