• Germination of Texas Persimmon Seed

      Everitt, J. H. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      Seed of Texas persimmon germinated in excess of 90% at constant temperatures from 20 to 30 degrees C, and in an alternating temperature regime of 20-30 degrees C. Seeds germinated equally well in light and dark. No seed dormancy mechanisms were observed, and viability was not reduced after storage at room conditions for 2 years. Germination percentages of seeds collected from 2 contrasting range sites did not differ. Germination did not differ over a broad range of pH values (4 to 11), but radicle elongation was inhibited at pH 11. Germination and radicle length were sensitive to osmotic potentials of 0.2 MPa or more, and no seed germinated at 1.2 MPa. Germination was restricted in a 5 g/l NaCl solution and nearly ceased at 10 g/l NaCl. Radicle length was more sensitive to NaCl solutions than was germination. Ion toxicity of salt solutions appeared to be more detrimental to germination and radicle growth than the osmotic potential of salt solutions. Seeds were not dependent on soil cover for seedling establishment, but the highest emergence occurred when seeds were covered with 1 cm of soil. Percent of germination was not reduced by passage through the digestive tracts of coyotes.
    • Horses and Cattle Grazing on the Wyoming Red Desert, III

      Plumb, G. E.; Krysl, L. J.; Hubbert, M. E.; Smith, M. A.; Waggoner, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      Vegetative cover losses due to trampling near watering sites in the summer and winter are compared for horses grazed alone, cattle grazed alone and horses and cattle grazed in combination. There were significant differences (p<.05) found in the rates of total cover loss as a function of distance to water in both the summer and winter. Grasses sustained heavy trampling losses in all treatments in both seasons. Forbs sustained heavy losses in all treatments during summer. Shrub losses were moderate to low in all treatments during both seasons. Total cover loss was similar in all summer and winter treatments.
    • Influence of Range Seeding on Rodent Populations in the Interior of British Columbia

      Sullivan, T. P.; Sullivan, D. S. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      This study was designed to determine the influence of range seeding on rodent populations inhabiting cutover lodgepole pine forest land in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. Both deer mice and voles were strongly attracted to an area seeded with grass mixture in the early spring, even though overwinter mortality had dramatically reduced the average density to ≤2 animals/ha. Five rodents as well as several seed-eating birds appeared on this seeded area while no animals were recorded on a nearby control. Subsequent seeding experiments in the summer also produced significant increases (2 to 2.2 times) in rodent populations. Success of range seeding in B.C. can be quite variable, possibly due to seed predation by mice and voles. Consequently, both the quality and quantity of seed remaining for germination and forage production may be radically altered.
    • Livestock Grazing Influences on Community Structure, Fire Intensity, and Fire Frequency within the Douglas-Fir/Ninebark Habitat Type

      Zimmerman, G. T.; Neuenschwander, L. F. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      Influences of livestock grazing on community structure, fire intensity, and normal fire frequency in the Douglas-fir/ninebark (Pseudotsuga menziesii/Physocarpus malvaceus) habitat type were studied at the University of Idaho's experimental forest in northern Idaho. Livestock grazing caused increased tree numbers, decreased production, cover, and frequency of major palatable grasses, and altered dominance of shrub and forb species. Grazing influences on community structure were increased accumulation of downed woody fuel in every size class, increased forest floor duff, and decreased herbaceous fuels. Livestock grazing influences were discussed in light of their significance in potential fire intensity and fire frequency in Douglas-fir forest communities.
    • Repellent Effects on Distribution of Steers on Native Range

      Engle, D. M.; Schimmel, J. G. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      Range livestock production and uniform use of ranges are often limited by poor distribution of livestock over the range. A repellent was applied to preferred grazing areas (subirrigated range sites) of a mixed prairie range in northcentral South Dakota. Cow chips were used as a measure of occupation of yearling steers on sites where the repellent was applied. Comparison sites did not receive a repellent application. There was no significant difference in chip numbers between the 2 treatments. However, there was a nonsignificant short-term decline in cow chips deposited on repellent-sprayed subirrigated sites. Steers appeared to be marginally displaced from the sprayed subirrigated sites to adjacent unsprayed silty range sites.
    • Impact of Presowing Seed Treatments, Temperature and Seed Coats on Germination of Velvet Bundleflower

      Haferkamp, M. R.; Kissock, D. C.; Webster, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      Seeds with both smooth and rough, apparently scarified, seed coats occur in harvested samples of velvet bundleflower (Desmanthus velutinus Scheele.). To determine the degree of scarification, germination responses of rough and smooth seeds were investigated at 4 night/day temperature regimes, 5/15 degrees C, 10/20 degrees C, 15/25 degrees C, and 20/30 degrees C with a 12-hour photoperiod during the high temperature and with 3 seed treatments, cutting, acid scarification and hot water soak. Rough seed coats appear to be caused by peeling of the cuticular layer on the seed surface. Moisture was imbibed more rapidly by smooth seeds, and total germination of smooth seeds was 31% without treatment, 4 times greater than rough seed germination. Treatments increased germination of smooth seeds two- to four- fold and rough seeds over 10-fold. After treatment, rough seeds germinated significantly (P<.05) better than smooth seeds at all temperature regimes except 5/15 degrees C. Cut and scarified seeds generally germinated more rapidly than water-treated seeds, but total germination was similar for all treatments at warmer temperatures. Germination was only 31% at 5/15 degrees C.
    • Stream Water Quality as Influenced by Beaver within Grazing Systems in Wyoming

      Skinner, Q. D.; Speck, J. E.; Smith, M.; Adams, J. C. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      Stream water flowing from watersheds subjected to continuous and deferred rotation grazing by livestock was sampled to enumerate bacteria for detecting differences between grazing treatments and streams. Fecal cliforms, fecal streptococci, total counts at 20 degrees C, and bacteria capable of fluorescing under long wave radiation were selected as indicators of pollution. The study was conducted two summers, 1979 and 1980, on mountain rangeland near Laramie, Wyo. Bacteria counts for different indicator groups varied in their ability to detect change between grazing treatments as well as between streams. Fluorescing bacteria and total counts were of little value in explaining nonpoint source pollution whereas fecal coliform and streptococci were. Variation in counts of fecal coliform and streptococci could not be fully accounted for by differences in grazing management but is partially explained by beaver damming of stream flow. Given that beaver impoundment of selected stream reaches is equal, variation in nonpoint pollution may be caused by differences in grazing treatments.
    • Water Stress of Tallgrass Prairie Plants in Central Oklahoma

      Hake, D. R.; Powell, J.; McPherson, J. K.; Claypool, P. L.; Dunn, G. L. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      The predawn xylem water potentials of Andropogon gerardi, Schizachyrium scoparium, Panicum oligosanthes, Sporobolus asper, Ambroisia psilostachya, Psoralea tenuiflora and Solanum eleagnifolium were determined by the pressure equilibration chamber method during the 1980 growing season in a Central Oklahoma tallgrass prairie. Water potentials declined rapidly after June indicating high levels of water stress in all species. The decline in plant water potential for Schizachyrium scoparium, and to a lesser extent, Panicum oligosanthes, was much greater than that for the other 5 species. Andropogon gerardi apparently avoids dehydration by having a deep root system, whereas Schizachyrium scoparium survives in spite of a high degree of dehydration. Aboveground live biomasses declined sharply at about the same time plant water potential values decreased sharply. Results indicate plant water potential data are useful for interpreting range plant growth responses and predicting adaptability of species to harsh growing conditions.
    • Costs and Returns of Angora Goat Enterprises with and without Coyote predation

      Scrivner, J. H.; Conner, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      During 1980, 101 ranchers in 3 counties (Bosque, Hamilton, and Coryell) in Texas, were interviewed regarding livestock losses and expenses resulting from methods used to reduce predation. Using data from the survey and other primary and secondary sources, 2 cost/return budgets were developed for nanny (female), wether (castrated males), and nanny/wether goat operations typical to the study area. First, budgets representing the 3 types of operations in the absence of predation were developed. Then, using an average of the predation rates and levels of prevention practices revealed by the survey, budgets were developed to represent the 3 types of operations with predation. Predation reduced gross revenues for nanny, nanny/wether, and wether goat operations by 22.2%, 14.3%, and 13.5%, respectively, when predation was a problem. Fewer saleable goats and pounds of mohair were the major reasons for this decrease in revenues. Also, when predation was a problem, operational costs were increased by 32.8%, 17.7%, and 16.4% for nanny, nanny/wether, and wether goat operations, respectively. Factors which accounted for the majority of this increase included extra feed, travel expenses, and labor primarily associated with predator control efforts and penning, kidding, and extra surveillance of goats because of the presence of predators. The results illustrate the importance of costs due to attempts to reduce predation. These costs may equal or exceed the value of animals killed by predators; however, without these added costs predation losses likely would be greater.
    • Early Weaning and Part-Year Confinement of Cattle on Arid Rangelands of the Southwest

      Herbel, C. H.; Wallace, J. D.; Finkner, M. D.; Yarbrough, C. C. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      This study compared part-year confinement of cows with yearlong placement on rangeland and weaning calves in late May with regular weaning in mid-October. Weaning rates tended to be higher with part-year confinement than with yearlong placement on rangeland (86% vs. 72%) and with early weaning in May than with regular weaning in October (86% vs. 72%). There were significant year effects in weaning weights with the lowest weights in drought years. The production per cow exposed tended to be higher with part-year confinement than with yearlong placement on rangeland (134 kg vs. 110 kg), and with regular weaning than with early weaning of calves (156 kg vs. 88 kg). Part-year confinement of cows and early weaning of calves are useful tools for the range manager in droughty years.
    • Economic Evaluation of Chemical Mesquite Control Using 2,4,5-T

      Ethridge, D. E.; Dahl, B. E.; Sosebee, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      Honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa) represents the most severe brush problem in the Texas Rolling Plains. Substantial research has been conducted on control methods, but economic analysis has been limited. The purpose of this study was to develop an evaluation model and evaluate the economic feasibility of 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid) for honey mesquite control in the Rolling Plains. The model is used to estimate the net present value of added grass production from treatment with 2,4,5-T over the life of the treatment; the central part of the model is the estimated herbage yield response function. The gross value of treatment with 2,4,5-T was estimated using different combinations of livestock price, top kill, canopy cover, and discount rate. Of the situations analyzed, gross value of mesquite control varied from a low of $22/ha to over $73/ha. These returns compare to current treatment costs of $22-25/ha.
    • Economic Evaluation of Fire-Based Improvement Systems for Macartney Rose

      Garoian, L.; Conner, J. R.; Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      Integration of prescribed burns into management systems with herbicide and mechanical controls is proposed as an economically efficient means of improving the productivity of Macartney rose infested rangeland. Roller crushing followed by prescribed burns produce the highest rate of return (15%) and the lowest maximum investment. However, because of the great regrowth potential of the brush, this low-intensity system is also associated with the greatest risk. Systems which utilize initial mechanical controls followed by aerial application of 2,4,5-T+ picloram and maintenance treatments of prescribed burning and/or individual-plant treatments with herbicides are less risky but more capital intensive. Internal rates of return for the more intensive treatments range from 11.2 to 11.7%. Fire-based systems increase the rate of return by as much as 13.8% over systems with the same initial treatment but without prescribed burning.
    • Comparative Diets of Rambouillet, Barbado, and Karakul Sheep and Spanish and Angora Goats

      Warren, L. E.; Ueckert, D. N.; Shelton, J. M. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      Diets of Rambouillet, Karakul, and Barbado sheep (Ovis aries) and Spanish and Angora goats (Capra hircus) grazing in 3 plant communities in western Texas were determined by microhistological analysis of fecal samples. Grasses were commonly the major foods of all sheep breeds as well as Angora goats. Forbs were major diet items of all breeds of sheep and goats when they were readily available. Spanish goats, and to a lesser extent Angora goats, relied heavily on browse. Barbado sheep consumed more browse than did Rambouillet or Karakul sheep. Diets of Rambouillet and Karakul sheep overlapped considerably, whereas diets of Rambouillet sheep and Spanish goats were quite dissimilar. Barbado sheep appeared to occupy a food niche intermediate between that of the goats and the other sheep breeds. Spanish and Angora goats exhibited the strongest tendency and Karakul sheep exhibited the least tendency to selectively graze. Neither Barbado nor Karakul sheep consumed sufficient amounts of undesirable shrubs to be considered valuable for brush suppression.
    • Control of Leafy Spurge in Pastures Using Dicamba and 2,4-D

      Chow, P. N. P. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      In the greenhouse, dicamba amine (dimethylamine of 3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid) at 1.1 and 2.2 kg/ha (a.i.) controlled young seedlings of leafy spurge (Euphorbia escula L.) and prevented shoot formation 66 days after herbicide application. The 2,4-D amine (dimethylamine of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) did not effectively control the growth of leafy spurge at 0.6 and 1.1 kg/ha, but gave good control at 2.2 kg/ha. In a separate test, dicamba at 2.2 kg/ha controlled growth of shoots and roots of 100-day-old stands of leafy spurge more effectively than 2,4-D at the same rate. Dicamba killed mother stands and prevented the production of new shoots, whereas 2,4-D suppressed root growth of mother stands but induced more new shoot growth than found in untreated check plants. In a 5-year (1977-1981) field study (Brandon, Manitoba) of naturally established leafy spurge in a 'Carlton' smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) pasture, dicamba at 2.2 kg/ha, applied each year from 1977 to 1979, controlled leafy spurge satisfactorily and resulted in increased smooth brome yield. The 2,4-D at 2.2 kg/ha controlled the weed satisfactorily in 1977 and 1979, but not in 1978 and 1981. The mixture of 2,4-D (2.2 kg/ha) and dicamba (1.1 kg/ha) improved weed control and increased smooth brome yield. The smooth brome yield was inversely proportional to leafy spurge control. Under field conditions from 1978 to 1979, 14C-dicamba in the plant translocated to the lower part of stems and accumulated in roots of established leafy spurge more readily than did 14C-2,4-D, measured at 7, 47 and 350 days after herbicide application. It was concluded tht dicamba applied each year gave better spurge control than 2,4-D and resulted in a large yield increase of smooth brome due to killing young seedlings and mother stands. This prevented the spread of root system and seed multiplication of leafy spurge on pasture.
    • Control of Aspen Regrowth by Grazing with Cattle

      Fitzgerald, R. D.; Bailey, A. W. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      Aspen (Populus tremuloides) forest occupies potentially useful grazing land in the aspen parkland of western Canada, and is expanding. The replacement of forest with grassland involves the removal of trees and the control of suckers which invariably emerge following overstory removal. The control of aspen suckers by heavy browsing with cattle may be a useful technique especially in the presence of logs and stumps. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of browsing by cattle, aspen forest was burned and seeded to forages, after which the regrowth was heavily grazed by cattle either after emergence of suckers (early) or just prior to leaf fall (late). Grazing treatments were conducted over two growing seasons. A single heavy late grazing practically eliminated aspen regeneration, and two quite different plant communities resulted from the two grazing regimes. After the first year, the plant biomass in early-grazed plots consisted of 29% aspen and 28% grass (mainly sown species), while late-grazed plots had only 2.5% aspen and 18% grass, with a higher proportion of shrubs, especially snowberry. Trends established after the first year were still evident after the second year. The results indicated that heavy browsing by cattle in August may be an effective technique for control of aspen suckers following initial top kill.
    • Comparison of Grazed and Protected Mountain Steppe Rangeland in Ulukisla, Turkey

      Tukel, T. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      A typical steppe range having a semiarid climate at an altitude of about 1,350 m was studied to determine the yield potential of an area protected from grazing for a 30-year period representing about 36,690 ha rangeland. This study area has a class VII capability and was compared with a public grazing area on the immediate vicinity. Total ground cover, composition, and dry forage yields were significantly decreased on the continuously grazed public ranges. Two grasses (Festuca ovina and Poa bulbosa var. vivipara), one shrub (Salvia criptantha) and a forb species (Asphodeline isthmocarpa) were the main plants causing the difference in the ground cover. The grazed and ungrazed ranges did not differ significantly in infiltration rate. However, the southerly aspect of the protected range had a higher infiltration rate than the other aspects.
    • Herbage Yields and Water-use Efficiency on a Loamy Site as Affected by Tillage, Mulch, and Seeding Treatments

      Berg, W. A.; Sims, P. L. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      The effects of surface treatments alone and with seeding of an introduced bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum) on herbage yields and water-use efficiency on a loamy range site in poor condition were studied. The study was in a 560-mm average annual precipitation area in the Southern Great Plains. Prior to treatment, buffalo-grass (Buchloe dactyloides) and silver bluestem (Bothriochloa saccharoides) produced the bulk of the herbage on the site. Disking or furrowing the native range produced no measureable change in herbage yields or in water-use efficiency as compared to no treatment (control) over the 5-year study period. Furrowing plus sand fill in the furrows or a rock mulch resulted in greater (P<.05) herbage yields than from the control. However, most of the increased yield was by silver bluestem, a species that is ranked low in palatability. Establishment of the introduced bluestem 'Plains' increased herbage yield 2- to 4-fold and significantly increased water-use efficiency.
    • Acceptable Block Beef from Steers Grazing Range and Crop Forages

      Cook, C. W.; Cramer, D. A.; Rittenhouse, L. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      Steers from 3 frame sizes were raised from birth to slaughter under different feed regimens including raised on the range to 18 months of age, raised on the range along with complementary forages to 18 months of age, and raised on the range to 18 months of age with subsequent concentrate feeding for 66 days. Quality grade, marbling, rib-eye area, fat thickness, and intramuscular fat were significantly higher for grain fed animals than for the grazing animals. There were no significant differences in overall palatability traits for grazing steers and grain fed steers. Small-frame steers gained less per day but had higher finish at comparable ages and period of treatment than large-frame steers. Acceptable primal cuts can be produced from grazing alone but the quality grade is higher for grain-fed animals. It was concluded that future beef production may use far more range and forage because of higher grain prices and an increasing demand for leaner meat by the consumer.
    • Edaphic and Microclimate Factors Affecting Tobosagrass Regrowth after Fire

      Neuenschwander, L. F.; Wright, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      The plant-air layer and soil surface structure affect regrowth succession following burning in the tobosagrass (Hilaria mutica)-mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) community in West Texas by altering the microenvironment. Data are presented for the plant-air layer and the soil surface structure as they are related to the recovery of the tobosagrass and the successional response of the annuals. Changes in plant-air layer and the soil surface structure alter the microenvironment and affect plant growth and species composition. A conceptual model is developed illustrating vegetational development as affected by the plant-air layer and the soil surface structure.