Welcome to the Rangeland Ecology & Management archives. The journal Rangeland Ecology & Management (RE&M; v58, 2005-present) is the successor to the Journal of Range Management (JRM; v. 1-57, 1948-2004.) The archives provide public access, in a "rolling window" agreement with the Society for Range Management, to both titles (JRM and RE&M), from v.1 up to five years from the present year.

The most recent years of RE&M are available through membership in the Society for Range Management (SRM). Membership in SRM is a means to access current information and dialogue on rangeland management.

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Print ISSN: 0022-409x

Online ISSN: 1550-7424


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Recent Submissions

  • Yields, Nutrient Quality, and Palatability to Sheep of Fourteen Grass Accessions for Potential Use on Sagebrush-Grass Range in Southeastern Idaho

    Murray, R. B. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
    Fourteen grass accessions were evaluated in terms of yields, nutrient quality, and palatability to sheep at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station in southeastern Idaho. The interspecific hybrid (Agropyron cristatum × A. desertorum) produced the greatest amount of total biomass (which includes leaves, stems, and heads), but Russian wildryes (Psathrostachys juncea), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), and the RS- hybrid (Elytrigia repens × E. spicata) produced a greater proportion of leaf material. Crude protein contents declined with advance in plant maturity in all accessions, except Russian wildryes (Bozoisky-Select and RWR-V13) in which crude protein contents declined only slightly between June 30 and September 15. All accessions contained adequate Ca, Mg, and Mn levels in the forage throughout the spring, summer and fall. Phosphorus and Zn levels were inadequate for sheep during late summer and fall. Sulfur content was below recommended levels for sheep. Potassium levels dropped below recommended rates in some accessions on September 15, and certain accessions indicated a proneness towards inducing grass tetany in early spring based on K: (Ca + Mg) ratios. Copper levels were adequate for sheep on June 30, but 10 of 14 accessions were below recommended levels on September 15. When preference is considered without interference from seedstalks, all accessions were preferred similarly by sheep. However, preference decreased as numbers of seedstalks increased. Burning in mid-March removed dead standing seedstalks and litter providing more accessible forage, but tended to aggravate the problem by increasing the number of new seedstalks. Heavy use in the spring may reduce flowering, and produce a greater proportion of vegetative stems. An index based on leaf yields, crude protein content, and sheep preference was used to rank species. This index ranked the Russian wildrye (Bozoisky-Select) first followed by RWR-V13 second.
  • Vegetation and Soil Responses to Cattle Grazing Systems in the Texas Rolling Plains

    Wood, M. K.; Blackburn, W. H. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
    The influence of cattle grazing on selected vegetation and soil parameters were evaluated on a clay flat range site with shrub zonal, midgrass, and shortgrass communities in the Rolling Plains near Throckmorton, Texas. Measurements were made on one pasture of each treatment during 1977 following 4 to 20 years of grazing treatments. Heavy, continuous cattle grazing had more area occupied by the shortgrass community than midgrass community. Heavily grazed pastures were generally dominated by the shortgrass community, with midgrasses, depending on the degree of utilization, restricted to the shrub zonal community. Conversely, cattle exclosures had no shortgrass community, and deferred-rotation and moderately stocked continuously grazed systems had much midgrass community with the shortgrass community occupying only 30% of the area, thus increasing range productivity. Vegetation and soil parameters within the high intensity, low frequency and heavily stocked, continuously grazed pastures tended to be similar for the midgrass and shortgrass communities, but the shrub zonal community was generally different. Vegetation and soil parameters in the midgrass community of the moderately stocked, continuously grazed treatment were generally similar to shrub zonal and different from shortgrass communities. Vegetation and soil variables in the exclosures and deferred-rotation treatments were generally similar among the midgrass and shrub zonal communities; however, they differed from the shortgrass communities.
  • Stem-Diameter Age Relationships of Tamarix ramosissima in Central Utah

    Brotherson, J. D.; Carman, J. G.; Szyska, L. A. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
    The stem-diameter age relationships of salt cedar from 15 study sites in central Utah were investigated. Age prediction equations were generated and found significant (p<.001). Within restricted geographic areas the stem ages of salt cedar could be estimated with fair reliability, but with substantial geographic separation results were less accurate. The impact of salt cedar invasion over prolonged periods of time was also assessed. Results indicated that the longer the community has been occupied by salt cedar the more xeric the habitat becomes.
  • Spanish Goat Diets on Mixed-Brush Rangeland in the South Texas Plains

    Warren, L. E.; Ueckert, D. N.; Shelton, M.; Chamrad, A. D. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
    Microhistological analysis of feces from Spanish goats (Capra hircus) grazing in a mixed-brush complex in the South Texas Plains indicated that shrubs were their major foods during autumn, winter, and summer. Grasses were the major diet item during spring. Forbs, which were relatively scarce due to poor growing conditions during the 13-month study, were of minor importance in goat diets. The importance in Spanish goat diets of several problem brush species, including blackbrush acacia (Acacia rigidula), condalias (Condalia spp.), guajillo (Acacia berlandieri), guayacan (Porliera angustifolia), and wolfberry (Lycium berlandieri), suggests a potential for utilizing these animals in conjunction with other brush management practices for more effective shrub control and for increasing efficiency of forage utilization on mixed-brush rangeland.
  • Soil and Nitrogen Loss from Oregon Lands Occupied by Three Subspecies of Big Sagebrush

    Swanson, S. R.; Buckhouse, J. C. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
    Measurements of runoff and soil loss from simulated high-intensity rainstorms are reported for shrub interspaces of 3 sites occupied by each of 3 subspecies of Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush) in each of 4 locations in eastern Oregon. A. tridentata ssp. wyomingensis sites as a group had significantly higher soil loss than A. tridentata ssp. vaseyana sites. Comparisons of means within locations showed nonsignificant differences between land supporting big sagebrush subspecies except at Frenchglen. Soil loss was positively correlated with runoff, percent bare ground, and vesicular soil porosity; but it was negatively correlated with medium and coarse sand and coarse fragments in the surface soil and with organic ground cover. Aridisols lost more soil than Mollisols. Habitat types did not appear useful for indexing soil loss from these sites. Surface soil morphology, however, correlated with large significant differences in soil loss and may be a useful index. Organic and ammonium nitrogen loss was not correlated with a subspecies of A. tridentata, but did correlate with soil erosion and many of the soil features that affect soil erosion. Amounts of nitrogen lost do not appear to be critical.
  • Small Mammal Abundance on Native and Improved Foothill Ranges, Utah

    Smith, C. B.; Urness, P. J. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
    Small mammal populations were sampled annually over 4 years in native plant communities and improved rangeland types. All species of rodents were relatively less abundant where western wheatgrass was the dominant vegetation, but other differences among types were specific to individual species. Due to species-specific habitat preferences, total rodent numbers were highest where both sagebrush and seeded vegetation occurred together, and total rodent biomass was slightly greater along this ecotone than in a pure sagebrush type. Small-scale type conversion projects designed to increase the diversity of seeded and native stands may maintain or increase rodent abundance where species with such dissimilar habitat requirements occur.
  • Shoot Production and Biomass Transfer of Big Sacaton [Sporobolus wrightii]

    Cox, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
    The annual pattern of above-ground live biomass, recent dead standing biomass, old dead standing biomass, and standing crop of big sacaton (Sporobolus wrightii Monro) grassland community in semiarid Arizona was studied over a 3-year period. Live biomass was produced throughout the year but peak production, over the 3 years, was in August. Peak biomass production was 296 g m-2 in 1 wet summer and averaged 133 g m-2 over 2 dry summers. Recent dead standing biomass was greatest in spring and least in summer, over the 3 years. Transfer of recent dead standing biomass to old dead standing biomass was precipitation and temperature dependent. Old dead standing biomass was greatest in summer, least in winter, and was primarily composed of dead seed stalks. Livestock management of big sacaton grasslands should possibly be distinct from adjacent upland areas.
  • Prediction of Sediment Yield from Southern Plains Grasslands with the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation

    Smith, S. J.; Williams, J. R.; Menzel, R. G.; Coleman, G. A. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
    Amounts of sediment per runoff event from grassland watersheds in the Texas Blackland Prairie, Southern High Plains, Central Rolling Red Prairies, and Central Rolling Red Plains land resource areas of Oklahoma and Texas were predicted using the modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE). In this equation, Y = 11.8(Qqp)^0.56 KCPSL where Y = sediment yield in metric tons, Q = runoff volume in m3, qp = peak runoff rate in m3/sec, K = soil erodibility factor, C = crop management factor, P = erosion control-practice factor, and SL = slope length, gradient factor. Periods of study were 3 to 5 years and included treatments involving grazing density, fertilization, cultivation, and burning. Over the range of watersheds, average measured sediment yield varied from less than 10 to more than 800 kg/ha/event. In most cases, the predicted values compared favorably to the field measured values.
  • Persistence and Colonizing Ability of Rabbitbrush Collections in a Common Garden

    Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A.; Kay, B. L. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
    Collections of 4 subspecies of both green and gray rabbitbrush [Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus (Hook.) Nutt. and C. nauseosus (Pallas) Britton] were grown for 10 years in a common garden located in northwest Nevada. Generally, the green rabbitbrush collections did not persist as long as the gray rabbitbrush collections. C. viscidiflorus spp. pumilus (Nutt.) Hall & Clem. had poor initial establishment and the shortest persistence of any collection tested. Only plants of C. viscidiflorus spp. latifolius (D.C. Eat.) Hall & Clem. persisted for 10 years. Among the gray rabbitbrush collections, there was considerable variation in persistence within subspecies. Plants of C. nauseosus ssp. salicifolius (Rydberg) Hall & Clem. were heavily utilized by jackrabbits (Lepus californicus). Plants of the various subspecies of green rabbitbrush were apparently never browsed by jackrabbits. Seedlings of gray rabbitbrush established naturally in the garden, especially in the plots of gray rabbitbrush.
  • Herbaceous Vegetation-Lotebush (Ziziphus obtusifolia (T. & G.) Gray var. obtusifolia) Interactions in North Texas

    Foster, M. A.; Scifres, C. J.; Jacoby, P. W. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
    Basal cover and standing crop of herbaceous vegetation were measured during 1979 and 1980 at 0.3-m intervals along transects radiating from individual lotebush canopies in each cardinal direction. Basal covers and standing crops were generally least near the shrubs, regardless of season. However, buffalograss was less abundant in the shrub-free zones than near the lotebush plants. Texas wintergrass basal cover and standing crop were greatest in shrub-free areas except at the north and east driplines, where environmental conditions were apparently ameliorated by the lotebushes. Japanese brome and sand dropseed were most abundant in those zones where buffalograss and Texas wintergrass influences were least. These results indicate that lotebush has a minimal influence on grass cover, and that the major impact is concentrated beneath the shrub canopies.
  • Habitat Relations of Cercocarpus montanus (true mountain mahogany) in Central Utah

    Brotherson, J. D.; Anderson, D. L.; Szyska, L. A. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
    True mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus Raf.) and its habitats were studied in the canyons and foothills of the Wasatch Mountains of Central Utah. Twenty populations were selected and sampled for various biotic and abiotic environmental variables. All study sites contained true mountain mahogany as a dominant or subdominant plant. The communities are shrub dominated with other plant life forms contributing little to the total cover of the sites. The more northern exposed sites appear to be undergoing succession while the more southern exposures seem more stable.
  • Grazing Effects Oo Mycorrhizal Colonization and Floristic Composition of the Vegetation on a Semiarid Range in Northern Nevada

    Bethlenfalvay, G. J.; Dakessian, S. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
    The effect of grazing on the colonization of range plants by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi was investigated within an exclosure and on degraded Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) rangelands at Medell Flat, near Reno, Nev. Implications of the interaction between mycorrhizae and grazing, relevant to the ecology and management of rangelands, are discussed. Density of forage grasses and their colonization by VAM fungi was significantly reduced as a result of grazing, in some cases by more than 50%. No differences in colonization were found in forage or nonforage broadleaf plants. A significant shift in the floristic composition and density of range plants occurred as a result of the presence or absence of grazing pressure. The decrease in VAM-fungal colonization of grasses under grazing is ascribed to a decrease in leaf areas and an increase in root to shoot ratios-conditions which result in decreased source capacity and increased sink demand.
  • Glandular Trichomes: A Helpful Taxonomic Character for Artemisia nova (Black Sagebrush)

    Kelsey, R. G. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
    The visibility of leaf glandular trichomes with 10× magnification was examined for 7 sagebrush taxa. In 75% of the Artemisia nova plants the glands were easily observed protruding through a layer of nonglandular trichomes (hairs). On A. arbuscula and the 3 subspecies of A. tridentata the glands were covered by the hairs and were not visible. These structures can be observed in the field with a hand lens and provide a supportive characteristic for the identification of A. nova.
  • Effects of Livestock Grazing on Sediment Production, Edwards Plateau of Texas

    McCalla, G. R.; Blackburn, W. H.; Merrill, L. B. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
    The influence of short duration grazing (SDG), moderate continuous grazing (MCG), heavy continuous grazing (HCG), and grazing exclusion on sediment production of midgrass and shortgrass-dominated communities was evaluated over a 20-month period on the Texas Agricultural Research Station located near Sonora in the Edwards Plateau, Texas. A combination of cattle, sheep, and goats was used in each grazing treatment. Sediment production was consistently less from the midgrass (bunchgrass) than from the shortgrass (sodgrass) community. The HCG pasture was severely overgrazed and resulted in excessive soil loss. The midgrasses in this pasture were destroyed after 26 months of over-grazing. Sediment production from the SDG pasture stocked at double the recommended rate increased during the study period. The SDG pasture, by the end of the study, had lost more sediment from both the midgrass- and shortgrass-dominated communities than the MCG pasture. Sediment loss from the midgrass community in the MCG pasture was consistently low during the study; however, sediment production from the shortgrass community decreased in the MCG pasture. Sediment production from the midgrass community in the non-grazed pasture remained consistently low throughout the study, but the shortgrass community showed a strong decrease in sediment loss during the study.
  • Dry Season Forage Selection by Alpaca (Lama pacos) in Southern Peru

    Bryant, F. C.; Farfan, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
    Two hundred eighty adult female alpacas (Lama pacos) and 200 tui alpacas (young alpacas 3-7 months of age) were grazed on a Festuca-Calamagrostis association at the South American Camelids Research Station, La Raya, Peru, during the dry season and early wet season of 1981 (June-December). Vegetation was sampled monthly during this period for herbage yield by species. Fecal material from both adult female alpaca and tui alpaca was collected monthly for microhistological analyses of food habits. Alpacas were primarily grazers rather than forb eaters during the dry season and early wet period of 1981. Forage classes consumed were different for adult and tui alpaca. Tui alpaca consumed more grass-like plants and forbs than adults during the driest months. Diet indices revealed the following as highly selected, common forage species: Eleocharis albibracteata, Poa. sp., Calamagrostis heterophylla, C. vicunarum, Alchemilla pinnata, Muhlenbergia fastigiata, and Carex spp. Highly selected, trace species were P. gymnantha, M. peruviana, Stipa brachiphylla, Ranunculus limoselloides, and Trifolium amabile. Festuca dolichophylla had been considered by range managers as highly preferred species overall. However, because it was the most abundant species (73% of the total forage yield), F. dolichophylla had a low selection index during the dry season. Alpacas consumed remarkable quantities of grass seeds (up to 20% of the diet) during the driest months of the year, apparently compensating for low quality forage.
  • Controlling Individual Junipers and Oaks with Pelleted Picloram

    Johnsen, T. N.; Dalen, R. S. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
    Applications of pelleted picloram to individual plants of alligator juniper, one-seed juniper, Utah juniper, gambel oak, and shrub live oak in north central Arizona showed that a high rate application, 3.6 g acid equivalent (a.e.) picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) per meter of juniper height or meter2 of oak clump crown cover, controlled each of the species. However, only Utah and alligator junipers were consistently controlled by lower rates, 1.8 g a.e. or less per unit of plant height. Regression formulas were developed to determine estimates of the amount of herbicide needed for effective control. Large scale pilot trials were done to expand application of results.
  • Cattle Diets on Seeded Clearcut Areas in Central Interior British Columbia

    Quinton, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
    The bite count technique was used to estimate the botanical composition of cattle diets for deferred rotation and continuous grazing systems on seeded forest range previously clearcut of spruce and pine. There was more variability in diets among grazing periods and years within grazing systems than between grazing systems. Grass, forbs, and shrubs averaged 58.5%, 33.5%, and 9% of the diet, respectively. Orchardgrass, timothy, bromegrass, horsetail, lupine, aster and willow were the major forage species consumed. Diets changed moderately from July through August with a more pronounced change in September. With advanced maturity of grass during dry years, forb usage increased, with some instances of use as high as 54% of the diet.
  • Botanical Composition of Diets of Cattle Grazing South Florida Rangeland

    Kalmbacher, R. S.; Long, K. R.; Johnson, M. K.; Martin, F. G. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
    The botanical composition of the diets of 5 esophageal-fistulated steers in summer (June to August) and winter (January to March) on a south Florida range was studied in order to point out those plants or groups of plants that warrant management. Diets of steers grazing 3 ecosystems were compared: pine palmetto (Typic and Arenic Haplaquod soils), fresh-water marsh (Terric Medisaprist soil), and transition area around the marsh (Spodic Psammaquent soil). In addition we wanted to know if diets of steers regrazing a summer-grazed pasture in the winter were the same as diets from a pasture grazed only in the winter. A total of 320 diet samples were analyzed microhistologically, and out of 109 species, steers were found to eat 42 species. Steer diets were significantly different between summer and winter, while diets were similar on the regrazed-winter and winter-only pasture. Differences between summer and winter diets were mainly a decrease in Panicum hemitomon on the marsh and a decrease in Lachnanthes caroliniana in the winter diets on the pine-palmetto area, an increase in the proportion of shrubs in the winter diet on the pine-palmetto area, and an increase in Xyris spp. and Solidago fistulosa in the late-winter on the marsh and the transition area around the pond. These diet changes were the result of changes in plant availability or palatability, which was the case with P. hemitomon. These data indicated that Andropogon spp. and Schizachyrium stoloniferum were major components of the pine-palmetto area diet of cattle and should receive management to increase their yields. Forbs, though seasonally available, should be encouraged by shrub control, careful use of selective herbicides, and promotion of natural reseeding. Shrubs, especially Serenoa repens and Ilex glabra should be available as winter foods.
  • Black-Tailed Prairie Dog Food Habits and Forage Relationships in Western South Dakota [Cynomys Ludovicianus]

    Uresk, D. W. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
    Four plants made up 65% of items in fecal pellets of the black-tailed prairie dog in western South Dakota. These important forages in order of significance were sand dropseed, sun sedge, blue grama, and wheatgrasses. Grasses made up 87% of the total diet, while forbs comprised 12%. Shrubs, arthropods, and seeds made up 1% or less of the diet. Preference indices were highest for ring muhly, green needlegrass, and sand dropseed. Relationships of diets to available forage was weak, having an average similarity of 25%; rank-order correlations were nonsignificant, indicating that black-tailed prairie dogs are selective feeders.

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