• A Simple Sack-holding Frame

      Hansmire, J. A.; Britton, C. M.; Waller, S. S. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      A lightweight frame was designed to hold sacks when sampling vegetation by species. Sacks are attached with clips to a pegboard in an organized arrangement with labels that are easily read. The frame is especially useful on windy days.
    • An Indirect Method to Estimate the Aerial Biomass of Small Single-Stemmed Woody Plants

      Fitzgerald, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      The above-ground biomass of unbrowsed, and subsequently, browsed plants was estimated from measurements of plant height. Unbrowsed weight was estimated from the quadratic regression of plant weight on plant height. Browsed weight was estimated by inserting coefficients which were appropriate for a given proportion of the original height into the above quadratic equation for unbrowsed weight. Estimation of these coefficients involved 3 steps. (1) Sample plants were cut into sections, dried and weighed. From these data, quadratic relationships between weight and height or portion (%) of height were established. (2) Coefficients from these relationships were then plotted against percent height, and a polynomial regression fitted. (3) The polynomial regression was used to predict coefficients for any given percent height. These predicted coefficients could then be inserted into the original quadratic equation for full height for determination of the weight of any given proportion of the full height. The technique depends on a good relationship between plant height and weight, such as might be expected to occur with the unbranched shoots of suckering aspen (Populus tremuloides). It is useful where nondestructive estimation of the aerial biomass of browsed plants is required, and it avoids the tedious measurement of the diameter of browsed stems.
    • Annual Broomweed (Gutierrezia dracunculoides (DC.) Blake) Response to Burning and Mulch Addition

      Towne, G.; Owensby, C. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      The influence of artificial mulch additions and mulch removal with fall, winter, and spring burning on annual broomweed [Gutierrezia dracunculoides (DC.) Blake] density in the Kansas Flint Hills was studied. Removing mulch, either by fall and winter burning or by fall mowing, significantly increased (P<.03) annual broomweed density compared to untreated plots. As mulch thickness increased, the number of emerging broomweed plants decreased. Cyclic infestations of annual broomweed appear to be favored by the lack of an overwintering mulch in closely grazed or denuded areas.
    • Baseline Elemental Concentrations for Big Sagebrush from Western U.S.A.

      Gough, L. P.; Erdman, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      The analysis of samples of big sagebrush from 190 sites in 8 western physiographic provinces resulted in measurable concentrations of 30 elements. Except for Sb, U, and V, whose concentrations were generally below the analytical detection limits, the expected (baseline) concentration range of each element was defined. The variability in the concentration of Ba, Ca, Li, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn among the 8 provinces was found to be nonsignificant and therefore a mean and deviation (for all provinces combined) for these elements was used to define their baseline. For concentrations of 20 of the elements (including the environmentally important metals As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Hg, and Mo), significant variability was found among province populations so that baseline values are reported for each province or group of provinces. Physiographic provinces were incorporated in the study design as a convenient natural unit in presenting the element baselines and we anticipate that these data may be useful in assessing biogeochemical changes brought about by the activities of energy development, mineral processing, and other anthropogenic disturbances.
    • Big Sagebrush Control with Tebuthiuron

      Britton, C. M.; Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Tebuthiuron (20% a.i. pellets) was applied in 2 years at rates of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kg a.i./ha on sagebrush-grass range. Mortality of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and herbaceous yield was measured at the end of the second growing season, post-treatment. Mean mortality increased with increasing herbicide rate to 93.9% at 2 kg a.i./ha. Herbaceous yield decreased with increasing herbicide rate to a mean of 177.3 kg/ha at the 2 kg a.i./ha rate contrasted to a mean of 423.9 kg/ha for the control.
    • Correcting for Differential Digestibility in Microhistological Analyses Involving Common Coastal Forages of the Pacific Northwest

      Leslie, D. M.; Vavra, M.; Starkey, E. E.; Slater, R. C. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      The accuracy of microhistological techniques to describe herbivore diets can be affected by differential digestibility of ingested forages. Correction factors were developed to adjust for those effects in 17 common forages of coastal, forested ranges of the Pacific Northwest. Two ferns, a moss and a sedge were overestimated by microhistological analysis in all seasons, while most shrubs, forbs and a grass were underestimated. Trees were not consistently over- or underestimated. Phenology significantly affected the degree of over- or underestimation of most forages. Failure to correct for differential digestibility will significantly bias results of microhistological techniques such as fecal analyses.
    • Diethylstilbestrol as a Temporary Chemosterilant to Control Black-tailed Prairie Dog Populations

      Garret, M. G.; Franklin, W. L. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Controlling reproduction in pest rodent populations may be preferable to using lethal rodenticides. The effectivenss of diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen, as a reproductive inhibitor in female black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) was examined in a 4-year study at Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota. In 1979 and 1980, a study colony was monitored to determine age structure, reproductive success of individual animals, and rate of colony expansion. In 1981, the colony was divided into control and experimental areas. Application of DES-treated oats (.11% active ingredient) during the breeding season resulted in complete curtailment of reproduction in the experimental group while reproduction in the control group was normal. Results were identical in 1982 when treatment was reversed. There were no obvious effects of DES treatment on subsequent reproductive capability of study animals. In 1981, surface expansion of the study colony was 4X less on the DES-treated side compared with control.
    • Edaphic Factors Influencing the Control of Wyoming Big Sagebrush and Seedling Establishment of Crested Wheatgrass

      Cluff, G. J.; Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      The physiographic position and taxonomic identity of soils of a Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp. wyomingensis)/grassland community were determined. Surface soil materials from each identified soil were analyzed for a variety of chemical and physical properties. Areas of each soil were either burned, sprayed with 2,4-D [(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid], or plowed for sagebrush control and seeded to crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum cultivar Nordan). Spraying and plowing resulted in significantly (p=0.05) different sagebrush mortalities of 75 and 62% averaged over all soils with brush mortality being much higher on some soils than others. Burning resulted in 100% sagebrush mortality on all soils. Seedling establishment of crested wheatgrass was significantly higher on plowed than sprayed soils with 9 and 6 seedlings per meter of row, respectively. Soils of burned areas averaged 5 seedlings per meter of row on a dry year. Most seedlings were established on loamy soils regardless of the method of brush control. Multiple regression analyses of edaphic factors were used to develop equations predicting brush mortality and seedling establishment in sprayed and plowed areas. Soil series descriptions include data which could be used in making such predictions.
    • Effect of Time of Seeding on Emergence and Long-Term Survival of Crested Wheatgrass in British Columbia

      McLean, A.; Wikeem, S. J. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      The study showed that fall was the best time to seed crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum) in the dry belt of British Columbia. With fall seedings, if emergence did not take place in the fall, it did so the following spring; there was very little plant kill over winter. Among the spring seedings, germination took place if the soil moisture content was adequate, usually above 10%. Soil moisture content was the most important single factor in determining establishment of seedlings. Late May and June seedings often germinated and died before seedlings became established. Rains in June, July, and August were ineffective in promoting emergence but may have been a factor in assuring establishment of the early-spring seedlings. By 1981, fall seedings no longer retained their advantage but the poor performance of the June seedings was still evident.
    • Effect of Water and Nitrogen, and Grazing on Nematodes in a Shortgrass Prairie

      Smolik, J. D.; Dodd, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Densities of plant feeding nematodes were highest in range receiving additional water and nitrogen (H2O + N), however, biomass of plant feeders was not significantly increased. Populations of stunt nematodes were highest in the grazed treatment. Maximum numbers of 3 other plant feeding groups, ring, Tylenchidae and Dorylaimida, occurred in the H2O + N treatment. Predaceous and microbial feeding nematode populations were also highest in the H2O + N treatment. Populations of plant feeding and predaceous nematodes peaked in early June and remained high throughout the growing season. Populations of microbial feeders also peaked in early June, but fluctuated through the sampling period. It appears the benefits of additional water and nitrogen on plant growth are not offset by large increases in biomass of plant feeding nematodes.
    • Effects of Late Season Cattle Grazing on Riparian Plant Communities

      Kauffman, J. B.; Krueger, W. C.; Vavra, M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Livestock impacts on riparian plant community composition, structure, and productivity were evaluated. After 3 years of comparison between fall grazed and exclosed (nongrazed) areas, 4 plant communities out of 10 sampled displayed some significant species composition and productivity differences. Two meadow types and the Douglas hawthorne (Crataegus douglasii) community type had significant differences in standing phytomass. These also were utilized more heavily than any other communities sampled. Shrub use was generally light except on willow (Salix spp.)-dominated gravel bars. On gravel bars, succession appeared to be retarded by livestock grazing. Few differences were recorded in other plant communities sampled, particularly those communities with a forest canopy.
    • Effects of Plant Shredding on Nutrient Content of Four South Texas Deer Browse Species

      Everitt, J. H. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      The nutrient content [crude protein (CP), P, Ca, K, and Mg] of the regrowth of shredded and current growth of nonshredded (control) plants was measured for 4 important deer browse species in south Texas. Plants were shredded in February, April, and July of 1980. Plants shredded in February and their controls were sampled for nutrient analyses at 2, 6, and 9 months after shredding. Plants sinredded in April and July and their controls were sampled for analyses 2 months after shredding. Two months after shredding, regrowth from plants shredded in February, April, and July generally had higher CP and P than current growth from nonshredded plants. Few differences were detected in CP and P at 6 and 9 months after shredding. These results indicate that CP and P levels could be increased in initial regrowth from plants shredded at various dates during the growing season. Levels of Ca, K, and Mg did not differ between shredded and current growth, or they were slightly lower in the regrowth.
    • Effects of Soil Moisture on Burned and Clipped Idaho Fescue

      Britton, C. M.; Clark, R. G.; Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis) plants were burned and clipped under 2 soil water regimes. Treatments were applied to plants in late August and mid-October located in eastern Oregon. Results indicated that watering plants either before or after burning produced no beneficial effects as measured by changes in basal area or yield. Regardless of treatment, plant damage was greater with late August as contrasted to mid-October treatment dates. These data do not support the opinion that high soil moisture is necessary prior to fall burning of sagebrush-bunchgrass communities.
    • Establishment of Blue Grama and Fourwing Saltbush on Coal Mine Spoils Using Saline Ground Water

      Weiler, G.; Gould, W. L. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      This study was conducted in the greenhouse to determine the effect of limited irrigation of topsoiled sodic shaley spoil with water of various salinities on the emergence and growth of 2 native plant species and on the infiltration rate and salinity buildup of the topsoil. Columns containing 20 cm of sandy loam soil over sodic shaley spoil were seeded to blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) or fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens). The columns were irrigated with water having 4 levels of salinity ranging from 750 to 12,890 micro-mhos/cm and sodium adsorption ratios ranging from 2 to 68. The emergence and growth of blue grama was reduced as the salinity of the water increased; no plants survived the most saline treatment. The most saline water reduced the emergence of fourwing saltbush, but the saltbush grew well after the seedling stage. The infiltration rate was lowered as the sodicity of the irrigation water increased, and the electrical conductivity of the soil increased as the amount and salinity of the water increased. The study indicates that moderately saline water (EC is lesser than or equal to 4230 micro-mhos) will probably be suitable for revegetating mine spoils using blue grama and fourwing saltbush.
    • Evaluating Management Alternatives with a Beef Production Systems Model

      Kothmann, M. M.; Smith, G. M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Simulation techniques were utilized to study alternative management practices for cow-calf operations in the Coastal Prairie of Texas. Data obtained over a 6-year period from a cooperating ranch were used to validate a beef production model successfully. Management practices evaluated with the model included fall, winter, spring, and split (fall-spring) calving seasons, July 1 and October 1 weaning dates, and two levels of nutrition. Eight combinations of these practices were simulated. Winter calving increased death losses of calves compared to fall and spring at the base nutritional level. Fall calving increased weaning weights, whereas spring calving increased the present calf crop. Fall calving with improved nutrition resulted in the highest level of calf production. Resource limitations frequently prevent screening many management combinations by field research techniques. Simulation can be a valuable aid for integrating and extending experimental data and for selecting the most promising combinations of practices for field testing.
    • Genetic Differences in Resistance of Range Grasses to the Bluegrass Billbug, Sphenophorus Parvulus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

      Asay, K. H.; Hansen, J. D.; Haws, B. A.; Currie, P. O. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Significant differences in plant resistance to larvae of the bluegrass billbug, Sphenophorus parvulus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were found among and within range grass species and interspecific hybrids in nurseries at the Decker, Mont., surface mine and on a site near Miles City, Mont. Slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus) and related species were particularly susceptible. Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum and A. desertorum), thickspike wheatgrass (E. lanceolatus), Russian wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea), and salina wildrye (Leymus salinae) were among the species with a relatively high degree of resistance to the insect. Clonal lines of the Et. repens × Et. spicata hybrid differed significantly in resistance. Over 50% of the total phenotypic variation among the hybrid lines was attributed to genetic effects, indicating that selection for resistance would be effective.
    • Genetic Variability for Characters Affecting Stand Establishment in Crested Wheatgrass

      Asay, K. H.; Johnson, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Experiments were conducted in the laboratory (growth chamber) and field to determine the: (1) magnitude of genetic differences in crested wheatgrass [Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. and A. desertorum (Fisch. ex Link) Schult.] for characteristics related to seedling establishment on semiarid range and (2) effectiveness of laboratory procedures to estimate relative performance of breeding lines in the field. Significant differences were found among 175 crested wheatgrass progeny lines for seedling emergence, seedling height, seedling dry weight, and fall stand in the analyses of data combined over 2 field locations. The soil at both study sites was a Xerallic Calciorthids. The genetic variance among progenies comprised over 50% of the total phenotypic variance for most traits in the combined analyses of variance. Seedling emergence in the spring was positively related to fall stands (r = 0.54** to 0.61**). In growth chamber experiments involving 168 progeny lines, significant genetic variation was detected in seedling recovery after exposure to drought stress in 3 of 4 experiments. The genetic variance comprised over 50% of the total phenotypic variance in 5 of 6 instances in the combined analyses of the field data and in 3 of the 4 laboratory experiments. In general, laboratory determinations of seedling emergence under drought stress and seedling recovery after drought were not significantly related to seedling establishment in the field. A relatively close correlation between seed weight and all plant responses measured in the field (r = 0.46** to 0.57** in the pooled data) suggests that preliminary screening on the basis of seed weight appears promising.
    • Host Plant Utilization by Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: acrididae) from a Sandhills Prairie

      Joern, A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Host plant use by 31 species of grasshoppers from a sandhills prairie was determined; gut analysis was used to determine diet. In the composite diet for all species, forbs constituted 37.2% of the total, grasses and sedges contributed 58%, and insects made up 4.8% of the diet. Compared to the plants available at this site, 43% of the plant species and 36% of the plant families were included in the composite diet. Although some grasshopper species did not include many host plants in their diet, most included representatives of more than one plant family. Grasshopper species were typically polyphagous with no true specialist feeders. Relatively few plant taxa constituted a large fraction of the composite diet for all grasshopper species and the relative abundance of food plants in the environment appeared to affect the overall use of food plants. Subfamily affinities are obvious. Gomphocerines have the lowest average diet breadth and are primarily grass-feeders while melanoplines feed primarily on forbs and have large average diet breadths; oedipodines are intermediate for these categories. Vegetation-dwelling species have significantly lower diet breadths than do ground-dwelling species. Results do not generally support recent theories concerning the evolution of insect herbivore feeding patterns.
    • Impacts of Cattle on Streambanks in Northeastern Oregon

      Kauffman, J. B.; Krueger, W. C.; Vavra, M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Impacts of a late season livestock grazing strategy on streambank erosion, morphology, and undercutting were studied for 2 years along Catherine Creek in northeastern Oregon. Streambank loss, disturbance, and undercutting were compared between grazing treatments, vegetation type, and stream-meander position. No significant differences were found among vegetation types or stream-meander location. Significantly greater streambank erosion and disturbance occurred in grazed areas than in exclosed areas during the 1978 and 1979 grazing periods. Over-winter erosion was not significantly different among treatments. However, erosion related to livestock grazing and trampling was enough to create significantly greater annual streambank losses when compared to ungrazed areas.