• Impact and Control of the Range Crane Fly (Tipula simplex Doane) in the Central Valley of California

      Hartman, M. J.; Thomas, C. L. (Society for Range Management, 1983-09-01)
      The larvae of the range crane fly (Tipula simplex) are responsible for extensive damage to rangeland of the central valley of California, but the damage occurs infrequently in years when there are extremely high densities. These outbreaks appear to be due to favorable climatic conditions during the early larval instars. Means of biological (including pheromone), mechanical, fire, and chemical control are discussed. Early detection is a key in minimizing damage.
    • Herbage Quality of Fertilized Cool-Season Grass-Legume Mixtures in Western Nebraska

      Schultz, R. D.; Stubbendieck, J. (Society for Range Management, 1983-09-01)
      Herbage quality of meadow bromegrass [Bromus biebersteinii Roem and Schult.], smooth bromegrass [Bromus inermis Leyss.], intermediate wheatgrass [Agropyron intermedium (Host) Beauv.], Russian wildrye [Elymus junceus Fisch.], crested wheatgrass [Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.] in mixtures with alfalfa [Medicago sativa L.] or cicer milkvetch [Astragalus cicer L.] and with the 2 legumes in pure stands at 2 dates of harvest (June 5, June 26) and with 4 rates of fertilizer (0 kg N/ha-0 kg P/ha, O kg N/ha-22 kg P/ha, 45 kg N/ha-0 kg P/ha, 45 kg N/ha-22 kg P/ha) was studied in western Nebraska in 1977 and 1978. Soil at the study site was a loam (Typic Argiustoll) and average annual precipitation is 386 mm. Alfalfa-grass mixtures maintained a higher percentage crude protein than the respective cicer milkvetch-grass mixtures, with the alfalfa-Russian wildrye mixture producing the highest percentage crude protein. Percentage in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of the cicer milkvetch-Russian wildrye mixture was the highest of all mixtures, and the percentage IVDMD of the cicer milkvetch-crested wheatgrass mixture the lowest. Herbage quality was higher for the June 5 harvest than the June 26 harvest. Percentage IVDMD of regrowth, which developed after the June harvests, was higher for plots harvested on June 26 than on June 5. Fertilizer rates had a variable effect on herbage quality. Russian wildrye-legume mixtures generally maintained the highest level of herbage quality.
    • Herbage Dynamics and Forage Quality of Texas Cupgrass (Eriochloa sericea)

      Shaw, R. B.; Smeins, F. E. (Society for Range Management, 1983-09-01)
      Herbage dynamics and forage quality of Texas cupgrass (Eriochloa sericea) were monitored during the 1977 and 1978 growing seasons on the Edwards Plateau, Texas. This species was dominant on a shallow rocky range site which had been excluded from grazing for 30 years. Average herbage production was low (527 kg/ha), and mulch constituted 85% of the total biomass. Peak live standing crop was only 145 kg/ha during the study. Green herbage production reflected the ability of this taxon to adjust phenological stage in response to precipitation. Litterbag studies showed decomposition rates of herbage held flat on the soil surface to be twice as rapid as herbage held upright in clumps of Texas cupgrass. This difference in decomposition illustrated the necessity for herbage removal to prevent dead centers and degradation of the stand. Crude protein content of live material averaged 9.8 and 10.7% during 1977 and 1978, respectively. Digestible energy of live herbage averaged 2300 kcal/kg and never went below 2,100 kcal/kg during the study. Forage quality parameters also reflected phenological stage of development.
    • Feral Herbivores Suppress Mamane and Other Browse Species on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

      Scowcroft, P. G.; Giffin, J. G. (Society for Range Management, 1983-09-01)
      Abundance, survival, and growth of mamane (Sophora chrysophylla) regeneration were determined inside and outside sheep exclosures located in heavily browsed portions of the mamane forest of Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Vegetational cover of other species was estimated. Mamane grew abundantly inside 16-year-old exclosures but was sparse outside. Height class distributions indicated that feral sheep prevented establishment of regeneration. Survival of seedlings and sprouts at 2-year-old exclosures was greater inside than outside. The largest difference between survival inside and outside was found where browsing pressure was greatest. Mamane reproduction exposed to browsing tended to be shorter than protected reproduction. Rate of height growth for protected mamane reproduction was significantly affected by exclosure location. Cover data for preferred browse species other than mamane indicated that 3 endemic grasses-Hawaiian bent (Agrostis sandwicense), he'u-pueo (Trisetum glomeratum), and Deschampsia australis, an endemic shrub-aheahea (Chenopodium oahuense), and an introduced forb-gosmore (Hypochoeris radicata)-were susceptible to browsing. On the basis of these findings, vegetation recovery should be rapid in most areas where feral sheep are eliminated or reduced.
    • Effects of Long-term Grazing on Cryptogam Crust Cover in Navajo National Monument, Arizona

      Brotherson, J. D.; Rushforth, S. R.; Johansen, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1983-09-01)
      The effects of long-term grazing (40 years) on cryptogamic crusts of Navajo National Monument were investigated. Both vascular and nonvascular communities were heavily impacted with the cryptogamic community showing the greatest reduction in cover. Lichens and mosses were the most damaged, while the algae were much more tolerant. Individual cryptogam species were affected in similar patterns with all identifiable species showing reduced cover. Vascular plant species were also affected with grasses showing the greatest reduction under grazing pressure.
    • Effect of Sodium and Magnesium Sulfate on Forage Seed Germination

      Ries, R. E.; Hofmann, L. (Society for Range Management, 1983-09-01)
      Initial screening of plant species for salt tolerance has often been accomplished by recording germination percent in various salt solutions under controlled environmental conditions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the incubation time required to properly evaluate the germination percent of 8 forage species in sodium sulfate (NaSO4) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) solutions under controlled conditions; (2) to document the germination percent of the 8 forage species in response to the Na2SO4 and MgSO4 solutions after the required incubation period. The incubation time required to stabilize the germination percent for each species in the salt solutions varied. Alkali sacaton and switchgrass germination percent stabilized after 7 days; fourwing saltbush, little bluestem, red clover, and thickspike wheatgrass required 14 days; and green needlegrass, 21 days. The germination percent of Canby bluegrass increased throughout the 28-day study period. Germination, after the above incubation periods, was enhanced for fourwing saltbush by the Na2 SO4 and MgSO4 treatments. Germination of green needlegrass and red clover was depressed by all salt treatments; and alkali sacaton, little bluestem and switchgrass germination was depressed by the Na2 SO4 treatment. Germination of thickspike wheatgrass and Canby bluegrass (at 28 days) was not affected by any of the salt treatments. Results show the importance of the incubation period used in the initial screening of forage species for salt tolerance. Fourwing saltbush, thickspike wheatgrass, and Canby bluegrass were the least sensitive to the Na2 SO4 and MgSO4 solutions studied.
    • Ecotypic Variation in Tripsacum dactyloides Evaluated in Texas

      Schliesing, T. G.; Dahl, B. E. (Society for Range Management, 1983-09-01)
      Eastern gamagrass collections (26) from throughout Texas, except the Trans-Pecos, and from southern Oklahoma (3) were evaluated in a common garden at Uvalde, Texas, to select an ecotype suitable for planting in central and south Texas. Four potential ecotypes existed among the collections with a fifth existing in collections from extreme southeast Texas. The characters of this latter type overlapped those of collections from north Texas making it less distinct from the others. Collections (Type C) from central and west Texas were superior to all others in forage production, crude protein, and chlorophyll content. Collections from near Baird and Bracketville were outstanding and further field evaluation is warranted.
    • Ecophysiology of Seed Germination and Flowering in Common Broomweed, Amphiachyris dracunculoides (DC) Nutt

      Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. (Society for Range Management, 1983-09-01)
      Common broomweed (Amphiachyris dracunculoides (DC.) Nutt.) behaves both as a winter and as a summer annual. Seeds germinate in either autumn or spring, and the life cycle is completed the following autumn. Seeds were nondormant at maturity, and 48 to 94% of them germinated in light at daily thermoperiods of 15/6, 20/10, 25/15, 30/15 and 35/20 degrees C, but 42% or less germinated in darkness at these temperatures. Thus, a high percentage of the seeds dispersed in early autumn germinate within a few days in warm soil if soil water is not limiting. With late autumn dispersal, however, germination of a high percentage of the seeds is delayed until spring. Vernalization was not required for flowering, and both vernalized and nonvernalized plants flowered under long and short photoperiods. However, plants from vernalized seeds required fewer days to flower under both photoperiods than did plants from nonvernalized controls. Additionally, plants vernalized in the seed and/or seedling stages did not form a rosette prior to shoot elongation, whereas plants not vernalized in the seed or seedling stages formed a rosette.
    • Density and Production of Seeded Range Grasses in Southeastern Arizona (1970-1982)

      Cox, J. R.; Jordan, G. L. (Society for Range Management, 1983-09-01)
      Accessions A-68, L-11, L-19, L-28, and L-38 of Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees); P-15608 Cochise lovegrass (E. lehmanniana Nees X E. trichophora Coss & Dur.); A-84 and Catalina boer lovegrass (E. curvula var. conferta Nees); Palar Wilman lovegrass (E. superba Peyr.) and P-15630 blue panicgrass (Panicum antidotale Retz.) were seeded at a study site near San Simon, Ariz., in spring 1970 and 1971. Seedbeds were prepared by root plowing and furrow pitting immediately before planting. Growing season precipitation was 136 mm in 1970 and 218 mm in 1971. Mean accession densities in the fall after the initial growing seasons were 18 plants/m2 for both the 1970 and the 1971 plantings. Between fall 1971 and 1972 mean accession densities declined 44% and forage production was unchanged on the 1970 plantings. Accession densities declined 22% and forage production increased 250% on the 1971 plantings. Between fall 1972 and 1982 the majority of seeded plants died and forage production declined 90% on the 1970 plantings. Accession densities declined 78% and forage production declined 84% on the 1971 plantings.
    • Correlation of Honey Mesquite Response to Herbicides with Three Plant Variables and Soil Water

      Meyer, R. E.; Hanson, J. D.; Dye, A. J. (Society for Range Management, 1983-09-01)
      Honey mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC. var. glandulosa (Torr.) Cockerell] response to sprays of 2,4,5-T [(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid) and picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic-acid) + 2,4,5-T was evaluated and correlated with maximum daily photosynthetic rate, upward movement of methylene dye, xylem pressure potential, and percent soil water. Picloram + 2,4,5-T was superior to 2,4,5-T alone for killing honey mesquite from May 15 through August 4. Time of day the herbicide was applied had no significant effect on control. Maximum daily photosynthetic rate varied from 32.9 to 10.1 mg ${\rm CO}_{2}\ {\rm dm}^{-2}$ leaf area hr-1 and was highly correlated (r = 0.89 to 0.92) with honey mesquite control with herbicides. Rate of upward movement of methylene blue dye in the xylom varied from 295 to 44 cm hr-1. (MPa) while soil water content varied from 11.5 to 18.6%. Upward movement of methylene blue dye, xylem pressure potential and percent soil water were not significantly correlated with honey mesquite control.
    • Comparative Performance Oo Some Native and Introduced Grasses in Southern Saskatchewan, Canada

      Kilcher, M. R.; Looman, J. (Society for Range Management, 1983-09-01)
      This study reports on the poor performance of selected native grass species compared to that of certain adapted introduced and domesticated grasses. Of 12 grass species native to Canada and northern U.S.A., 7 showed very poor initial establishment. Subsequent winterkilling eliminated them. Of the 5 surviving native grass species only 2 attained a fair forage yield level compared to those of 5 domesticated grasses, and then only after the 3rd or 4th years of age. Most of the native species showed limited competition with weeds. Nutrient content, particularly crude protein, of the native grasses was not sustained as well as that in some of the tame grasses with advancing seasonal growth stages.
    • Clipping Frequency and Fertilization Influence Herbage Yields and Crude Protein Content of 4 Grasses in South Texas

      Mutz, J. L.; Drawe, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1983-09-01)
      Crude protein content of herbage produced by buffelgrass, blue panicgrass, and Bell rhodesgrass was improved with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization and clipping every 4 or 8 weeks, compared to harvests only at the end of the growing season. Within a fertilization level, the 8-week clipping frequency generally increased dry matter production of the grasses over the 4-week clipping frequency or the end-of-season single harvest. Kleberg bluestem herbage generally contained less protein at all phenological stages than that of buffelgrass, blue panicgrass, or Bell rhodesgrass, and dry matter production was not increased by fertilization. Crude protein content of Kleberg bluestem herbage was only slightly increased with the highest level of fertilization, regardless of clipping frequency.
    • Burning in a Bunchgrass/Sagebrush Community: The Southern Interior Of B.C. and Northwestern U.S. Compared

      Johnson, A. H.; Strang, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-09-01)
      Investigations following a wildfire near Kamloops, B.C., indicated that, contrary to reported experiences in the United States, gray rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) is susceptible to fire in this area. Hence caution is necessary when developing burning prescriptions and using extrapolated information.
    • Browsed-class Method of Estimating Shrub Utilization

      Schmutz, E. M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-09-01)
      The browsed-class method has been developed to measure shrub utilization based on total weight of the plant. It uses growth form to place grazed shrubs into 6 browsed-classes. The method is fast, statistically sound, relatively free from personal bias, easy to learn and use, and can be used in research or land management. In a 10-year case study to determine proper use of hairy mountain-mahogany, plants were clipped initially and then reclipped once each year in the fall or winter over a 7-year period at 0, 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90% levels based on total weight of the plant. This was followed by a 2-year recovery study. Parameters studied were numbers, length, and production of twigs; area of live and dead crown cover; and general vigor and seed production. All criteria, except area of live crown cover, indicated that 50% of total weight was proper use of hairy mountain-mahogany.
    • Biases in the Step-Point Method on Bunchgrass Ranges

      Strauss, D.; Neal, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1983-09-01)
      During a study of grazing in the Great Basin, using the grazed plant method used for measuring utilization, we noticed a bias in the step point technique used to select plants. Subsequent mathematical calculations showed both the direction and order of magnitude of the bias: the step point method overestimates the number of large plants and underestimates the number of small plants; when used to estimate the basal area of bunchgrasses the method overestimates the area of small plants. The calculations were tested and verified on maps of real and artificial bunchgrass populations. When the plants are distributed at random, the biases can be removed. For estimation of numbers, one should select the plant whose center (rather than perimeter) is closest to the toe point to eliminate bias by size class; for estimations of basal area, the numbers in each size class should be scaled by the area of plants of that class.
    • A Multipurpose Inventory Tool

      Francis, R. E.; Kerbs, R. R.; Davey, P. R. (Society for Range Management, 1983-09-01)
      A collapsible, graduated multipurpose rod was designed and used in a multiresource inventory. The rod is lightweight and variable in length. It can be used to estimate several vegetation and soil variables, measure water depth, or function as an equipment support and reference point. The approximate cost per 1-m unit is $3.50 and 2 hours labor.