• Yield of Three Range Grasses Grown Alone and in Mixtures with Legumes

      McGinnies, W. J.; Townsend, C. E. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      Four legumes and 3 grasses in combination, and the 3 grasses alone were evaluated for forage yield and persistence for 9 years in north-central Colorado. Sicklepod milkvetch (Astragalus falcatus), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) or crownvetch (Coronilla varia) were planted in alternate rows with crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum), Russian wildrye (Elymus junceus), or pubescent wheatgrass (A. trichophorum). Crownvetch failed to become established. Sainfoin, a short-lived species under Colorado range conditions, was gone within 5 years. Alfalfa persisted 7 years; it was killed by a combination of drought and pocket gophers. Sicklepod milkvetch persisted for the entire period. This site was too dry for pubescent wheatgrass and its stand declined rapidly. Crested wheatgrass with sicklepod milkvetch or alfalfa, and Russian wildrye with alfalfa produced the highest total yields. All grass-legume mixtures involving crested wheatgrass and Russian wildrye produced significantly more forage than the grasses grown alone in 30 cm row spacing. Crude protein content was higher for grass-legume mixtures than for the grass alone.
    • Vehicle Impacts on Northern Great Plains Range Vegetation

      Payne, G. F.; Foster, J. W.; Leininger, W. C. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      Three levels of vehicle impact (2, 8, 32 trips over the same tracks) were applied on rangelands near Ashland, Mont., using a four-wheel-drive Chevrolet Blazer with mud and snow radial tires. The impacts were applied each month, May to September, on previously unimpacted range. Canopy coverage measurements and ground and aerial photography were used to evaluate the impact effects. In the year of impact, canopy coverage measurements showed increasing damage to the vegetation as the number of trips increased. Damage was greater on very moist to wet soils than on dry soils. Vegetation measurements the year following the impacts did not show carry-over damage to vegetation from the 2 and 8 trip treatments, except for range impacted when the soils were wet. These measurements did show carry-over damage to shrubs from 32 trips, but not to grasses and forbs. Ground and aerial photographs in the first year after the impacts still showed visual evidence of 8 and 32 trip impacts. Aerial photographs taken the second year after the impacts still showed evidence of all 32 trip treatments and some 8 trip treatments. Color infrared film gave superior results when the vegetation was actively growing. Color film was superior when the vegetation had dried.
    • Vegetation Changes from 1935 to 1980 in Mesquite Dunelands and Former Grasslands of Southern New Mexico

      Hennessy, J. T.; Gibbens, R. P.; Tromble, J. M.; Cardenas, M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      On the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico, 2 belt transects, 30.5 cm in width and totaling 2,188 m in length, were established in 1935 on 2 areas where honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) was spreading into black grama [Bouteloua eriopoda (Torr.) Torr.] grassland. Maps were made of the transects which portrayed the vegetation occurring in each of the 7,180 contiguous, $0.09\text{-}{\rm m}^{2}$ plots along the transect. The vegetation on the transects in 1980 was compared to that portrayed by the transect maps made in 1935. One transect had been read in 1950 and 1955. During the 45-year period mesquite attained complete dominance and many new mesquite dunes formed. Black grama had a relatively high frequency in 1935 but had completely disappeared by 1980, both on an area grazed by livestock and on an area protected from grazing. Mesa dropseed [Sporobolus flexuosus (Thurb.) Rydb.], fluffgrass [Erioneuron pulchellum (H.B.K.) Tateoka] and broom snakeweed [Xanthocephalum sarothrae (Pursh) Shinners] increased in abundance, even during the drought period between 1950 and 1955. Only 25% of the perennial forb species encountered in 1935-55 were found in 1980.
    • Summer Food Habits of Domestic Sheep in Southeastern Montana

      Alexander, L. E.; Uresk, D. W.; Hansen, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      The summer food habits of sheep were investigated in a sagebrush-grass rangeland in southeastern Montana. Grasses and sedges made up 96% of the diets. Prairie sandreed (40%), needleleaf sedge (28%), and western wheatgrass (20%) were the most important foods. Forbs and shrubs made up less than 1 and 3% of sheep diets, respectively.
    • Short-term Changes in a Cottonwood-Ash-Willow Association on a Grazed and an Ungrazed Portion of Little Ash Creek in Central Arizona

      Szaro, R. C.; Pase, C. P. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      Recovery of a cottonwood-ash-willow association from overgrazing has been extremely limited over a 4-year period. Seedling reproduction and herbaceous cover has increased; however, overstory tree species composition has not changed. Tree growth was not affected by grazing. The younger, associated, codominant tree species differed in composition between the grazed and ungrazed plots.
    • Seedbed Ecology of Winterfat: Fruits Versus Threshed Seeds

      Booth, D. T.; Schuman, G. E. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      This series of studies compare winterfat establishment from whole fruits and seed. The studies have demonstrated that the long hairs of the fruit function as 'anchors' which help the radicle of a germinant to penetrate and begin growth into the soil. Other factors associated with the fruit also aid plant establishment. These factors have to do with better positive geotropic response of the radicle and with seedling vigor as measured by radicle growth in the soil. For these reasons, seedling establishment is better when fruits are broadcast, rather than when threshed seed is broadcast or planted at a 0.64 cm depth. Soaking fruits in water at 0 degrees C for 48 hours significantly improved germination rate and percentage. Recommendations are made for field planting winterfat.
    • Seasonal Changes in Yield, Digestibility, and Crude Protein of Vegetative and Floral Tillers of Two Grasses

      White, L. M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      The seasonal change of dry matter (DM) yield, estimated in vivo dry matter digestibility (DMD), and crude protein content of the vegetative and floral tillers of 'Rosana' western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii) and 'Lodorm' green needlegrass (Stipa viridula) was determined on forage harvested April through October on 10 dates during 1973 and on 11 dates during 1974. Vegetative tillers on both grasses were comparable in seasonal DM yield, DMD, and crude protein for both years. Flora tillers of western wheatgrass produced only 20% as much forage as did floral tillers of green needlegrass; however, they contained on the average 2 and 4 percentage units more crude protein and DMD, respectively, than floral tillers of green needlegrass. On an average, floral tillers contained 4 and 8 percentage units less crude protein and DMD, respectively, than companion vegetative tillers. When floral tillers are harvested before DMD decreases below 50%, they are most valuable for maintenance of mature animals. Preventing development of floral tillers would increase DMD but decrease DM yield.
    • Responses of Selected Wildlife Species to the Removal of Mesquite from Desert Grassland in Southeastern Arizona

      Germano, D. J.; Hungerford, R.; Martin, S. C. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      Activities of selected wildlife species were observed from September 1976 to June 1978 in an undisturbed velvet mesquite (Prosopis juliflora var. velutina) stand, on range cleared of mesquite, and in a mesquite stand with spot clearings on the Santa Rita Experimental Range near Tucson, Ariz. More black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus), antelope jackrabbits (Lepus alleni), and Gambel's quail (Lophortyx gambelii), were seen in undisturbed mesquite and mesquite with clearings than on mesquite-free range. Likewise, more bird calls were heard in the undisturbed and partially cleared mesquite than on mesquite-free range. Apparent differences in bird and mammal populations between the undisturbed stand and the partially cleared stand were not significant and were generally small.
    • Response of Wildlife Food Plants to Spring Discing of Mesquite Rangeland in Northwest Texas

      Webb, W. M.; Guthery, F. S. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      The response of wildlife food plants to spring discing of mesquite rangeland was studied in northwest Texas during 1978-80. Discing increased the canopy coverage and frequency of Halls panicum but usually decreased coverage and frequency of other grasses for at least 1 year. Discing promoted western ragweed, amaranth, hairy false-nightshade, scarlet gaura, scarlet globemallow, green carpetweed, and silverleaf nightshade and discouraged yellow woodsorrel, plantain, common broomweed, and Gordon bladderpod.
    • Response of Selected Plant Species Seeded on Mule Deer Winter Range

      Leckenby, D. A.; Toweill, D. E. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      A selection of 13 bunchgrasses, 4 legumes, and 2 shrubs were planted in 2 seasons in 5 plant communities within the sagebrush-bunchgrass and juniper zones of the Fort Rock mule herd winter range in south-central Oregon. Rate of establishment averaged 3.9% for all planted species, and it was generally dependent on seeding rate, season, and plant community. Standard crested wheatgrass, Siberian wheatgrass, smooth brome, hard fescue, and antelope bitterbrush established better when planted in the fall. Intermediate wheatgrass, streambank wheatgrass, Ladak alfalfa, and hairy vetch established better when planted in the spring. From 31 to 3% of the plants of standard crested wheatgrass, Siberian wheatgrass, pubescent wheatgrass, hard fescue, and antelope bitterbrush survived to the sixth growing season. Standard crested wheatgrass, Siberian wheatgrass, and pubescent wheatgrass survived best in the juniper/big sagebrush-antelope bitterbrush community, but antelope bitterbrush survived at a slightly higher rate in the juniper/antelope bitterbrush-big sagebrush community.
    • Relationship between Cutler Mormon-tea [Ephedra cutleri] and Coppice Dunes in Determining Range Trend in Northeastern Arizona

      Hodgkinson, H. S. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      Range trend is one of the basic components of rangeland inventories. Understanding the interactions between soil, climatic factors, and vegetation aids the range manager in determining and predicting trend. Coppice dunes, dune interspace, and vegetation were evaluated in northeastern Arizona. Soil with a surface layer of loamy fine sand is susceptible to wind erosion. If Cutler Mormontea is part of the plant community, coppice dunes may form. Range trend can be determined and predicted by observing the status of the coppice dunes, the dune interspace, and their vegetation.
    • Plant-soil Relationships on Bentonite Mine Spoils and Sagebrush-grassland in the Northern High Plains

      Sieg, C. H.; Uresk, D. W.; Hansen, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      Plant canopy cover, standing crop, and soils were sampled on (1) old (unreclaimed), (2) reclaimed, (3) semireclaimed (newly mined) bentonite mine spoils and (4) native sagebrush-grass rangelands in southeastern Montana. Plant cover and standing crop were higher on sagebrush-grass rangelands than on all bentonite spoils. Scurfless saltbush (Atriplex suckleyi) was the most successful and abundant plant on bentonite spoils. Soil chemical analyses indicated that low pH, excessive salinity and sodium, plus soil compaction were limiting for plant growth and establishment on bentonite spoils.
    • Molybdenosis in an Area Underlain by Uranium-bearing Lignites in the Northern Great Plains

      Stone, L. R.; Erdman, J. A.; Feder, G. L.; Holland, H. D. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      In the fall of 1975, cattle grazing to the north of an abandoned uranium mine on Flint Butte in Harding County, S. Dak., showed signs of molybdenosis, a disease due to molybdenum-induced copper deficiency. To identify the source of the problem, plant, water, and soil samples were collected on a grid design over a 16 km2 (~9 miles2) area around Flint Butte. Uranium, molybdenum, and copper concentrations were determined in western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii) and sweetclover (Mililotus officinalis); molybdenum and copper concentrations and pH were determined in pond waters; and the pH of soils was determined. Ratios of copper to molybdenum in the forage were found to be below 2:1, the lowest value considered safe for cattle. Molybdenum concentrations in some surface waters were extremely high. These conditions are related to the outcrop of uranium- and molybdenum-bearing lignites at Flint Butte and in the nearby Flint Hills. Similar lignites are widespread, and it is likely that nutritional problems of the type encountered in the Flint Butte area exist in similar geologic terrain over a broad region of the northern Great Plains.
    • Influence of Clay and Organic Matter of Rangeland Soils on Tebuthiuron Effectiveness

      Duncan, K. W.; Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      Phytotoxicity of tebuthiuron applied at 0.12, 0.25, or 0.5 ppm to 10 different rangeland soils containing huisache in the greenhouse was inversely related with clay and organic matter contents. However, influences of soil properties were greatest at low herbicide dosages and could be masked by increasing tebuthiuron application rate. For example, tebuthiuron at 1 or 2 ppm killed the huisache after 287 days, regardless of soil, whereas 0.12 or 0.25 ppm killed huisache only when applied to soils with less than 15% clay (these soils contained less than 2.5% organic matter). Potential for tebuthiuron phytotoxicity appears to be greatly diminished in soils containing more than 30% clay. Although the effects of organic matter were confounded with soil clay contents in this study, variations in clay content consistently accounted for a greater proportion of variation in huisache response than did organic matter content.
    • Huisache Growth, Browse Quality, and Use Following Burning

      Rasmussen, G. A.; Scifres, C. J.; Drawe, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      Exposure of huisache plants to fire for 5, 10, or 20 sec on Coastal Prairie in June, August, October, or December 1979, and February or April 1980 usually killed canopies of 90% or more of the plants. However, all burned huisache plants sprouted following treatment, regardless of season or intensity of burning. Precipitation, rather than season of treatment appeared to regulate rate of huisache regrowth following burning. Huisache 1 to 2 m tall replaced their original heights by the end of the second growing season after burning. New growth of huisache plants burned in winter contained more crude protein and phosphorus into late summer, than did browse from unburned plants. Differences in crude protein contents between twigs from burned and unburned plants were greatest following significant rainfall; there were no differences during dry periods. Although burning in late August increased number of twigs available for browsing, it did not affect percentage of available huisache twigs which were browsed. Large browsers (white-tailed deer and cattle) and small animals (rodents and lagomorphs) apparently accounted for most browse removal during the first 60 to 90 days postburn. However, insects apparently consumed most of the huisache browse during the growing season following burning in August.
    • Germination Requirements of Green Needlegrass (Stipa viridula Trin.)

      Fulbright, T. E.; Redente, E. F.; Wilson, A. M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      Germination requirements of green neddlegrass (Stipa viridula Trin.) were studied because of its potential for use in revegetation of disturbed lands. The effects of temperature, light, physiological, and mechanical treatments on germination of green needlegrass seed from 4 sources were examined to determine requirements for maximum germination and possible causes of dormancy. Optimum temperatures for germination were 20 degrees C (constant) and 20-15 degrees C (16 hr-8 hr alternation). Germination was highest in constant darkness. Greatest germination of the most dormant source occurred when seeds were either prechilled or treated with gibberellic acid and the lemma and palea was clipped with a razor blade. The results indicated that dormancy of green needlegrass seeds was associated with a deficiency of endogenous gibberellins and with mechanical and permeability restrictions imposed by the lemma and palea.
    • Fuel-Load Reductions Resulting from Prescribed Burning in Grazed and Ungrazed Douglas-fir Stands

      Zimmerman, G. T.; Neuenschwander, L. F. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      Prescribed understory burning was carried out in both grazed and ungrazed Douglas-fir stands on the University of Idaho Experimental Forest. Burning conditions were moderately cool with 10-hr time-lag fuel moisture varying from 11 to 19%. Preburn and postburn fuel loadings were determined by use of the planar intersect method. Preburn data indicated greater fuel accumulations in grazed stands, 55,460 kg/ha, as compared to ungrazed stands, 44,710 kg/ha. Difficulty in achieving a satisfactory rate-of-spread and fire intensity was encountered due to the combined effects of a very dry summer followed by a wet fall. Moist conditions on the study site, lack of fine fuels, and accumulation of heavy fuels in the grazed portion produced a burn of patchy nature. Fire rate of spread varied from 0 to 183 cm/minute with flame height up to 91 cm. Result was a fuel reduction of 60.2% in the grazed stand and 35.2% in the ungrazed stand. Prolonged grazing in this area had created a dense, overstocked stand with insufficient fine fuels to carry a fire, which severely limited the effectiveness of prescribed burning.
    • Food Habits of Nilgai Antelope in Texas

      Sheffield, W. J. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      A 2-year food habit study of the nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus) and its forage selections compared with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cattle was conducted in south Texas. Rumen analyses of 79 nilgai and 40 deer, collected on various feeding sites, and bite studies on the same sites using two captive nilgai and a trained steer showed no significant difference (P>0.05) in forage classes taken between the 2 methods. Nilgai preferred to feed on large open areas interspersed with cover and ponded water. They were grazers, their average diet consisting of 60% grasses, 25% forbs, and 15% browse. They augmented the nutritive level of their basic diet by selecting nutritious plant parts and changing their selections as the parts appeared, waned, and fluctuated in quality with the seasons. When food was scarce, nilgai ate more browse, dead vegetation, and dry dung of large herbivores. The quality and quantity of their forage was within the levels published for cattle and North American big game. They maintained a feeding role intermediate between cattle, which used mainly grass, and deer, which used forbs heavily. When food supply and variety was low, nilgai competed strongly with cattle for grass and deer for forbs. The 3 species seem compatible where there is good variety of browse and herbage, and control of their respective numbers.
    • Fistula Sample Numbers Required to Determine Cattle Diets on Forest and Grassland Ranges

      Holechek, J. L.; Vavra, M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      The variation among esophageal fistulated (EF) cattle in diet nutritive content and botanical composition selection was evaluated on forest and grassland range in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon during the summer of 1976. Botanical composition of diet samples was determined with microhistological analysis. Nutritive value was evaluated by analyses for crude protein, acid detergent fiber, permanganate lignin, and in vitro organic matter digestibility. Four collections were made from 4 EF heifers during each of 4 28-day periods on each vegetation type. Collections were alternated between morning and afternoon on each vegetation type. EF cattle selected diets of different (P<.05) botanical composition and nutritive quality in the early morning compared with the late afternoon. They grazed open grassland areas in the morning and shaded areas in the afternoon. Several more EF cattle and collections were required to determine diet botanical composition than nutritive quality on both the forest and grassland. A minimum of 4 EF cattle and 4 collections were needed to adequately sample diet nutritive characteristics on the grassland and forest pastures. The data indicated collections should be rotated between morning and afternoon on ranges supporting a mosaic of grassland and forest plant communities.