• Management Considerations to Enhance Use of Stock Ponds by Waterfowl Broods

      Rumble, M. A.; Flake, L. D. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Use of 36 livestock watering ponds by mallard (Anas playtrhynchos), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and total broods was tested against 32 habitat variables from 1977 and 1978. Pond size, shallow water areas with submersed vegetation, number of natural wetlands in a 1.6-km radius, and emersed vegetation composed of smartweed (Polygonum spp.) and spikerush (Eleocharis spp.) were associated with increased use of ponds by total broods. When analyzed by species, small grain on the surrounding section and height and density of shoreline vegetation were associated with increased use of ponds by mallard broods; percent of shoreline with trees and percent arrowhead (Sagittaria spp.)/water plantain (Alisma spp.) were associated with decreased use of ponds by mallard broods. Percent river bulrush (Scirpus fluviatilis)/burreed (Sparganium spp.) was associated with decreased use of ponds by blue-winged teal.