Welcome to the Rangeland Ecology & Management archives. The journal Rangeland Ecology & Management (RE&M; v58, 2005-present) is the successor to the Journal of Range Management (JRM; v. 1-57, 1948-2004.) The archives provide public access, in a "rolling window" agreement with the Society for Range Management, to both titles (JRM and RE&M), from v.1 up to five years from the present year.

The most recent years of RE&M are available through membership in the Society for Range Management (SRM). Membership in SRM is a means to access current information and dialogue on rangeland management.

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Print ISSN: 0022-409x

Online ISSN: 1550-7424


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  • Yield, Vigor, and Persistence of Sand Lovegrass (Eragrostis trichodes (Nutt.) Wood) Following Clipping Treatments

    Moser, L. E.; Perry, L. J. (Society for Range Management, 1983-03-01)
    Individual sand lovegrass [Eragrostis trichodes (Nutt.) Wood.] plants on a choppy sands range site in Nebraska's Sandhills were clipped with 7 different harvest regimes for 3 years to determine critical defoliation times. After 3 years unclipped plants had the greatest survival rate and plants harvested only once a year on June 10 or July 10 survived better than those with other harvest regimes. Top and root yields, new tiller counts, and total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) levels were all reduced severely with multiple harvests within one year. Sand lovegrass plants cannot tolerate close defoliation at anytime of the year although a single June defoliation appeared to be less detrimental than August defoliation. Sand lovegrass is difficult to manage when it makes up a small component of a pasture. Sand lovegrass will probably persist and yield best in a rotational grazing program where it is defoliated only once a year and some leaf area remains at the close of the grazing period. Plants are normally short lived so they should be managed to allow seed production periodically. A grazing management program necessary to maintain small amounts of sand lovegrass in a mixture may not be practical.
  • While-tailed Deer Food Habits and Nutritional Status as Affected by Grazing and Deer-Harvest Management

    Warren, R. J.; Krysl, L. J. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
    White-tailed deer were collected in 1979 and 1980 from two areas in central Texas to determine differences in diets and nutritional status between years, sexes, and areas. Area 1 was more heavily populated with white-tailed deer, exotic big game, and domestic livestock than Area 2. Differences in summer and fall precipitation levels between years were reflected in altered forb and browse consumption by deer as determined from rumen contents. Differences in forb selection, oak mast consumption, and juniper browse consumption were detected between areas and were considered evidence of differences in range condition between areas. White-tails obtained from Area 1 were older than those from Area 2, but were not significantly larger in carcass weights, which also reflected the lower range condition of Area 1. Crude protein levels of rumen contents were greater in females than males and were greater in deer obtained from Area 1 than Area 2. These differences in rumen protein resulted from differences in consumption of acorns, a highly preferred, but low protein food item. Kidney fat indices reflected differences in rainfall patterns between years. Native and exotic big game populations and livestock grazing must be controlled to maintain a high level of nutritional status in the economically important white-tailed deer of central Texas.
  • Vegetational Evaluation of Pinyon-Juniper Cabling in South-Central New Mexico

    Rippel, P.; Pieper, R. D.; Lymbery, G. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
    Vegetational comparisons were made between areas where pinyon-juniper vegetation had been cabled in 1954 and uncabled areas. Total tree density on the cabled areas was about 80% of that on control areas. Basal area and canopy cover of trees was substantially lower on control areas than on cabled areas. Rhus trilobata and Xanthocephalum sarothrae apparently were the only shrubby species that responded to the cabling treatment. Basal cover of Bouteloua gracilis, Eragrostis erosa, and Muhlenbergia pauciflora was significantly greater on the control areas than on the cabled area.
  • Use of Reciprocal Averaging Ordination for the Study of Range Condition Gradients in Grazed Ecosystems

    Hacker, R. B. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
    The use of a multivariate ordination procedure, Reciprocal Averaging, to study species responses to grazing along range condition gradients was investigated using both artificial and field data. Results suggest that the technique should be a useful aid in the elucidation of such responses and in the study of plant-environment relationships generally in grazed ecosystems.
  • Topographic and Habitat Use by Sympatric Barbary Sheep and Mule Deer in Palo Duro Canyon, Texas

    Simpson, C. D.; Gray, G. G. (Society for Range Management, 1983-03-01)
    The topographic distribution of sympatric populations of Barbary sheep and mule deer was studied in the Dry Creek branch (65 km2) of Palo Duro Canyon in the central Texas Panhandle from February 1977 through January 1979. Each of 529 Barbary sheep sightings and 337 mule deer sightings were recorded by topographic level and nonparmetric tests were used to evaluate the null hypothesis of no significant difference in distribution between Barbary sheep and mule deer in topographic level or habitat type. There was no significant difference between species in spatial usage on a monthly basis when sightings on Bluff Sites were compared with those on Level Sites. When sightings on High Sites were compared with those on Low Sites, distributional patterns were significantly different only for February and November. There were significant seasonal differences between species in distribution by habitat type during the autumn and spring, but the aggregate distribution of sightings suggested that overall usage of space was not significantly different. These findings, when considered with the results of comparative diet studies, indicate the possibility of competition for mutally preferred forage plants. Other implications are also discussed.
  • The Influence of Dietary Nitrogen Source and Drinking Water pH on Growth, Digestibility, and Nitrogen Metabolism in Lambs Fed a High Roughage Diet

    Galyean, M. L.; Morrical, D. G.; Hayes, R.; Caton, J. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
    The influence of drinking water pH and dietary nitrogen source on the growth and metabolism of young lambs fed a high roughage diet was examined in a series of trials. Two phases of a drylot feeding trial involved a comparison of diets in which all crude protein was derived from natural sources (NATURAL) or 25% of the crude protein equivalent was derived from urea (NPN). The third phase involved a comparison of NATURAL and NPN diets and drinking water of pH 5.5 to 6.0 or pH 9.0 to 9.5. Lambs tended to perform better on the NATURAL diet, largely due to increased feed consumption. Drinking water pH had no significant effects on performance. Twelve lambs were used in 3 successive metabolism trials. In trial 1 (NATURAL vs. NPN), no significant differences were observed in dry matter, organic matter, acid detergent fiber or cellulose digestibility. Nitrogen retention was similar for NPN-fed NATURAL-or NPN-fed lambs. Trials 2 and 3 compared NATURAL and NPN diets with pH 5.5 to 6.0 or pH 9.0 to 9.5 drinking water. Small but significant (P<.05) increases in dry matter, organic matter and cellulose digestion were observed with pH 9.0 to 9.5 drinking water in trial 2, and a similar effect was noted in NATURAL-fed lambs in trial 3. Nitrogen retention was not influenced by drinking water pH. These studies with high roughage diets indicate that drinking water pH would not appear to be a major concern in the management of rangeland ruminants.
  • Supplementation of Yearling Steers Grazing Fertilized and Unfertilized Northern Plains Rangeland

    Karn, J. F.; Lorenz, R. J. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
    Supplementation studies were conducted with yearling steers on a silty range site in central North Dakota, where yearly precipitation averaged 380 to 410 mm. The studies were conducted for 3 summers on both fertilized (45 kg N/ha) and unfertilized native pastures. Animal performance was compared to seasonal changes in the chemical composition of pasture samples collected with esophageal-fistulated steers. Chemical composition differences between diet samples from the fertilized and unfertilized pastures were inconsistent, but generally protein was higher and acid detergent fiber lower on the fertilized pasture. Supplementation with barley in the early summer resulted in little benefit, but supplementation with barley in the late summer, especially when pasture digestibility (in vitro) dropped to 50 to 52%, was beneficial on both the fertilized and unfertilized pastures. However, the response was not consistent between years. Barley supplementation appeared to be economically viable, but the feasibility of this practice will vary from year to year, depending on the price of barley relative to the price of steers. The results of protein supplementation were more erratic, possibly because of differences in precipitation patterns and hence plant growth between years.
  • Successional Trends in an Ungrazed, Arid Grassland Over a Decade

    Kleiner, E. F. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
    A study has been made of the vegetational condition of a formerly grazed area, Chesler Park, in Canyonlands National Park. A comparison was made with the same area 10 years earlier. The 10-year successional changes are also compared to baseline data of 10 years earlier from Virginia Park, an adjacent ungrazed area. Because of inaccessibility and long isolation from disturbances, Virginia Park is presumed to be in climax condition and is the control for this study. Chesler Park shows a successional trend after 10 years toward the vegetational condition of Virginia Park. This is exemplified, with only one major exception (Hilaria jamesii), by responses of the perennial grasses (Stipa comata, Oryzopsis hymenoides, Sporobolus cryptandrus, Bouteloua gracilis) and the cryptogamic community, particularly the moss, Tortula ruralis. Species frequency, cover, vegetational characteristics, and stand classification support this conclusion. Prevalence of perennial grasses has declined and cryptogamic species have increased significantly.
  • Spring Burning Effects on Redberry Juniper-Mixed Grass Habitats

    Steuter, A. A.; Wright, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-03-01)
    Habitat and plant species parameters were compared among untreated, chained, chained/burned, burned/chained, and burned/chained/reburned treatments on redberry juniper-mixed grass rangeland. Chaining followed by burning with a standardized fire plan in mid-March drastically decreased shrub and debris cover, while increasing percentage bare ground. Perennial grass yields were maintained or increased compared to previously chained or untreated areas following burning in a year of above-normal rainfall. Burning in a "dry" year reduced grass yields by 50% of that on areas chained only, but yields were only slightly less than on untreated areas. Grass species density was reduced for 2 growing seasons following burning. Burning greatly reduced annual forbs from March through June of a moist spring. Total forb densities on burned areas were generally similar to, or higher than, those on unburned treatments by July because of extended growth of perennial forbs. March burns appeared to have the most severe impact on the least desirable shrub (redberry juniper), grass (threeawn), and forb (common broomweed) species.
  • Soil Movement in Mesquite Dunelands and Former Grasslands of Southern New Mexico from 1933 to 1980

    Gibbens, R. P.; Tromble, J. M.; Hennessy, J. T.; Cardenas, M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-03-01)
    Soil levels were marked on grid and transect stakes in mesquite duneland and grassland areas at 3 sites on the Jornada Experimental Range in 1933 and 1935. Soil levels on one set of transect stakes were remeasured in 1950 and 1955. Remeasurement of soil levels at both transect and grid stakes in 1980 revealed that extensive soil movement had occurred during the intervening years. On a 259-ha site containing large mesquite dunes in 1935, maximum deposition and deflation was 86.9 and 64.6 cm, respectively, in 1980. There was a net gain of 1.9 cm in soil depth over the entire area. On a 259-ha site only partially occupied by mesquite dunes in 1933, there was a net loss of 4.6 cm in soil depth and mesquite dunes had completely occupied the site by 1980. On a transect established across a mesquite duneland-grassland ecotone in 1935, there was a net loss in soil depth of 3.4 cm. Mesquite dunes had completely occupied the former grassland and dune intercept increased from 34.9 m in 1935 to 149.6 m in 1980. Gross erosion rates on wind deflated areas were equivalent to 69 tonnes ha-1 yr-1 on the area of large mesquite dunes. On the area partially occupied by mesquite in 1935 the gross erosion rate was 52 tonnes ha-1 yr-1. At the ecotone transect gross erosion rates were 45, 101, and 40 tonnes ha-1 yr-1 for 1935-50, 1950-55, and 1955-80 periods, respectively.
  • Shade Intensity Influences the Nutrient Quality and Digestibility of Southern Deer Browse Leaves

    Blair, R. M.; Alcaniz, R.; Harrell, A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-03-01)
    One deciduous and two broadleaf evergreen species of palatable deer browse were grown under three controlled levels of light reduction: 0, 55, and 92% shade. Determinations of nutrient composition and dry-matter digestibility were conducted on leaf tissues collected 7 months each year for 2 years. Throughout the year crude protein and the cell-wall constituents, acid-detergent fiber and cellulose, increased as shade deepened. Phosphorus and calcium levels, generally highest under deep shade, showed little difference in content between moderate shade or full sunlight. Reduced light did not affect the acid-detergent lignin content in deciduous dogwood leaves, but, in evergreen yaupon and honeysuckle, lignin content was highest in deep shade. Highly digestible cell solubles and apparent digestible energy content declined as shade increased. Dry-matter digestibility also declined as shade deepened, except the dry matter of dogwood leaves, either in full sun or in moderate shade, did not differ in metabolic usefulness. Seasonally, all leaves were most nutritious and digestible during spring refoliation. In winter, abscised and weathered dogwood leaves afforded little food value to deer, but the quality and digestibility of yaupon and honeysuckle leaves remained relatively high during this stress period.
  • Seed Germination Characteristics of Three Woody Plant Species from South Texas

    Everitt, J. H. (Society for Range Management, 1983-03-01)
    The seed germination of blackbursh (Acacia rigidula), guajillo (Acacia berlandieri), and guayacan (Porlieria angustifolia) was investigated in relation to temperature and various regimes of light; substrate salinity, pH, and osmotic potential; seed age; and site of seed source. Germination of blackbrush seed is restricted by an impermeable seed coat. Mechanical scarification or soaking seeds in concentrated sulfuric acid for 15 to 30 min increased blackbrush germination from 74 to 86%. Blackbrush, guajillo, and guayacan seed germination was best at about 25 degrees C. Blackbrush seed germination was not reduced by alternating as opposed to constant temperatures but germination of guajillo and guayacan was generally lower under alternating temperatures. Light was not required for germination. No seed dormancy mechanisms were observed other than the hard seed coat of blackbrush, and seed viability was not significantly reduced after 1 year in storage at room conditions. Guajillo seed collected from plants growing on a sandy loam site had higher percent germination than those of plants growing on a more droughtly clay loam site. Germination of blackbrush and guayacan from different sites did not differ. Germination and radicle length of seedlings were relatively tolerant of extremes of pH. Guajillo germination was significantly reduced in a aqueous solution of 2,500 ppm NaCl. Germination of blackbrush seed was not affected by 10,000 ppm NaCl, but guayacan seed germination was reduced at this concentration. Radicle lengths of seedlings of all species were significantly reduced at 10,000 ppm NaCl. Seed germination and radicle length of all 3 species were progressively decreased by increasing moisture stress up to -12 bars. Emergence of blackbrush and guajillo seedlings was not dependent upon burial in the soil; germination and emergence were greatest on the soil surface or from a depth of 1 cm.
  • Seasonal Variation in the Ignition Time of Redberry Juniper in West Texas

    Bunting, S. C.; Wright, H. A.; Wallace, W. H. (Society for Range Management, 1983-03-01)
    Seasonal variations in the moisture content, relative humidity, and average daily mean temperatures in the month preceding an ignition treatment were highly correlated to the length of preheating time required for ignition of green redberry juniper leaves during dry years. Ether extractives had no significant effect on ignition of green juniper leaves. During wet years, no correlation was found between any of the variables measured and ignition of green foliage. The data indicated that ignition was more easily predicted when the precipitation was below average than when it was above average, and that ether extract content was not a factor in ignition under either moisture regime.
  • Seasonal Movements and Home Ranges of Feral Horse Bands in Wyoming's Red Desert

    Miller, R. (Society for Range Management, 1983-03-01)
    Feral horses have seasonal movement patterns which correspond to their use of water sources and areas near ridges. Home ranges of horse bands varied in size from 73 to 303 km2. Some bands shared use of a common home range. Those bands having a common range followed similar movement patterns within their home ranges. A herd is defined as a structured social unit made up of bands following movement patterns within a common home range.

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