• Effects of Surface Mining On the Vesper Sparrow in the Northern Great Plains

      Schaid, T. A.; Uresk, D. W.; Tucker, W. L.; Linder, R. L. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      A 2-year study was conducted to compare density of vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus) during the breeding season on various aged bentonite clay mine spoils and unmined areas in the Northern Great Plains. The vesper sparrow was one of the most common breeding species with highest densities in grass-sagebrush habitat. Reclaimed and unreclaimed mined spoils had lower sparrow densities which were related to loss of sagebrush habitat. Reserving areas with shrubs between mine spoils, around equipment storage areas, and along haul roads may be necessary during mining and reclamation to attract vesper sparrows in regions where natural regeneration or transplanting of shrubs is difficult.
    • Forage Standing Crop and Animal Diets Under Rotational vs. Continuous Grazing

      Sharrow, S. H. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      Effects of 5-paddock rotational grazing and continuous grazing were monitored in 1977 and 1978 on an annual grass-subclover (Trifolium subterraneum) pasture. More forage was available to livestock under rotational grazing than under continuous grazing during the midspring through late spring period. However, grazing management had little effect upon forage intake by Romney ewes and their lambs during this period. Live weight gains of ewes and lambs were higher under rotational compared with continuous grazing in the spring, perhaps due to an observed increase in subclover, a highly nutritious feed, in diets of sheep grazing rotationally. In contrast to the spring green-feed period, live weight gains of ewes under rotational grazing were lower than those under continuous grazing during the summer dry-feed period. Poor ewe performance on rotationally grazed pasture during the summer period apparently reflects reduced opportunity for dietary selectivity and, therefore, a lower quality diet compared with that available to ewes on continuously grazed pasture.
    • Nebraska Sedge (Carex nebraskensis Dewey): Observations on Shoot Life History and Management

      Ratliff, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      Nebraska sedge (Carex nebraskensis Dewey), a valuable and distinct species, can withstand a high degree of defoliation by livestock without being seriously damaged. To understand this species better and learn how it can withstand defoliation, shoot life history is being studied on a site in the Sierra National Forest, California. Initial results of the study (overwinter 1979-1980 and the 1980 growing season) indicate that (1) Nebraska sedge shoots live for more than one year; (2) a high proportion of vegetative shoots overwinter; (3) overwintering shoots have cores of live leaf tissue which can develop rapidly in spring; and (4) about half of the shoots surviving winter become reproductive and die. In addition, Nebraska sedge is now recognized as a culmless species. That helps account for its withstanding defoliation. Reproduction appears to be mainly vegetative, and a management goal of producing an abundance of healthy rhizomes is suggested.
    • Interception of Rainfall by Tarbush

      Tromble, J. M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      The objective of this study was to determine the interception by tarbush of artificially applied rainfall. Twelve tarbush shrubs were collected near Las Cruces in southern New Mexico to obtain a representative sample of shrub size classes. Simulated rainfall was applied at the rate of 6 cm/hr for 30 min. Canopy cover of the tarbush community was determined from 10 line intercept transects 30.48 m long. A stepwise regression analysis using the minimum R2 improvement technique was used to examine the effects of plant parameters on interception. The "best" one variable model was shrub green weight, which accounted for 75% of the variability of the intercepted rainfall. Extrapolating the calculated interception of artifically applied rainfall to the native stand of tarbush with 15.2% canopy cover indicated that 0.5 mm of rainfall would be intercepted from a 30 mm rainfall event. Disregarding rainfall events of less than 3.0 mm, an average of 8.5 mm of rainfall would be intercepted by the tarbush community or 6.7% of the average rainfall from May through October.
    • Impact of Feral Herbivores on Mamane Forests of Mauna Kea, Hawaii: Bark Stripping and Diameter Class Structure Sophora chrysophylla

      Scowcroft, P. G.; Sakai, H. F. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      Management of feral and Mouflon sheep and feral goats within the Mauna Kea Forest Reserve/Game Management area has been criticized as inadequate to prevent the adverse environmental impact which these introduced herbivores have on native components of the scrub forest ecosystem. This study determined the intensity of bark stripping of mamane (Sophora chrysophylla), a small endemic leguminous tree, by these animals and assessed the impact of their browsing on the size class structure of mamane stands. In all but one of the 4 areas sampled, a high proportion of mamane trees bore bark stripping wounds. Differences in the amount of stripping between elevations in a given area, and between areas, were attributed to differences in browsing pressure, which in turn was dependent on the frequency of human disturbance and the behavioral traits of the herbivores. Tree size class distributions revealed that browsing has suppressed mamane reproduction in some areas. Suppression appeared to be the greatest in the most heavily browsed areas.
    • Nonstructural Carbohydrate and Crude Protein in Pinegrass Storage Tissues

      Stout, D. G.; Suzuki, M.; Brooke, B. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      Nonstructural carbohydrates in storage tissues of pinegrass (Calamagrostis rubescens Buckl.) consist of sucrose, glucose, fructosan, and starch. The predominant polymer is a long-chain fructosan. An acid-extractable structural carbohydrate appeared to be xylan. Total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) of rhizome plus root tissue decreased during May, reached a minimum value during late May to early June, increased until late June, remained constant until late August, and then increased until November. The TNC level of crown tissue was low during May and early June and reached a peak during July and again in the fall. The crude protein concentration of rhizome plus root tissues was relatively constant throughout the season. Rhizome plus roots accumulated the largest amounts of TNC and crude protein.
    • Efficacy of Zinc Phosphide Broadcast Baiting for Controlling Richardson's Ground Squirrels on Rangeland

      Matschke, G. H.; Marsh, M. P.; Otis, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      Zinc phosphide, a potential replacement rodenticide for strychnine or 1080, was field tested on 3 populations of Richardson's ground squirrel. Populations were estimated pretreatment and posttreatment by mark-recapture sampling techniques. We broadcasted a 2% zinc phosphide grain bait at 5.1 kg per swath ha. Swath widths measured 6.1 m, 16.0 m of untreated areas remaining between swaths. Treated populations decreased an average of 85.1 +/- SE 6.4%. Differences in pretreatment and posttreatment population decline between treated and control populations were significant (P = 0.096). No mortality was detected among nontarget animals. The 85.1% efficacy achieved by broadcast baiting exceeded the minimum standard of 70.0% established by the Environmental Protection Agency for the registration of a rodenticide. Registration, however, will require nontarget hazard testing and further efficacy testing in other geographical locations.
    • Changes in Understory Production Following a Wildlife in Southwestern Ponderosa Pine

      Oswald, B. P.; Covington, W. W. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      An area burned by a May, 1972, wildfire and which had been previously sampled in 1972 and 1974 was remeasured in 1980 to determine changes in understory production. The area was stratified into moderately and severely burned areas. By 1974 both herbage and forage production on the moderately burned area were approximately 3 times higher than unburned control sites and did not decline significantly by 1980. While increased herbage production on the severely burned site was similar to that of the moderately burned site in 1974, it declined to only half as much production by 1980. Furthermore, while over 95% of the total herbage production was in forage species for all 3 sampling years on the moderately burned study area, only 30 percent was forage on the severely burned study area by 1980. The decline in total production and shift to non-forage species on the severely burned study area is probably a consequence of heavy grazing which followed the burn.
    • Biological Manipulation of Blackbrush by Goat Browsing

      Provenza, F. D.; Bowns, J. E.; Urness, P. J.; Malechek, J. C.; Butcher, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      Domestic goats were used to modify the growth form of blackbrush, a spinescent shrub occurring in nearly monospecific stands on several million hectares of rangeland in the southwestern United States. The objective of this research was to provide data on the responses of blackbrush, goats, and cattle to a biological manipulation program in which winter goat browsing was used to stimulate spring twig production in an attempt to improve fall and winter range for cattle. Goats were stocked at 4 intensities during each winter from 1977 to 1979. Resultant levels of utilization and spring twig production were determined, with increased utilization leading to increased twig production. Browsing improved the nutritional quality of blackbrush by stimulating twig production, and current season's twigs collected during the winter contained more crude protein (6.5 versus 4.6%), phosphorus (0.10 versus 0.08%) and in vitro digestible dry matter (48 versus 38%) than did older twigs. Cattle (heifers) browsed blackbrush pastures during October of 1979. Heifers in pastures unbrowsed by goats consumed primarily older twigs while those in previously browsed pastures consumed primarily current season's twigs. No statistically significant differences in weight response were recorded for heifers using pastures that were, or were not, previously browsed. In previously unbrowsed pastures, however, the average heifer consumed 1.9 times more protein supplement than did her counterpart in previously browsed pastures.
    • Beef and Forage Production on Contour Furrowed Rangeland Interseeded with Alfalfa

      Kartchner, R. J.; Wight, J. R.; Bishop, J. L.; Bellows, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      Over a 4-year period, average annual herbage production on native range was 603 kg/ha compared to 1,350 kg/ha on contour-furrowed range interseeded with alfalfa. Addition of 112 kg N/ha and 15 kg P/ha on furrowed, interseeded range increased herbage production to 1,658 kg/ha. Forage production on furrowed areas showed more variation in response to precipitation changes than did production on untreated rangeland. Differences in rate of gain by yearling cattle were small in most years, indicating beef production varied largely as a function of stocking rate. Total beef production over a 5-year period was 113 kg/ha on the control, 217 kg/ha on contour-furrowed range with alfalfa interseeded, and 236 kg/ha on furrowed, interseeded range receiving fertilizer. Observations on management of furrowed, interseeded areas were made.
    • Chlorophyll, Dry Matter, and Photosynthetic Conversion-Efficiency Relationships in Warm-season Grasses

      Bokari, U. G. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      This study was conducted to determine the relationship between leaf chlorophyll content, dry matter production, and the photosynthetic conversion efficiency in several warm-season grasses. These included Old World bluestems (Bothriochloa spp.), eastern gamagrass [Tripsacum dactyloides (L)L.], and weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula (Schradd) Nees.). Warm-season grasses usually operate on the C4-photosynthetic pathway and are considered photosynthetically more efficient than the cool-season grasses under high temperature and high light intensity conditions. Samples for chlorophyll analysis and dry matter production were taken from 3 to 5, 0.5 M2 quadrates per pasture at each phenological stage. Photosynthetically active irradiance (400-700 nm) was measured with a quantum sensor. Results indicated close correlation between chlorophyll and dry matter production. Increase in total chlorophyll was associated with increase in dry matter. Chlorophyll a/b ratio remained almost constant throughout the growing season. Solar energy conversion-efficiency ranged from 0.54% to 0.73% for various strains of Old World bluestems, 0.51% for eastern gamagrass and 0.44% for weeping lovegrass. It was demonstrated through this study that warm-season grasses, like many other plants, are not very efficient utilizers of the enormous amounts of incoming solar energy. These grasses maintained high productivity throughout the growing season by maintaining high levels of chlorophyll in the leaves.
    • Dog Predation of Domestic Sheep in Ohio

      Blair, B. J.; Townsend, T. W. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      Questionnaires were mailed to 300 sheep producers in Ohio during spring 1979, and 218 returns were analyzed. Predation losses from dogs averaged 1.3% of the sampled sheep for a minimum statewide cost of $836,000 in 1978. Physiographic region, month, flock size, and management technique had no significant effect on number or percent killed per flock. Most attacks (P<0.02) occurred at night and morning, and ewes were more vulnerable than lambs or rams (P<0.005).
    • Unbiased Systematic Sampling Plans for the Line Intercept Method Vegetation, Forest Floor

      Butler, S. A.; McDonald, L. L. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      Experimentors have been using cost-efficient systematically located transects in the line intercept method for some time with little support from mathematical statistics. In this paper, it is shown that for rectangular regions the usual line intercept estimators for cover, density, and other attributes are unbiased for certain systematic sampling plans. The estimators are approximately unbiased for "large" irregularly shaped study regions.
    • Vegetational Responses Following Control of Sand Shinnery Oak with Tebuthiuron

      Jacoby, P. W.; Slosser, J. E.; Meadors, C. H. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      Tebuthiuron {N-[5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-thia-diazol-2-yl]-N,N′-dimethylurea} pellets were applied aerially in April 1979 at rates of 0.5 and 1.0 kg ai./ha to rangelands supporting a uniform stand of sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii Rydb.) near Andrews, Texas. Tebuthiuron pellets were applied at 1.1 kg ai/ha to a second location near Jayton, Texas, in March 1980. Sand shinnery oak was significantly reduced (P is lesser than or equal to 0.05) in treated plots at both locations. Yields of annual and perennial grasses were significantly greater (P is lesser than or equal to 0.05) and those of forbs significantly less (P is less than or equal to 0.05) on tebuthiuron-treated plots at Andrews. Untreated plots at Andrews had more bare soil than those treated with tebuthiuron after 18 and 30 months. Grass yields at the Jayton site were greater, although no significant (P is less than or equal to 0.05) differences occurred with forb yields.
    • Seed Germination Characteristics of Two Woody Legumes (Retama and Twisted Acacia) from South Texas

      Everitt, J. H. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      The seed germination characteristics of retama (Parkinsonia aculeata) and twisted acacia (Acacia schaffneri) were investigated in relation to temperature and light regimes, substrate salinity, pH, osmotic potential, seed age, and seedling emergence. Seed germination of both species is restricted by impermeable seed coats. Soaking seeds of both species in concentrated sulfuric acid for 45 min increased germination. Retama seed germination was greater than or equal to 87% at continuous temperatures of 15 to 35 degrees C and at alternating temperatures of 10-20, 15-25, and 20-30 degrees C, while twisted acacia seed germination was greater than or equal to 58% at constant temperatures of 15 to 30 degrees C and at alternating temperatures of 10-20, 15-25, and 20-30 degrees C. Light was not required for germination, and no dormancy mechanisms were observed. Viability of twisted acacia and retama seeds was not reduced after storage at room conditions for 2 years. Germination and radicle length were sensitive to osmotic potentials of polyethylene glycol solutions of 0.4 MPa and no germination occurred at 1.4 MPa. Germination of both species was only mildly depressed in aqueous solutions of 10 g/l NaCl; however, radicle elongation of both species was reduced at 5 g/l NaCl and severely inhibited at 10 g/l NaCl. The osmotic potentials of the NaCl solutions had little effect on germination, but they may have contributed to reduced radicle growth. Percent germination and seedling radicle length of both species were relatively tolerant of pH extreme. Twisted acacia seedling emergence was highest when the seeds were left exposed on the soil surface, whereas optimum retama seedling emergence occurred when seeds were covered with 1 to 7 cm of soil.
    • Soil Characteristics Related to Production on Subclover-Grass Range

      Jones, M. B.; Williams, W. A.; Vaughn, C. E. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      In northwestern California moisture is usually not limiting for range production during the annual winter-spring growing season. It is, therefore, important to understand how other site factors, both physical and chemical, affect range production. Ridge regression analysis and simple correlations were used to evaluate range production as related to site slope and elevation; soil depth, texture, bulk density, water holding capacity, and pH; and several chemical measures of soil fertility including available P and S, exchangeable cations, total N and S, and organic matter. Subclover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) - grass production was measured at 17 typical range sites for 4 fertilizer treatments: P0S0, P300S0, P0S90, P300S90 (subscripts = kg/ha). When no fertilizer was applied, soil pH and available P appeared to be the 2 variables most closely related to yield. Forage production increased when P and S fertilizers were applied. When P was applied, exchangeable soil K was the most important variable related to yield; and when S was applied, available P was the variable most closely related to production. When P and S were applied together, available P and K were most closely related to yield. While there was generally a striking response to applied S, our measures of available soil S were poorly related to production.
    • Some Factors Affecting Twig Growth in Blackbrush

      Provenza, F. D.; Malechek, J. C.; Urness, P. J.; Bowns, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      Domestic goat browsing was used to stimulate twig production by blackbrush. Precipitation, soil depth and stoniness, branch location, and the number of years of browsing and rest from browsing affected twig production (P<0.05). As precipitation doubled, production increased by a factor of 1.9. Twig production by plants growing on deep soils (71 cm) was 1.9 times that by plants growing on shallow soils (39 cm). Older branches growing on the outer edges of blackbrush plants (terminal branches) produced 4.6 times more current season's twigs than sprouts and young branches (basal branches) growing within the shrub canopy. Heavily browsed plants increased twig production by a factor of 3.6 relative to control plants, and production remained at this level, even after 4 consecutive years of browsing. Annual twig production declined with rest from browsing. However, plants that were browsed and subsequently rested for 2 years yielded an aggregate 1.6 times more available forage than plants that were browsed on a yearly basis. This was due to an accumulation of twigs ranging in age from 1 to 3 years.
    • Diets of Bison and Cattle on a Seeded Range in Southern Utah

      Van Vuren, D.; Bray, M. P. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      Diets of bison (Bison bison) and cattle (Bos taurus) were evaluated on a southern Utah range seeded to crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Bison feces comprised 96% grasses and sedges, 4% forbs, and 1% shrubs. Cattle feces comprised 88% grasses and sedges, 4% forbs, and 8% shrubs. Diets were 91% similar, indicating a high potential for competition between bison and cattle.
    • Comparison of Big Sagebrush Vegetation in Northcentral New Mexico under Moderately Grazed and Grazing Excluded Conditions

      Holechek, J. L.; Stephenson, T. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      Vegetation canopy cover on upland and lowland sites inside and outside a 22-year-old exclosure in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata tridentata) range was evaluated by sampling for canopy cover. The area outside the exclosure had received moderate use of grazable forage by cattle in the late winter and spring for the past 22 years. The two sites did not show a consistent response to grazing. Big sagebrush canopy cover was higher inside the exclosure on the upland site and higher outside the exclosure on the lowland site. Big sagebrush dominated the canopy cover both inside and outside the exclosure on both sites and relatively little understory was present. Forbs were nearly absent from the area, which is attributed to a past history of heavy sheep grazing. Elimination of grazing had little effect on vegetation composition on both sites studied.