• Genetic Differences in Resistance of Range Grasses to the Bluegrass Billbug, Sphenophorus Parvulus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

      Asay, K. H.; Hansen, J. D.; Haws, B. A.; Currie, P. O. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Significant differences in plant resistance to larvae of the bluegrass billbug, Sphenophorus parvulus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were found among and within range grass species and interspecific hybrids in nurseries at the Decker, Mont., surface mine and on a site near Miles City, Mont. Slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus) and related species were particularly susceptible. Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum and A. desertorum), thickspike wheatgrass (E. lanceolatus), Russian wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea), and salina wildrye (Leymus salinae) were among the species with a relatively high degree of resistance to the insect. Clonal lines of the Et. repens × Et. spicata hybrid differed significantly in resistance. Over 50% of the total phenotypic variation among the hybrid lines was attributed to genetic effects, indicating that selection for resistance would be effective.
    • Genetic Variability for Characters Affecting Stand Establishment in Crested Wheatgrass

      Asay, K. H.; Johnson, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Experiments were conducted in the laboratory (growth chamber) and field to determine the: (1) magnitude of genetic differences in crested wheatgrass [Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. and A. desertorum (Fisch. ex Link) Schult.] for characteristics related to seedling establishment on semiarid range and (2) effectiveness of laboratory procedures to estimate relative performance of breeding lines in the field. Significant differences were found among 175 crested wheatgrass progeny lines for seedling emergence, seedling height, seedling dry weight, and fall stand in the analyses of data combined over 2 field locations. The soil at both study sites was a Xerallic Calciorthids. The genetic variance among progenies comprised over 50% of the total phenotypic variance for most traits in the combined analyses of variance. Seedling emergence in the spring was positively related to fall stands (r = 0.54** to 0.61**). In growth chamber experiments involving 168 progeny lines, significant genetic variation was detected in seedling recovery after exposure to drought stress in 3 of 4 experiments. The genetic variance comprised over 50% of the total phenotypic variance in 5 of 6 instances in the combined analyses of the field data and in 3 of the 4 laboratory experiments. In general, laboratory determinations of seedling emergence under drought stress and seedling recovery after drought were not significantly related to seedling establishment in the field. A relatively close correlation between seed weight and all plant responses measured in the field (r = 0.46** to 0.57** in the pooled data) suggests that preliminary screening on the basis of seed weight appears promising.
    • Host Plant Utilization by Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: acrididae) from a Sandhills Prairie

      Joern, A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Host plant use by 31 species of grasshoppers from a sandhills prairie was determined; gut analysis was used to determine diet. In the composite diet for all species, forbs constituted 37.2% of the total, grasses and sedges contributed 58%, and insects made up 4.8% of the diet. Compared to the plants available at this site, 43% of the plant species and 36% of the plant families were included in the composite diet. Although some grasshopper species did not include many host plants in their diet, most included representatives of more than one plant family. Grasshopper species were typically polyphagous with no true specialist feeders. Relatively few plant taxa constituted a large fraction of the composite diet for all grasshopper species and the relative abundance of food plants in the environment appeared to affect the overall use of food plants. Subfamily affinities are obvious. Gomphocerines have the lowest average diet breadth and are primarily grass-feeders while melanoplines feed primarily on forbs and have large average diet breadths; oedipodines are intermediate for these categories. Vegetation-dwelling species have significantly lower diet breadths than do ground-dwelling species. Results do not generally support recent theories concerning the evolution of insect herbivore feeding patterns.
    • Impacts of Cattle on Streambanks in Northeastern Oregon

      Kauffman, J. B.; Krueger, W. C.; Vavra, M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Impacts of a late season livestock grazing strategy on streambank erosion, morphology, and undercutting were studied for 2 years along Catherine Creek in northeastern Oregon. Streambank loss, disturbance, and undercutting were compared between grazing treatments, vegetation type, and stream-meander position. No significant differences were found among vegetation types or stream-meander location. Significantly greater streambank erosion and disturbance occurred in grazed areas than in exclosed areas during the 1978 and 1979 grazing periods. Over-winter erosion was not significantly different among treatments. However, erosion related to livestock grazing and trampling was enough to create significantly greater annual streambank losses when compared to ungrazed areas.
    • Long-Term Effects of Big Sagebrush Control on Vegetation and Soil Water

      Sturges, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Herbaceous productivity of mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana) areas sprayed with 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) was nearly twice that of untreated areas 10 years after spraying, while the number of sagebrush plants on treated areas was 4% of that before spraying. Soil at the Wyoming study site was a Youga loam (Argic Cryoboroll). On treated areas, soil water depletion from the surface 0.9 m of soil slightly exceeded that of untreated areas beginning the third year after spraying when herbaceous vegetation had fully responded to release from sagebrush competition. Water depletion in soil 0.9 m to 1.8 m deep was substantially less on sprayed areas compared to unsprayed areas. Seasonal water depletion in the surface 1.8 m of soil was reduced 31% the year of treatment, and about 7% between 5 and 11 years after treatment. Mathematical relationships were developed to predict the effect of sagebrush control on seasonal water depletion in the surface 1.8 m of soil, the surface 0.9 m of soil, and soil 0.9-1.8 m deep.
    • Management Considerations to Enhance Use of Stock Ponds by Waterfowl Broods

      Rumble, M. A.; Flake, L. D. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Use of 36 livestock watering ponds by mallard (Anas playtrhynchos), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and total broods was tested against 32 habitat variables from 1977 and 1978. Pond size, shallow water areas with submersed vegetation, number of natural wetlands in a 1.6-km radius, and emersed vegetation composed of smartweed (Polygonum spp.) and spikerush (Eleocharis spp.) were associated with increased use of ponds by total broods. When analyzed by species, small grain on the surrounding section and height and density of shoreline vegetation were associated with increased use of ponds by mallard broods; percent of shoreline with trees and percent arrowhead (Sagittaria spp.)/water plantain (Alisma spp.) were associated with decreased use of ponds by mallard broods. Percent river bulrush (Scirpus fluviatilis)/burreed (Sparganium spp.) was associated with decreased use of ponds by blue-winged teal.
    • Pronghorn Reactions to Winter Sheep Grazing, Plant Communities, and Topography in the Great Basin

      Clary, W. P.; Beale, D. M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      The winter distribution of pronghorn over a 142-km2 area on the Desert Experimental Range was significantly related to sheep grazing during the current winter, presence of black sagebrush, and topographic characteristics. Even moderate sheep use during the dormant period left grazing units relatively unfavorable for pronghorn until spring regrowth-at least on ranges where key pronghorn forage plants were in short supply. Winter use areas preferred by pronghorn were above the valley bottoms in rolling to broken topography where black sagebrush communities were evident. Movement characteristics of pronghorn have allowed many of them to readily locate rested grazing units, and, therefore, avoid severe dietary competition with sheep.
    • Relationship Between Selected Factors and Internal Rate of Return from Sagebrush Removal and Seeding Crested Wheatgrass

      Shane, R. L.; Garrett, J. R.; Lucier, G. S. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      One alternative in increasing western range forage production is sagebrush removal and seeding crested wheatgrass. Of primary importance when considering such investments is economic profitability. Using internal rate of return (IRR) as a measure of economic profitability, a range improvement computer budget program (RIBPRO) was used to calculate IRR's for a specific ranch example. Factors associated with high IRR's are a constant forage production function over time, agricultural conservation payments, a 30-year or older stand, approximately 80 ha or more of improved range, low initial user cost/ha, and high additional kg of forage/ha.
    • Relationships of Site Characteristics to Vegetation in Canyon Grasslands of West Central Idaho and Adjacent Areas

      Tisdale, E. W.; Bramble-Brodahl, M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      The relation of vegetation types to soil and other site characteristics was examined for 57 sample plots representing the Pacific Northwest Bunchgrass Region. Three series characterized by Carex spp., Festuca idahoensis, and Agropyron spicatum respectively, and 5 habitat types comprised the vegetation units. These were compared to their associated soil taxa (soil families) and to a group of individual soil and other site characteristics. Relationship to soil taxa was relatively weak, with several soil families associated with each of 4 of the habitat types. Strong relationship of vegetation types to 13 individual soil and site factors was shown by means of stepwise discriminant analysis. Reclassification by these site factors resulted in 92% concurrence with habitat types and even higher agreement with vegetation series. Site factors showing the highest degree of relationship with vegetation units were: elevation, radiation index, color (value), and organic matter of the "A" horizon, and lime depth. This method of relating individual site factors to vegetation provides a powerful tool for testing the validity of ecosystems recognized by vegetation, and should be useful also in categorizing sites where plant cover has been disturbed.
    • Residual Effects of Liquid Digested Sludge on the Quality of Broomsedge in a Pine Plantation

      Dunavin, L. S.; Lutrick, M. C. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus L.) is generally looked upon with some disfavor as a weed but has been utilized for grazing. Liquid digested sludge (LDS) has been tested as a fertilizer on tree plantations where broomsedge comprises a portion of the understory. Broomsedge samples were collected 4 years after treatment of a slash pine (Pinus caribaea More.) plantation with LDS containing 0, 21.6, 40.5, 62.1, 83.7, and 102.6 t/ha of dry solids. Sludge was applied both as a top application and incorporated prior to tree planting. Crude protein (CP) of grass samples was generally increased with an increase in sludge application. In vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) appeared to decrease with increased sludge application under conditions of top application only. The understory at the 0 and 21.6 t/ha-rates of sludge was about 67% broomsedge. At the higher sludge rates, the understory was only 10% broomsedge or less.
    • Sod-Seeding Alfalfa into Cool-season Grasses and Grass-Alfalfa Mixtures Using Glyphosate or Paraquat

      Vogel, K. P.; Kehr, W. R.; Anderson, B. E. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Sod-seeding alfalfa into swards of smooth and meadow bromegrass, tall and intermediate wheatgrass, and orchardgrass and mixtures of these grasses with alfalfa using glyphosate or paraquat to suppress the existing vegetation was evaluated. Glyphosate (1.7 kg/ha) or paraquat (0.6 kg/ha) was applied 12 days prior to sod-seeding alfalfa (645 PLS/m2). Glyphosate completely suppressed or killed all the grasses and as a result, excellent stands of alfalfa were obtained producing 5.8 to 6.4 Mg/ha the establishment year at Mead, Neb., without irrigation. The grass-alfalfa mixtures were also converted into pure stands of alfalfa by using glyphosate. Glyphosate suppressed but did not kill the existing alfalfa. Sod-seeding in pure stands of grasses following paraquat application produced stands that were approximately 50% grass and 50% alfalfa. Paraquat had a limited suppressive effect on alfalfa and sod-seeded alfalfa did not become established in plots containing old alfalfa.
    • The Behaviour of Free-ranging Cattle on an Alpine Range in Australia

      Rees, H. Van.; Hutson, G. D. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      The behaviour of free-ranging cattle on the Bogong High Plains, Victoria, was investigated during 2 summer grazing seasons. The main influence on cattle distribution was found to be their preferences for particular vegetation communities. Cattle preferred to graze in grassland and closed heathland and avoided mossbeds. Cattle preferred to rest on grassland, wet grassland, and at cattle camps. The interaction of cattle with mossbeds, the vegetation community most susceptible to disturbance, was investigated in detail. Cattle visited mossbeds primarily to drink, although a small number of animals entered them to graze.
    • The Initial Growth of Two Range Grasses on Nonfertilized and Fertilized Soils Collected from Creosotebush Communities in the Southwestern United States

      Cox, J. R.; Schreiber, H. A.; Morton, H. L. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      A glasshouse study was conducted to determine how nonfertilized and fertilized soils collected in creosotebush [Larrea tridentata (DC.) Cov.] communities would influence seedling leaf growth and shoot production of Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees) and blue panicgrass (Panicum antidotale Ritz.). Soils were collected at 3 locations around creosotebush plants: (1) at the crown base (Basal), (2) along the outer canopy edge (Drip), and (3) in areas between plants (Open). Leaf lengths and shoot production were greatest on nonfertilized soils collected at the plant base, intermediate at the canopy edge, and least in open areas. Leaf lengths and shoot production significantly increased on fertilized soils collected in open areas.
    • Total Urine Collection from Free-grazing Heifers

      Stillwell, M. A.; Senft, R.; Rittenhouse, L. R. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      A urine collection device for female bovines is described. This device allows simulataneous collections of urine and feces, is reusable, and is designed for use on free grazing animals. Tests of the device were successful and showed no major problems under field conditions.
    • Using Precipitation to Predict Range Herbage Production in Southwestern Idaho

      Hanson, C. L.; Morris, R. P.; Wight, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Analyses of 9 years of herbage yield and precipitation data from the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwest Idaho show that annual herbage yield can be estimated by the Sneva and Hyder procedure (Sneva and Hyder 1962a, 1962b) at locations other than where their procedure was developed. These analyses did indicate that for sites below 1,680 m, their procedure was more useful when the crop-year precipitation index was based on a variable number of winter and spring months, rather than September through June. For sites above 1680 m, using winter and spring separately in a modified form of their basic equation may improve yield predictions.
    • Water Properties of Caliche

      Hennessy, J. T.; Gibbens, R. P.; Tromble, J. M.; Cardenas, M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Water absorption and retention by hard caliche nodules (rocks) collected from soils in southern New Mexico were determined. The rate of water uptake by the caliche rocks was rapid and water content at saturation was 13.0% by weight (24.7% by volume). At a matrix potential of -0.7 MPa, the rocks retained 10.6% water by weight, an 18% loss from saturation. Water loss from saturated rocks to a dry atmosphere was slow, but most of the absorbed water was released. The rocks contained only 0.6% water by weight (1.1% by volume) after 34 days in a desiccator. Both laboratory and field trials indicated that, although indurated caliche layers will absorb large amounts of water, the water does not pass through the layers to the soil below.