• Growth Performance Comparisons among 18 Accessions of Fourwing Saltbush (Atriplex canescens) at Two Sites in Central Utah

      McArthur, E. D.; Stevens, R.; Blauer, A. C. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Growth characteristics of 17 accessions and 1 selection of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens [Pursh] Nutt.) at 2 sites in Sanpete Valley, central Utah, were scored on 6-year-old mature plants. There was no difference in survival at the 2 sites, but plants at the Snow Field Station near Ephraim grew taller, were more vigorous, and exhibited more reproductive capacity than those at the Peacock Plot near Manti. The plants at Peacock Plot had a more upright growth habit, were more uniform, and exhibited less insect and disease damage than the Snow Field Station plants. A composite quality index (QI) revealed highly significant site and accession differences but little site × accession interaction. The individual traits (height, growth habit, uniformity, vigor, reproduction, and insect and disease damage resistance) all showed significant site effects and site × accession interaction. An accession and its selection from Rincon Blanco, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, performed well at both sites. Also performing well at both sites were a local accession from Excell Canyon, Sanpete County, Utah, and the gigas accession from the Little Sahara Sand Dunes, Juab County, Utah. In general, accessions from elevations higher than the test sites performed best. Accessions with high QI's are recommended for revegetation plantings of sites comparable to the 2 study sites. The Rincon Blanco material has good growth characteristics and may also be broadly adapted.
    • Effects of Single and Sequential Defoliations on the Carbohydrate Reserves of Four Range Species

      Menke, J. W.; Trlica, M. J. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Four range species, fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata), scarlet globemallow (Sphaeralcea coccinea), and blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) were defoliated heavily (removing 90% of the foliage) at 1 of 5 phenological stages. In addition, other plants were clipped from 1 to 6 times at 3 phenological stages over a 2-year period. Total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) reserves of fourwing saltbush and antelope bitterbrush were most sensitive to a single defoliation at the seed-shatter phenological stage. Blue grama was affected most at the rapid growth stage, whereas scarlet globemallow was not significantly affected by any of the single defoliations. A single defoliation proved adequate for determination of the most sensitive season for defoliation. Antelope bitterbrush was affected more by 6 successive intense defoliations than were the other 3 species: scarlet globemallow < blue grama < fourwing saltbush. TNC reserve cycles were severely dampened in antelope bitterbrush, and less so in fourwing saltbush.
    • Effectiveness of Antelope Pass Structures in Restriction of Livestock

      Gross, B. D.; Holechek, J. L.; Hallford, D.; Pieper, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      A study was conducted to test the restrictive efficiency of 5 antelope pass structures upon cattle and sheep. Cattle and sheep were placed under 3 stress situations, female water, female young, and male-female, to test fence restrictive ability of individual antelope pass structures. No single structure restricted all classes and types of livestock. Depending upon livestock class and type, proper selection and use of antelope pass structure will restrict livestock movement without severely restricting antelope movement. An 81.3-cm (32 in) net-wire fence most effectively restricted sheep, but cattle were most effectively restricted by a 2.4-m × 1.5-m (8 ft × 5 ft) horizontal grill. It appears that a horizontal grill within a fence line with certain modifications and placement constraints will effectively restrict sheep and cattle but permit antelope passage.
    • Disappearing Forbs in Microhistological Analysis of Diets

      Samuel, M. J.; Howard, G. S. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Most forage plants in animal diets can be identified by microhistological analysis. However, the epidermis of some forb species apparently does not survive the slide making process. These fragile species can probably be identified by the difficulty encountered in finding identifiable fragments on reference slides.
    • Differential Grazing Use of Herbicide-Treated Areas by Cattle

      Scifres, C. J.; Scifres, J. R.; Kothmann, M. M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Cows allowed free access to randomly placed plots of Bell rhodesgrass, kleingrass, and weeping lovegrass appeared to prefer to graze plots treated with 2.2 or 4.4 kg/ha (a.i.) of 20% tebuthiuron pellets compared to untreated plots, regardless of grass species. The apparent preference was observed during the summer and fall following herbicide application in the spring but was not detected the growing season 1 year after herbicide application. The cows also appeared to prefer herbicide-treated (2,4-D or picloram sprays at 1 kg/ha, tebuthiuron pellets at 0.5, 1 or 2 kg/ha [a.i.]) little bluestem-brownseed paspalum native stands to untreated plots. Moreover, cows usually grazed on plots treated with 1 or 2 kg/ha of tebuthiuron more than on those plots treated with 2,4-D or picloram sprays. Since all plots were mowed prior to the grazing trials, apparent grazing preferences were not attributable to differences in stage of grass maturity or to control of broadleaves by the herbicides.
    • Cytokinins Effect on Protein and Chlorophyll Content of Big Bluestem Leaves

      Towne, G.; Owensby, C. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Four concentrations of the synthetic cytokinin benzyladenine (BA) were applied to ungrazed tallgrass prairie near Manhattan, Kans., in 1979 on 4 biweekly dates beginning in mid-June. Changes in chlorophyll and crude protein content of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi Vitman) leaves from the different treatments were monitored weekly from August until early October. BA did not significantly delay chlorophyll breakdown in big bluestem, but leaves sprayed with 5 ppm BA contained higher mean chlorophyll contents throughout the sampling period than leaves from other treatments. Big bluestem receiving 5, 20, and 40 ppm BA applied in July had significantly more crude protein than untreated leaves, but 10 ppm BA had no effect on leaf protein content. Applying BA in mid-June was ineffective in maintaining high crude protein levels, regardless of concentration. BA did not alter protein or total nonstructural carbohydrate content in big bluestem rhizomes, indicating that it had no deleterious effect on internal nutrient reserve cycles. Applying 5 ppm BA in either mid- or late-July significantly increased herbage yields the next year in comparison with yields of untreated plots.
    • Crested Wheatgrass—Early History in the United States

      Rogler, G. A.; Lorenz, R. J. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      The first known introduction of crested wheatgrass into North America was made in 1898 by N.E. Hansen of the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station from the Valuiki Experiment Station about 150 miles north of what is now Volgograd, U.S.S.R. This introduction did not become generally distributed or used. The second introduction received on an exchange basis from the same U.S.S.R. experiment station in 1906 was planted and increased at experiment stations in Newell, S.D., and Mandan, N.D. These increases were responsible for the early distribution and establishment of crested wheatgrass in the United States. The cultivar Fairway distributed in Canada from the University of Saskatchewan in the late 1920's came from one of the accessions of the second introduction first planted at Newell, S.D. Crested wheatgrass has become the most successful and the most widely used introduced grass in the semiard and arid region of western United States.
    • Coyote Predation on Sheep, and Control by Aversive Conditioning in Saskatchewan

      Jelinski, D. E.; Rounds, R. C.; Jowsey, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      A study was conducted in 1975 and 1976 to assess domestic sheep (Ovis aries) losses to coyotes (Canis latrans) and evaluate the effectiveness of lithium chloride (LiCl) for controlling depredation in Saskatchewan. Nineteen seventy-five was a control year during which no program of aversive conditioning was in place. In 1976, lithium chloride was introduced as a taste aversion producing agent in treated baits and carcasses at 16 sites. Results were collected through personal interviews with cooperators and by means of mail-in questionnaires. Total lamb and sheep mortality attributed to coyotes within the monitored flocks was 4.0% in 1975 and 1.5% in 1976. Coyotes preyed on lambs 90% of the time in 1975 and 78% in 1976. In 1975 coyotes killed 802 lambs and 80 adult sheep in the monitored flocks. Within the total flock population, lamb losses were 3.6% and adult sheep losses were 0.4%. In 1976 coyotes killed 223 lambs, (2.3% of lambs) and sheep losses remained relatively stable at 78 (0.7% of adults). Lamb losses comprised 1.1% of the total flock population, and adult sheep losses 0.4%. During a period of relatively stable pricing, monetary losses were estimated at $41,195.34 in 1975 and $11,531.00 in 1976. The concurrence of lethal and other nonlethal coyote control measures, together with absence of coyote demographic data, precludes the unequivocal statement that the 66% reduction in predation was caused by LiCl treatment, but we suggest that LiCl was a major influence.
    • Correcting for Salivary Contamination of Esophageal Fistula Samples

      Hart, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      The effect of salivary contamination on composition of esophageal ejecta samples can be calculated easily. Such calculations indicate contamination has little effect on the concentration of any organic constituent. Rinsing ejecta samples in distilled water should be discontinued because it reduces crude protein concentration and in vitro dry matter digestibility and increases acid detergent fiber and lignin concentration.
    • Burning and 2,4,5-T Application on Mortality and Carbohydrate Reserves in Saw-Palmetto

      Kalmbacher, R. S.; Boote, K. J.; Martin, F. G. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      On the flatwoods of the southeastern United States control of saw-palmetto (Serenca repens (Bartr.) Small) is an important step in the improvement of native pastures. This study, conducted at the Ona Agricultural Research Center in south Florida, measured fluctuations in total available carbohydrates (TAC) in rhizomes of burned and unburned saw-palmetto which received a June or October application of 8.9 kg/ha (acid equiv.) of 2,4,5-T. Palmetto kill, change in palmetto cover, and grass canopy cover were evaluated. Burning reduced TAC concentration in rhizomes from 48.8% in March to 14.3% in July as compared to a drop from 47.2% to 37.4% for unburned plants. Applying 2,4,5-T caused a further significant decline in TAC concentration. Both burning and 2,4,5-T resulted in lower rhizome percent dry matter indicating that treatment stress caused metabolism of carbohydrate which was replaced by water. After 1 year there was higher mortality on palmetto receiving 2,4,5-T in June, but after 2 years there was no difference in mortality between June (48%) and October sprayed (39%) plants. Burning was not found to have a significant effect on mortality of sprayed plants. Burning and 2,4,5-T decreased palmetto cover, and burned plants treated with 2,4,5-T in June had less cover than burned plants treated in October with 2,4,5-T. Burning followed by 2,4,5-T application in June increased grass cover from 29.4% at the beginning of the study to 67.5% at the end.
    • Beef Cattle Performance on Crested Wheatgrass plus Native Range vs. Native Range Alone

      Hart, R. H.; Waggoner, J. W.; Clark, D. H.; Kaltenbach, C. C.; Hager, J. A.; Marshall, M. B. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Cattle gains and conception rates in 1974-1977 on crested wheatgrass pasture in spring and fall and native range in summer (CW-NR system) were compared with performance on native range throughout the grazing season (NR system). The CW-NR and NR systems were stocked at 0.20 and 0.10 AU/ha, respectively. Conception rates on CW-NR and NR were 84% and 86%, respectively, excluding results from 1975 when there were problems with heat detection; this difference was not significant. Cow, heifer, and calf gains (average of 0.30, 0.41, and 0.82 kg/day, respectively) and calf weaning weights (average of 196 kg) did not differ significantly between systems. Because of the higher carrying capacity of CW-NR, calf production averaged 24.8 kg/ha vs. 13.0 kg/ha on NR. Other advantages of the CW-NR system included reduced labor for heat checking and for gathering cows for breeding.
    • Analytical Reliability in the Decision Making Process—The Numbers Game

      McQuisten, R.; Gebhardt, K. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      This paper is not intended to give the pros or cons of conventional sampling methods (generators of numbers). Rather, our intent is to emphasize the importance of the credibility and integrity of the generated number, by what ever methodology selected, and point out some problems that can be encountered when numbers are poorly generated or analyzed. As generators of numbers we are responsible for the end-products of data analysis for the decision maker.
    • An Important Lichen of Southeastern Montana Rangelands

      MacCracken, J. G.; Alexander, L. E.; Uresk, D. W. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      The lichen (Parmelia chlorochroa) was most abundant in sagebrush and grassland vegetation associations, less so in the pine, and absent in riparian types. It was significantly associated with drier sites and bare ground. Lichens appear to have value in reducing erosion, as indicators of intensive grazing, and in contributing to the nutrient quality of soils.
    • Agronomic and Acetylene Reduction Evaluation of Three Annual Medics

      Smith, M. A.; Baltensperger, A. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Little research has been reported on nitrogen fixation of annual medics such as black medic (Medicago lupulina), barrel medic (M. truncatula) var. Jemalong, and California burclover (M. polymorpha). A greenhouse study was initiated with these 3 medic species to estimate their nitrogen fixation potentials. Considerable variations existed for all indices used to evaluate nitrogen fixation. Barrel medic, var. Jemalong, produced moderate acetylene reduction rates and had the highest top growth weights. This variety also maintained the greatest plant vigor throughout the observation period. High top growth weight, root fresh weight, nodule count, and root score were all associated with high acetylene reduction rates. Plant vigor and color scores were less associated with acetylene reduction rates. Assuming acetylene reduction is a true measure of nitrogen fixation, this experiment indicates the annual medics fix significant amounts of nitrogen.
    • A Point Frame for Circular Plots in Southern Forest-Ranges for Plant Cover Estimates

      Baker, R. L.; Thomas, C. E. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      A point frame has been modified to allow for plant cover estimates to a 152 cm height. Construction of a third crossmember that can be added to a 76-cm tall point frame allows sampling pins to be projected both upward and downward. Spacings between pins were changed to produce equal sampling areas while sampling circular plots. This design was tested with a miniature point frame on artificial plant populations and was shown to measure within +/- 5% of actual cover values.
    • A Modified 100-Point Frame for Vegetation Inventory

      Taha, F. K.; Fisser, H. G.; Ries, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      A modified point frame was developed for vegetation sampling on a short-grass prairie ecosystem in eastern Wyoming. This sampling device facilitates the recording of 100 point hits within a 30 × 60 cm quadrat at a given sampling location. This technique provides quantitative data very sensitive to general ground cover or vegetative changes over time within each quadrat.
    • "Improved" Sand Dams for Wildlife Habitat Management

      Bleich, V. C.; Weaver, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Suggestions for improving the efficiency, dependability, and simplicity of the sand dams described by Sivils and Brock (1981) are presented. Recommendations which may result in decreased installation and maintenance costs are included.