• Mortality of Cattle on Two Types of Grazing Areas in Northwestern Alberta

      Bjorge, R. R. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Cattle mortality was investigated on 3 intensively managed Provincial Grazing Reserves (PGR) and 7 heavily treed, less intensively managed woodland grazing leases (Simonette pastures) in northwestern Alberta during 1976-1979 inclusive. Cattle losses (including dead and missing animals) on the Simonette pastures averaged 2.7 times greater than losses on the PGR. Calves were lost at a greater rate than yearlings and mature cattle on both types of grazing areas. Calves born on the Simonette pastures died at a rate nearly 5 times that of calves born prior to entering these pastures. Death from predation accounted for 48.4% of 33 recorded deaths on the Simonette pastures compared to 3.3% of 90 deaths on PGR. Greater losses of cattle on the Simonette pastures appeared associated with greater concentration of trees, less intensive supervision, and greater numbers and species of predators.
    • Pedicellate Spikelet Fertility in Big Bluestem from Eastern South Dakota

      Boe, A.; Ross, J. G.; Wynia, R. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Within a nursery of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vit.) from seed collections made in eastern South Dakota, 86% of the plants possessed fertile pedicellate spikelets. From 10 random culms of 462 plants representing 20 different collection sites, seed-bearing sessile and pedicellate spikelets were separated and weighed. A highly significant difference was found among sites for pedicellate spikelet seed yield. Fertile pedicellate yield was positively correlated (r = 0.69, P < 0.01) with total seed yield of ten culms. Pedicellate spikelet caryopses were smaller than sessiles from the same plant, suggesting they were of inferior quality.
    • Prescribed Burning on B.C. Rangelands: The State of the Art

      Wikeem, B. M.; Strang, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      This paper reviews research and experiences up to the present in the use of fire as a rangeland management tool in British Columbia. Although the climate of opinion towards burning is becoming increasingly more favourable, little specific information is yet available to allow precise use of fire for habitat modification. Some results from north-western United States are applicable but these are sometimes contradictory and, not infrequently, incomplete. A program of fire ecology research is outlined which will provide the necessary information to permit the use of fire to achieve specific range management objectives.
    • Presowing Seed Treatment and Temperature Effects on Germination of Engelmannia pinnatifida and Indigofera miniata var. leptosepala

      Kissock, D. C.; Haferkamp, M. R. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Research was conducted to evaluate the effects of presowing seed treatments and temperature on germination of seeds of Engelmann daisy (Engelmannia pinnatifida) and western indigo (Indigofera miniata var. leptosepala). The seeds were imbibed in controlled environmental conditions for 14 days with night/day temperatures of 5/15, 10/20, 15/25, or 20/30 degrees C and a 12-hour photoperiod corresponding with the high temperature. Seed treatments prior to imbibition included: mechanical scarification, immersion in hot water (80 degrees C) for 3 min., acid scarification by immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid for 17 min., and an untreated control. Percent germination was affected by both temperature and presowing seed treatments. Maximum germination (43%) of Engelmann daisy was attained by untreated seeds at 20/30 degrees C. Presowing seed treatments did not significantly increase germination of Engelmann daisy at any temperature. Western indigo seeds which were mechanically or acid scarified germinated over 90% in the 10/20, 15/25 and 20/30 degrees C temperature regimes. Seeds immersed in hot water germinated from 59-68%, and untreated seeds germinated from 17-42% in the same environmental conditions.
    • Quality of Forage and Cattle Diets on the Wyoming High Plains

      Hart, R. H.; Abdalla, O. M.; Clark, D. H.; Marshall, M. B.; Hamid, M. H.; Waggoner, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Diets of cattle grazing crested wheatgrass [Agropyron desertorum (Fisch.) Schult.] or native range pastures and major forage species in these diets were analysed for crude protein (CP), acid and neutral detergent fiber (ADF and NDF), lignin, and in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) 1975-1978. Objectives were to determine (1) rate of change in forage quality, (2) effect of weather on rate of change, and (3) degree of selection for diet quality by cattle. CP of 6 forage species declined .03-.23 percentage points/day, while IVDMD declined .06-.90 points/day. CP and IVDMD of western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii Rydb.), blue grama [Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. ex Steud.], and scarlet globemallow [Spahaeralcea coccinea (Pursh.) Rydb.] were high in spring, while ADF, NDF, and lignin were low, but quality of grasses decreased much faster than that of the forb. Quality of needleandthread (Stipa comata Trin. & Rupr.) was lower than that of the other two grasses in spring, but CP declined more slowly then, while IVDMD declined at the same rates as that of blue grama and western wheatgrass. Quality of sedges (Carex spp.) was similar to that of western wheatgrass and blue grama in spring, but CP decreased faster while fiber components increased slower than those of grasses. CP of western wheatgrass and blue grama was increased by abundant spring rainfall, while that of blue grama increased after heavy summer rains. As the season progressed, cattle on range selected diets higher in crude protein and lower in cellulose than expected on the basis of botanical composition of the diet and composition of individual species. Quality of forage consumed increased markedly in mid-July when immature blue grama replaced needleandthread in the diet. Quality of crested wheatgrass declined faster than that of range grasses, although it was higher early in the spring. Diets of cattle on crested wheatgrass pasture in early spring were lower in quality than clipped crested wheatgrass, because of consumption of standing dead material, but diets were higher in quality than clipped grass in late spring.
    • Quantity and Germinability of Oryzopsis hymenoides Seed in Lahontan Sands

      Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A.; Roundy, B. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      The location, quantity, and germinability of seed (caryopses) reserves of Oryzopsis hymenoides (R. & S.) Ricker in the soil were investigated at 4 locations in the Carson Desert of western Nevada. Numerous germinable seeds were recovered from the surface 15 cm of Lahontan sands. There was no clear relation between the number of seeds and depth of burial. On sites with pronounced dunes more seeds were found in the dune sands than in the interspaces. Seeds were recovered with and without evidence of sand abrasion of the indurate lemma and paleas. Seeds without wear marks were much more highly germinable (80%) than the more numerous seeds with wear marks (6%). The germinable seed reserve consisted of seeds that germinated without pretreatment when incubated at 20 degrees C; a much larger portion that required dissection to remove the indurate lemma and palea; and a fraction with embryo dormancy that had to be overcome with gibberellin enrichment of the germination substrate. Large numbers of opened, empty lemma and palea were found in the sands. Rodent enhancement of the germination of Oryzopsis hymenoides seeds appears to be a more valid hypothesis than mechanical abrasion from saltation.
    • Rangeland Ponding Dikes: Design Criteria

      Tromble, J. M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Water ponding is used for controlling onsite and runon water while increasing infiltration and soil water storage. The dikes are constructed in a crescent or horseshoe shape, with the first dike constructed at the highest elevation on the site and additional dikes at progressively lower elevations. Some factors affecting dike construction, layout and spacing are water ponding depth, percent slope, soil type, and site topography. Such dikes have improved soil water regime on arid rangelands by increasing the infiltration opportunity and have decreased the soil erosion potential by controlling overland flow.
    • Response of Forage Species Seeded for Mule Deer in Western Juniper Types of South-central Oregon

      Leckenby, D. A.; Toweill, D. E. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Mule deer and livestock forage supplies were increased by seeding 11 species of grasses, forbs, and shrubs within chained and nonchained western juniper thermal cover stands in south-central Oregon. Standard crested wheatgrass and Siberian wheatgrass were the only species that established in significant amounts. Wheatgrass densities were greater in chain-drill treatments than in drill-only treatments. Among all experimental units, differences in emergence and establishment (plants/m2) were greater than were differences in seeding rates (viable seeds/m2). Standard crested wheatgrass density exceeded that of Siberian wheatgrass over both treatments and six pretreatment vegetation subtypes. Emergence of seedlings and establishment of wheatgrass were all significantly related to subtype. The chain-drill treatment produced more spring forage than did the drill-only treatment. Neither treatment provided more winter forage.
    • Successional Trends in an Ungrazed, Arid Grassland Over a Decade

      Kleiner, E. F. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      A study has been made of the vegetational condition of a formerly grazed area, Chesler Park, in Canyonlands National Park. A comparison was made with the same area 10 years earlier. The 10-year successional changes are also compared to baseline data of 10 years earlier from Virginia Park, an adjacent ungrazed area. Because of inaccessibility and long isolation from disturbances, Virginia Park is presumed to be in climax condition and is the control for this study. Chesler Park shows a successional trend after 10 years toward the vegetational condition of Virginia Park. This is exemplified, with only one major exception (Hilaria jamesii), by responses of the perennial grasses (Stipa comata, Oryzopsis hymenoides, Sporobolus cryptandrus, Bouteloua gracilis) and the cryptogamic community, particularly the moss, Tortula ruralis. Species frequency, cover, vegetational characteristics, and stand classification support this conclusion. Prevalence of perennial grasses has declined and cryptogamic species have increased significantly.
    • Supplementation of Yearling Steers Grazing Fertilized and Unfertilized Northern Plains Rangeland

      Karn, J. F.; Lorenz, R. J. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Supplementation studies were conducted with yearling steers on a silty range site in central North Dakota, where yearly precipitation averaged 380 to 410 mm. The studies were conducted for 3 summers on both fertilized (45 kg N/ha) and unfertilized native pastures. Animal performance was compared to seasonal changes in the chemical composition of pasture samples collected with esophageal-fistulated steers. Chemical composition differences between diet samples from the fertilized and unfertilized pastures were inconsistent, but generally protein was higher and acid detergent fiber lower on the fertilized pasture. Supplementation with barley in the early summer resulted in little benefit, but supplementation with barley in the late summer, especially when pasture digestibility (in vitro) dropped to 50 to 52%, was beneficial on both the fertilized and unfertilized pastures. However, the response was not consistent between years. Barley supplementation appeared to be economically viable, but the feasibility of this practice will vary from year to year, depending on the price of barley relative to the price of steers. The results of protein supplementation were more erratic, possibly because of differences in precipitation patterns and hence plant growth between years.
    • The Influence of Dietary Nitrogen Source and Drinking Water pH on Growth, Digestibility, and Nitrogen Metabolism in Lambs Fed a High Roughage Diet

      Galyean, M. L.; Morrical, D. G.; Hayes, R.; Caton, J. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      The influence of drinking water pH and dietary nitrogen source on the growth and metabolism of young lambs fed a high roughage diet was examined in a series of trials. Two phases of a drylot feeding trial involved a comparison of diets in which all crude protein was derived from natural sources (NATURAL) or 25% of the crude protein equivalent was derived from urea (NPN). The third phase involved a comparison of NATURAL and NPN diets and drinking water of pH 5.5 to 6.0 or pH 9.0 to 9.5. Lambs tended to perform better on the NATURAL diet, largely due to increased feed consumption. Drinking water pH had no significant effects on performance. Twelve lambs were used in 3 successive metabolism trials. In trial 1 (NATURAL vs. NPN), no significant differences were observed in dry matter, organic matter, acid detergent fiber or cellulose digestibility. Nitrogen retention was similar for NPN-fed NATURAL-or NPN-fed lambs. Trials 2 and 3 compared NATURAL and NPN diets with pH 5.5 to 6.0 or pH 9.0 to 9.5 drinking water. Small but significant (P<.05) increases in dry matter, organic matter and cellulose digestion were observed with pH 9.0 to 9.5 drinking water in trial 2, and a similar effect was noted in NATURAL-fed lambs in trial 3. Nitrogen retention was not influenced by drinking water pH. These studies with high roughage diets indicate that drinking water pH would not appear to be a major concern in the management of rangeland ruminants.
    • Use of Reciprocal Averaging Ordination for the Study of Range Condition Gradients in Grazed Ecosystems

      Hacker, R. B. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      The use of a multivariate ordination procedure, Reciprocal Averaging, to study species responses to grazing along range condition gradients was investigated using both artificial and field data. Results suggest that the technique should be a useful aid in the elucidation of such responses and in the study of plant-environment relationships generally in grazed ecosystems.
    • Vegetational Evaluation of Pinyon-Juniper Cabling in South-Central New Mexico

      Rippel, P.; Pieper, R. D.; Lymbery, G. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Vegetational comparisons were made between areas where pinyon-juniper vegetation had been cabled in 1954 and uncabled areas. Total tree density on the cabled areas was about 80% of that on control areas. Basal area and canopy cover of trees was substantially lower on control areas than on cabled areas. Rhus trilobata and Xanthocephalum sarothrae apparently were the only shrubby species that responded to the cabling treatment. Basal cover of Bouteloua gracilis, Eragrostis erosa, and Muhlenbergia pauciflora was significantly greater on the control areas than on the cabled area.
    • While-tailed Deer Food Habits and Nutritional Status as Affected by Grazing and Deer-Harvest Management

      Warren, R. J.; Krysl, L. J. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      White-tailed deer were collected in 1979 and 1980 from two areas in central Texas to determine differences in diets and nutritional status between years, sexes, and areas. Area 1 was more heavily populated with white-tailed deer, exotic big game, and domestic livestock than Area 2. Differences in summer and fall precipitation levels between years were reflected in altered forb and browse consumption by deer as determined from rumen contents. Differences in forb selection, oak mast consumption, and juniper browse consumption were detected between areas and were considered evidence of differences in range condition between areas. White-tails obtained from Area 1 were older than those from Area 2, but were not significantly larger in carcass weights, which also reflected the lower range condition of Area 1. Crude protein levels of rumen contents were greater in females than males and were greater in deer obtained from Area 1 than Area 2. These differences in rumen protein resulted from differences in consumption of acorns, a highly preferred, but low protein food item. Kidney fat indices reflected differences in rainfall patterns between years. Native and exotic big game populations and livestock grazing must be controlled to maintain a high level of nutritional status in the economically important white-tailed deer of central Texas.