• Coyote Predation on Sheep, and Control by Aversive Conditioning in Saskatchewan

      Jelinski, D. E.; Rounds, R. C.; Jowsey, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      A study was conducted in 1975 and 1976 to assess domestic sheep (Ovis aries) losses to coyotes (Canis latrans) and evaluate the effectiveness of lithium chloride (LiCl) for controlling depredation in Saskatchewan. Nineteen seventy-five was a control year during which no program of aversive conditioning was in place. In 1976, lithium chloride was introduced as a taste aversion producing agent in treated baits and carcasses at 16 sites. Results were collected through personal interviews with cooperators and by means of mail-in questionnaires. Total lamb and sheep mortality attributed to coyotes within the monitored flocks was 4.0% in 1975 and 1.5% in 1976. Coyotes preyed on lambs 90% of the time in 1975 and 78% in 1976. In 1975 coyotes killed 802 lambs and 80 adult sheep in the monitored flocks. Within the total flock population, lamb losses were 3.6% and adult sheep losses were 0.4%. In 1976 coyotes killed 223 lambs, (2.3% of lambs) and sheep losses remained relatively stable at 78 (0.7% of adults). Lamb losses comprised 1.1% of the total flock population, and adult sheep losses 0.4%. During a period of relatively stable pricing, monetary losses were estimated at $41,195.34 in 1975 and $11,531.00 in 1976. The concurrence of lethal and other nonlethal coyote control measures, together with absence of coyote demographic data, precludes the unequivocal statement that the 66% reduction in predation was caused by LiCl treatment, but we suggest that LiCl was a major influence.
    • Mortality of Cattle on Two Types of Grazing Areas in Northwestern Alberta

      Bjorge, R. R. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Cattle mortality was investigated on 3 intensively managed Provincial Grazing Reserves (PGR) and 7 heavily treed, less intensively managed woodland grazing leases (Simonette pastures) in northwestern Alberta during 1976-1979 inclusive. Cattle losses (including dead and missing animals) on the Simonette pastures averaged 2.7 times greater than losses on the PGR. Calves were lost at a greater rate than yearlings and mature cattle on both types of grazing areas. Calves born on the Simonette pastures died at a rate nearly 5 times that of calves born prior to entering these pastures. Death from predation accounted for 48.4% of 33 recorded deaths on the Simonette pastures compared to 3.3% of 90 deaths on PGR. Greater losses of cattle on the Simonette pastures appeared associated with greater concentration of trees, less intensive supervision, and greater numbers and species of predators.
    • Prescribed Burning on B.C. Rangelands: The State of the Art

      Wikeem, B. M.; Strang, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      This paper reviews research and experiences up to the present in the use of fire as a rangeland management tool in British Columbia. Although the climate of opinion towards burning is becoming increasingly more favourable, little specific information is yet available to allow precise use of fire for habitat modification. Some results from north-western United States are applicable but these are sometimes contradictory and, not infrequently, incomplete. A program of fire ecology research is outlined which will provide the necessary information to permit the use of fire to achieve specific range management objectives.