• Crested Wheatgrass—Early History in the United States

      Rogler, G. A.; Lorenz, R. J. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      The first known introduction of crested wheatgrass into North America was made in 1898 by N.E. Hansen of the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station from the Valuiki Experiment Station about 150 miles north of what is now Volgograd, U.S.S.R. This introduction did not become generally distributed or used. The second introduction received on an exchange basis from the same U.S.S.R. experiment station in 1906 was planted and increased at experiment stations in Newell, S.D., and Mandan, N.D. These increases were responsible for the early distribution and establishment of crested wheatgrass in the United States. The cultivar Fairway distributed in Canada from the University of Saskatchewan in the late 1920's came from one of the accessions of the second introduction first planted at Newell, S.D. Crested wheatgrass has become the most successful and the most widely used introduced grass in the semiard and arid region of western United States.
    • Cytokinins Effect on Protein and Chlorophyll Content of Big Bluestem Leaves

      Towne, G.; Owensby, C. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Four concentrations of the synthetic cytokinin benzyladenine (BA) were applied to ungrazed tallgrass prairie near Manhattan, Kans., in 1979 on 4 biweekly dates beginning in mid-June. Changes in chlorophyll and crude protein content of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi Vitman) leaves from the different treatments were monitored weekly from August until early October. BA did not significantly delay chlorophyll breakdown in big bluestem, but leaves sprayed with 5 ppm BA contained higher mean chlorophyll contents throughout the sampling period than leaves from other treatments. Big bluestem receiving 5, 20, and 40 ppm BA applied in July had significantly more crude protein than untreated leaves, but 10 ppm BA had no effect on leaf protein content. Applying BA in mid-June was ineffective in maintaining high crude protein levels, regardless of concentration. BA did not alter protein or total nonstructural carbohydrate content in big bluestem rhizomes, indicating that it had no deleterious effect on internal nutrient reserve cycles. Applying 5 ppm BA in either mid- or late-July significantly increased herbage yields the next year in comparison with yields of untreated plots.
    • Differential Grazing Use of Herbicide-Treated Areas by Cattle

      Scifres, C. J.; Scifres, J. R.; Kothmann, M. M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Cows allowed free access to randomly placed plots of Bell rhodesgrass, kleingrass, and weeping lovegrass appeared to prefer to graze plots treated with 2.2 or 4.4 kg/ha (a.i.) of 20% tebuthiuron pellets compared to untreated plots, regardless of grass species. The apparent preference was observed during the summer and fall following herbicide application in the spring but was not detected the growing season 1 year after herbicide application. The cows also appeared to prefer herbicide-treated (2,4-D or picloram sprays at 1 kg/ha, tebuthiuron pellets at 0.5, 1 or 2 kg/ha [a.i.]) little bluestem-brownseed paspalum native stands to untreated plots. Moreover, cows usually grazed on plots treated with 1 or 2 kg/ha of tebuthiuron more than on those plots treated with 2,4-D or picloram sprays. Since all plots were mowed prior to the grazing trials, apparent grazing preferences were not attributable to differences in stage of grass maturity or to control of broadleaves by the herbicides.
    • Disappearing Forbs in Microhistological Analysis of Diets

      Samuel, M. J.; Howard, G. S. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Most forage plants in animal diets can be identified by microhistological analysis. However, the epidermis of some forb species apparently does not survive the slide making process. These fragile species can probably be identified by the difficulty encountered in finding identifiable fragments on reference slides.
    • Effectiveness of Antelope Pass Structures in Restriction of Livestock

      Gross, B. D.; Holechek, J. L.; Hallford, D.; Pieper, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      A study was conducted to test the restrictive efficiency of 5 antelope pass structures upon cattle and sheep. Cattle and sheep were placed under 3 stress situations, female water, female young, and male-female, to test fence restrictive ability of individual antelope pass structures. No single structure restricted all classes and types of livestock. Depending upon livestock class and type, proper selection and use of antelope pass structure will restrict livestock movement without severely restricting antelope movement. An 81.3-cm (32 in) net-wire fence most effectively restricted sheep, but cattle were most effectively restricted by a 2.4-m × 1.5-m (8 ft × 5 ft) horizontal grill. It appears that a horizontal grill within a fence line with certain modifications and placement constraints will effectively restrict sheep and cattle but permit antelope passage.
    • Effects of Single and Sequential Defoliations on the Carbohydrate Reserves of Four Range Species

      Menke, J. W.; Trlica, M. J. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Four range species, fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata), scarlet globemallow (Sphaeralcea coccinea), and blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) were defoliated heavily (removing 90% of the foliage) at 1 of 5 phenological stages. In addition, other plants were clipped from 1 to 6 times at 3 phenological stages over a 2-year period. Total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) reserves of fourwing saltbush and antelope bitterbrush were most sensitive to a single defoliation at the seed-shatter phenological stage. Blue grama was affected most at the rapid growth stage, whereas scarlet globemallow was not significantly affected by any of the single defoliations. A single defoliation proved adequate for determination of the most sensitive season for defoliation. Antelope bitterbrush was affected more by 6 successive intense defoliations than were the other 3 species: scarlet globemallow < blue grama < fourwing saltbush. TNC reserve cycles were severely dampened in antelope bitterbrush, and less so in fourwing saltbush.
    • Growth Performance Comparisons among 18 Accessions of Fourwing Saltbush (Atriplex canescens) at Two Sites in Central Utah

      McArthur, E. D.; Stevens, R.; Blauer, A. C. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Growth characteristics of 17 accessions and 1 selection of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens [Pursh] Nutt.) at 2 sites in Sanpete Valley, central Utah, were scored on 6-year-old mature plants. There was no difference in survival at the 2 sites, but plants at the Snow Field Station near Ephraim grew taller, were more vigorous, and exhibited more reproductive capacity than those at the Peacock Plot near Manti. The plants at Peacock Plot had a more upright growth habit, were more uniform, and exhibited less insect and disease damage than the Snow Field Station plants. A composite quality index (QI) revealed highly significant site and accession differences but little site × accession interaction. The individual traits (height, growth habit, uniformity, vigor, reproduction, and insect and disease damage resistance) all showed significant site effects and site × accession interaction. An accession and its selection from Rincon Blanco, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, performed well at both sites. Also performing well at both sites were a local accession from Excell Canyon, Sanpete County, Utah, and the gigas accession from the Little Sahara Sand Dunes, Juab County, Utah. In general, accessions from elevations higher than the test sites performed best. Accessions with high QI's are recommended for revegetation plantings of sites comparable to the 2 study sites. The Rincon Blanco material has good growth characteristics and may also be broadly adapted.
    • Habitat Selection and Vegetational Characteristics of Antelope Fawn Bedsites in West Texas

      Tucker, R. D.; Garner, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Vegetative composition, dominance, and height of cover characteristics were measured at 60 daytime bedsites of pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) fawns in a desert grassland in southwest Texas. Fawns were fitted with radio transmitters and were located daily between 8 May and 9 July 1978. Igneous hill and mountain range sites were used 69% of the time during the first 4 weeks of age. Black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda), sideoats grama (B. curtipendula), hairy grama (B. hirsuta), and cane bluestem (Bothriochloa barbinodes) were the dominant species at bedsites of fawns 1 to 4 weeks of age. Cane bluestem and sideoats grama were the tallest species, averaging 52 and 42 cm in height, respectively. Blue grama (B. gracilis), tobosa grass (Hilaria mutica), and black grama were the species that occurred most often at bedsites of fawns 4 to 8 weeks of age. Cane bluestem, threeawns (Aristida spp.), sideoats grama, and tobosa grass had average heights of 46 cm, 38 cm, 41 cm, and 43 cm, respectively. Cover characteristics of the bedsites were taller than cover characteristics of the surrounding area (P<0.015) for fawns less than 4 weeks of age, but were the same for fawns over 4 weeks of age. Shrubs were not a major component of any bedsite. Management of areas used by fawns less than 4 weeks of age may be critical to young survival.
    • Herbage Production and Quality of Grasses with Livestock and Wildlife Value in Texas

      Pitman, W. D.; Holt, E. C. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Large economic returns to management of grazing lands for wildlife are often realized throughout Texas. Management of perennial pastures for livestock grazing and seed for game bird feed is restricted by the limited number of forage species with desirable seed production characteristics. Selected grasses with the desired seed production potential were evaluated for herbage yield and quality under intensive management. Green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia (H.B.K.) Nees), plains bristlegrass (Setaria macrostachya H.B.K.), and 2 selections of kleingrass (Panicum coloratum L.), Kleingrass 75 and Kleingrass 75-25, were harvested at 2, 4, and 8-wk frequencies at a 5-cm stubble height throughout the 1978 and 1979 growing seasons. In vitro digestible organic matter (IVDOM) and percent leaf were determined at each harvest date. Herbage yields were progressively greater with less frequent harvests. However, optimum yields of highly digestible, leafy herbage were obtained at the 4-wk harvest frequency. Kleingrass 75 herbage yield (2-yr average of 10,042 kg/ha at the 4-wk frequency) was highest followed closely by Kleingrass 75-25. Green sprangletop yield was limited by lack of persistence. Herbage yield of plains bristlegrass was low, but its tolerance of frequent defoliation and limited moisture indicate potential value in harsh environments. IVDOM of green sprangletop (2-yr average of 63.8% at the 4-wk harvest frequency) surpassed Kleingrass 75-25 (62.1%) and Kleingrass 75 (60.7%). Both kleingrass selections produced high yields of quality herbage.
    • "Improved" Sand Dams for Wildlife Habitat Management

      Bleich, V. C.; Weaver, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Suggestions for improving the efficiency, dependability, and simplicity of the sand dams described by Sivils and Brock (1981) are presented. Recommendations which may result in decreased installation and maintenance costs are included.
    • Improvement of Eastern Nebraska Tallgrass Range Using Atrazine or Glyphosate Herbicide Treatments

      Waller, S. S.; Schmidt, D. K. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Two herbicide treatments were initiated in southeastern Nebraska on a Wymore silty clay loam (clayey range site) during the spring of 1979, to change species composition of overgrazed, native range from cool- to warm-season grasses. Treatments consisted of late spring applications of atrazine [2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazione] at 2.24 kg/ha, and glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] at 1.12 kg/ha. Both herbicide treatments significantly (P<.05) reduced smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) production and relative species composition while increasing big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman) in 1979 and the effects were maintained during the second growing season. Warm-season herbage yield, primarily big bluestem, was greater following herbicide treatments (5345 kg/ha) compared to control (1610 kg/ha). Herbage yields of cool-season grasses from herbicide treated plots were reduced. However, total herbage yield was higher on herbicide treated plots during the first and second year after treatment. Total, warm-season and cool-season herbage yields for both years were not different between atrazine and glyphosate treated plots. Both herbicide treatments have potential for rapid recovery of overgrazed, native tallgrass prairies in eastern Nebraska when sufficient warm-season tallgrass remnants are present.
    • Infiltration Rates of Various Vegetative Communities within the Blue Mountains of Oregon

      Gaither, R. E.; Buckhouse, J. C. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Mean infiltration rates differed among several natural vegetation communities with ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) exhibiting the lowest mean infiltration rate of 6.0 cm/hr and larch (Larix occidentalis) demonstrating the highest at 8.8 cm/hr. A trend toward increasing infiltration rates corresponded to increasingly mesic sites. Alpine, Douglas fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii), mountain meadow, and larch types demonstrated the greatest vegetative cover, occupied the most mesic sites, and exhibited the highest infiltration rates. Infiltration differences within vegetative communities based upon changes in condition and productivity were also noted. The forested sites were more dependent upon condition class than productivity class, with higher infiltration rates being exhibited on pole sites than on timbered sites, apparently in response to higher plant densities associated with the pole thickets. Nonforested sites were responsive to both productivity and condition class with higher infiltration rates being exhibited on these sites with the more productive or better condition classifications.
    • Influence of Heteromyid Rodents on Oryzopsis hymenoides Germination

      McAdoo, J. K.; Evans, C. C.; Roundy, B. A.; Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Seeds (caryopses) of Oryzopsis hymenoides were a preferred food by species of heteromyid rodents on sandy desert rangelands. The rodents were selective in the type of Oryzopsis hymenoides seeds they put in their cheek pouches, rejecting empty seeds and polymorphic forms with reduced germination. The rodents cached some of these highly germinable seeds and emergence of seedlings from these caches was apparently the primary means of stand renewal of Oryzopsis hymenoides in these plant communities. Captivity studies with heteromyid rodents showed that germination of roughly 50% of the seeds in the caches was greatly enhanced by the rodent's removal of the indurate lemma, palea, and pericarp that induced dormancy. An estimated 0.02% of the Oryzopsis hymenoides seeds produced on a favorable moisture year germinated from rodent caches and emerged as seedlings.
    • Mortality of Cattle on Two Types of Grazing Areas in Northwestern Alberta

      Bjorge, R. R. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Cattle mortality was investigated on 3 intensively managed Provincial Grazing Reserves (PGR) and 7 heavily treed, less intensively managed woodland grazing leases (Simonette pastures) in northwestern Alberta during 1976-1979 inclusive. Cattle losses (including dead and missing animals) on the Simonette pastures averaged 2.7 times greater than losses on the PGR. Calves were lost at a greater rate than yearlings and mature cattle on both types of grazing areas. Calves born on the Simonette pastures died at a rate nearly 5 times that of calves born prior to entering these pastures. Death from predation accounted for 48.4% of 33 recorded deaths on the Simonette pastures compared to 3.3% of 90 deaths on PGR. Greater losses of cattle on the Simonette pastures appeared associated with greater concentration of trees, less intensive supervision, and greater numbers and species of predators.
    • Pedicellate Spikelet Fertility in Big Bluestem from Eastern South Dakota

      Boe, A.; Ross, J. G.; Wynia, R. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Within a nursery of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vit.) from seed collections made in eastern South Dakota, 86% of the plants possessed fertile pedicellate spikelets. From 10 random culms of 462 plants representing 20 different collection sites, seed-bearing sessile and pedicellate spikelets were separated and weighed. A highly significant difference was found among sites for pedicellate spikelet seed yield. Fertile pedicellate yield was positively correlated (r = 0.69, P < 0.01) with total seed yield of ten culms. Pedicellate spikelet caryopses were smaller than sessiles from the same plant, suggesting they were of inferior quality.
    • Prescribed Burning on B.C. Rangelands: The State of the Art

      Wikeem, B. M.; Strang, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      This paper reviews research and experiences up to the present in the use of fire as a rangeland management tool in British Columbia. Although the climate of opinion towards burning is becoming increasingly more favourable, little specific information is yet available to allow precise use of fire for habitat modification. Some results from north-western United States are applicable but these are sometimes contradictory and, not infrequently, incomplete. A program of fire ecology research is outlined which will provide the necessary information to permit the use of fire to achieve specific range management objectives.
    • Presowing Seed Treatment and Temperature Effects on Germination of Engelmannia pinnatifida and Indigofera miniata var. leptosepala

      Kissock, D. C.; Haferkamp, M. R. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Research was conducted to evaluate the effects of presowing seed treatments and temperature on germination of seeds of Engelmann daisy (Engelmannia pinnatifida) and western indigo (Indigofera miniata var. leptosepala). The seeds were imbibed in controlled environmental conditions for 14 days with night/day temperatures of 5/15, 10/20, 15/25, or 20/30 degrees C and a 12-hour photoperiod corresponding with the high temperature. Seed treatments prior to imbibition included: mechanical scarification, immersion in hot water (80 degrees C) for 3 min., acid scarification by immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid for 17 min., and an untreated control. Percent germination was affected by both temperature and presowing seed treatments. Maximum germination (43%) of Engelmann daisy was attained by untreated seeds at 20/30 degrees C. Presowing seed treatments did not significantly increase germination of Engelmann daisy at any temperature. Western indigo seeds which were mechanically or acid scarified germinated over 90% in the 10/20, 15/25 and 20/30 degrees C temperature regimes. Seeds immersed in hot water germinated from 59-68%, and untreated seeds germinated from 17-42% in the same environmental conditions.
    • Quality of Forage and Cattle Diets on the Wyoming High Plains

      Hart, R. H.; Abdalla, O. M.; Clark, D. H.; Marshall, M. B.; Hamid, M. H.; Waggoner, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Diets of cattle grazing crested wheatgrass [Agropyron desertorum (Fisch.) Schult.] or native range pastures and major forage species in these diets were analysed for crude protein (CP), acid and neutral detergent fiber (ADF and NDF), lignin, and in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) 1975-1978. Objectives were to determine (1) rate of change in forage quality, (2) effect of weather on rate of change, and (3) degree of selection for diet quality by cattle. CP of 6 forage species declined .03-.23 percentage points/day, while IVDMD declined .06-.90 points/day. CP and IVDMD of western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii Rydb.), blue grama [Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. ex Steud.], and scarlet globemallow [Spahaeralcea coccinea (Pursh.) Rydb.] were high in spring, while ADF, NDF, and lignin were low, but quality of grasses decreased much faster than that of the forb. Quality of needleandthread (Stipa comata Trin. & Rupr.) was lower than that of the other two grasses in spring, but CP declined more slowly then, while IVDMD declined at the same rates as that of blue grama and western wheatgrass. Quality of sedges (Carex spp.) was similar to that of western wheatgrass and blue grama in spring, but CP decreased faster while fiber components increased slower than those of grasses. CP of western wheatgrass and blue grama was increased by abundant spring rainfall, while that of blue grama increased after heavy summer rains. As the season progressed, cattle on range selected diets higher in crude protein and lower in cellulose than expected on the basis of botanical composition of the diet and composition of individual species. Quality of forage consumed increased markedly in mid-July when immature blue grama replaced needleandthread in the diet. Quality of crested wheatgrass declined faster than that of range grasses, although it was higher early in the spring. Diets of cattle on crested wheatgrass pasture in early spring were lower in quality than clipped crested wheatgrass, because of consumption of standing dead material, but diets were higher in quality than clipped grass in late spring.
    • Quantity and Germinability of Oryzopsis hymenoides Seed in Lahontan Sands

      Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A.; Roundy, B. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      The location, quantity, and germinability of seed (caryopses) reserves of Oryzopsis hymenoides (R. & S.) Ricker in the soil were investigated at 4 locations in the Carson Desert of western Nevada. Numerous germinable seeds were recovered from the surface 15 cm of Lahontan sands. There was no clear relation between the number of seeds and depth of burial. On sites with pronounced dunes more seeds were found in the dune sands than in the interspaces. Seeds were recovered with and without evidence of sand abrasion of the indurate lemma and paleas. Seeds without wear marks were much more highly germinable (80%) than the more numerous seeds with wear marks (6%). The germinable seed reserve consisted of seeds that germinated without pretreatment when incubated at 20 degrees C; a much larger portion that required dissection to remove the indurate lemma and palea; and a fraction with embryo dormancy that had to be overcome with gibberellin enrichment of the germination substrate. Large numbers of opened, empty lemma and palea were found in the sands. Rodent enhancement of the germination of Oryzopsis hymenoides seeds appears to be a more valid hypothesis than mechanical abrasion from saltation.