• Sod-Seeding Alfalfa into Cool-season Grasses and Grass-Alfalfa Mixtures Using Glyphosate or Paraquat

      Vogel, K. P.; Kehr, W. R.; Anderson, B. E. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Sod-seeding alfalfa into swards of smooth and meadow bromegrass, tall and intermediate wheatgrass, and orchardgrass and mixtures of these grasses with alfalfa using glyphosate or paraquat to suppress the existing vegetation was evaluated. Glyphosate (1.7 kg/ha) or paraquat (0.6 kg/ha) was applied 12 days prior to sod-seeding alfalfa (645 PLS/m2). Glyphosate completely suppressed or killed all the grasses and as a result, excellent stands of alfalfa were obtained producing 5.8 to 6.4 Mg/ha the establishment year at Mead, Neb., without irrigation. The grass-alfalfa mixtures were also converted into pure stands of alfalfa by using glyphosate. Glyphosate suppressed but did not kill the existing alfalfa. Sod-seeding in pure stands of grasses following paraquat application produced stands that were approximately 50% grass and 50% alfalfa. Paraquat had a limited suppressive effect on alfalfa and sod-seeded alfalfa did not become established in plots containing old alfalfa.
    • The Behaviour of Free-ranging Cattle on an Alpine Range in Australia

      Rees, H. Van.; Hutson, G. D. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      The behaviour of free-ranging cattle on the Bogong High Plains, Victoria, was investigated during 2 summer grazing seasons. The main influence on cattle distribution was found to be their preferences for particular vegetation communities. Cattle preferred to graze in grassland and closed heathland and avoided mossbeds. Cattle preferred to rest on grassland, wet grassland, and at cattle camps. The interaction of cattle with mossbeds, the vegetation community most susceptible to disturbance, was investigated in detail. Cattle visited mossbeds primarily to drink, although a small number of animals entered them to graze.
    • The Initial Growth of Two Range Grasses on Nonfertilized and Fertilized Soils Collected from Creosotebush Communities in the Southwestern United States

      Cox, J. R.; Schreiber, H. A.; Morton, H. L. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      A glasshouse study was conducted to determine how nonfertilized and fertilized soils collected in creosotebush [Larrea tridentata (DC.) Cov.] communities would influence seedling leaf growth and shoot production of Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees) and blue panicgrass (Panicum antidotale Ritz.). Soils were collected at 3 locations around creosotebush plants: (1) at the crown base (Basal), (2) along the outer canopy edge (Drip), and (3) in areas between plants (Open). Leaf lengths and shoot production were greatest on nonfertilized soils collected at the plant base, intermediate at the canopy edge, and least in open areas. Leaf lengths and shoot production significantly increased on fertilized soils collected in open areas.
    • Total Urine Collection from Free-grazing Heifers

      Stillwell, M. A.; Senft, R.; Rittenhouse, L. R. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      A urine collection device for female bovines is described. This device allows simulataneous collections of urine and feces, is reusable, and is designed for use on free grazing animals. Tests of the device were successful and showed no major problems under field conditions.
    • Using Precipitation to Predict Range Herbage Production in Southwestern Idaho

      Hanson, C. L.; Morris, R. P.; Wight, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Analyses of 9 years of herbage yield and precipitation data from the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwest Idaho show that annual herbage yield can be estimated by the Sneva and Hyder procedure (Sneva and Hyder 1962a, 1962b) at locations other than where their procedure was developed. These analyses did indicate that for sites below 1,680 m, their procedure was more useful when the crop-year precipitation index was based on a variable number of winter and spring months, rather than September through June. For sites above 1680 m, using winter and spring separately in a modified form of their basic equation may improve yield predictions.
    • Water Properties of Caliche

      Hennessy, J. T.; Gibbens, R. P.; Tromble, J. M.; Cardenas, M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Water absorption and retention by hard caliche nodules (rocks) collected from soils in southern New Mexico were determined. The rate of water uptake by the caliche rocks was rapid and water content at saturation was 13.0% by weight (24.7% by volume). At a matrix potential of -0.7 MPa, the rocks retained 10.6% water by weight, an 18% loss from saturation. Water loss from saturated rocks to a dry atmosphere was slow, but most of the absorbed water was released. The rocks contained only 0.6% water by weight (1.1% by volume) after 34 days in a desiccator. Both laboratory and field trials indicated that, although indurated caliche layers will absorb large amounts of water, the water does not pass through the layers to the soil below.