• Vegetative Response of Goldenweeds and Rayless Goldenrod to Simulated Mechanical Control

      Mayeux, H. S. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      Topgrowth was clipped at heights which simulated mechanical disturbance from potted common goldenweed, Drummond's goldenweed, and rayless goldenrod plants in the glasshouse. Resprouting occurred within days after clipping at the soil surface or at heights of 2 to 8 cm, but 50 to 100% of the plants clipped at the soil surface died within 5 to 10 weeks after treatment. No plants survived after topgrowth was removed at 2 cm below the soil surface. Mortality, numbers of adventitious sprouts on survivors, and stem elongation rates of regrowth varied little with species or phenological stage at treatment. Generally, topgrowth was completely replaced during the first growing season after clipping. Mechanical treatments which leave even small portions of rooted stems, such as shredding, roller chopping, or chaining, would not be effective against these undesirable subshrubs. Some control should be possible with blades such as the "stacker rake" which shears stems at ground level. Mechanical practices which sever the woody taproots at a shallow depth (discing or shallow root plowing) appear to be the most promising for control of these subshrubs.
    • Vegetation and White-Tailed Deer Responses to Herbicide Treatment of a Mesquite Drainage Habitat Type

      Beasom, S. L.; Inglis, J. M.; Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      A honey mesquite drainage habitat (20% of a 1,215-ha study pasture) was aerially sprayed with 1.1 kg/ha of 2,4,5-T + picloram in the spring. Adjacent habitats (blackbrush acacia uplands, creeping mesquite flats, blackbrush acacia-dominated mixed brush, and creeping mesquite-mixed brush) were not sprayed. Discriminant treatment of the honey mesquite drainage habitat did not cause consistent differences in white-tailed deer use of that habitat nor did it change deer use of the pasture containing the sprayed drainage based on average daily fecal accumulation rates for 22.5 months after herbicide application. Lack of differences in deer use between sprayed and unsprayed habitats were attributed to minor impacts of sprays on forb populations during the study period, retention of ample cover screen for deer, and increased abundance of grasses on sprayed areas which presumably reduced use of preferred deer food items by cattle.
    • Use of Range Shrubs to Meet Nutrient Requirements of Sheep Grazing on Crested Wheatgrass during Fall and Early Winter

      Otsyina, R.; Mckell, C. M.; Van Epps, G. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      This study considered the feasibility of supplementing crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum Fisch.) forage with some common rangeland shrubs. The necessary proportions of shrub and grass in the diet to meet protein and energy requirements were calculated for gestating sheep during the late fall and early winter grazing season. Shrubs studied included fourwing saltbush Atriplex canescens Pursh. Nutt.), winterfat (Ceratoides lanata (Pursh Howell), rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus ssp. albicaulis, (Nutt) Rydb.), and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana Nutt.). The shrubs were consistently higher in both total and digestible protein than crested wheatgrass over the period of study. Fourwing saltbush and winterfat with 8.24 and 6.31% digestible protein, respectively, were found to be the most promising shrubs to be used to supplement the low protein content of crested wheatgrass for late fall grazing. To meet dietary requirements for gestating sheep would require a minimum of 56 to 69% of fourwing saltbush and winterfat respectively, in the diet. Sagebrush and rabbitbrush were lower in digestible protein content, 4.04 and 4.43%, respectively, and therefore could not be used alone with crested wheatgrass.
    • Trampling Damage by Cattle on Northern Idaho Forest Plantations

      Eissenstat, D. M.; Mitchell, J. E.; Pope, W. W. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      The effects of cattle trampling in a Douglas-fir plantation the first year after planting were assessed. Trees partially girdled due to trampling were much more likely to die than untrampled trees (α = .0001). An average of 19% of the trees in the plantation had been trampled; however, the damage was uneven due to clumped cattle distribution. The results reflect the hazard of grazing Douglas-fir plantations in the northern Rockies during the first year after establishment.
    • Soil Water Depletion by Yucca

      Sosbee, R. E.; Churchill, F. M.; Green, C. W. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      Encroachment of Yucca sp. onto newly cleared rangelands often presents a larger problem than caused by the noxious species initially controlled. Densities of yucca often approach or exceed 5000 plants/ha, potentially depleting soil water and reducing forage production. An evaluation of soil water (0 to 60 cm depths) during April 1971 through August 1975 revealed the yucca-infested rangeland had a significantly lower water content than yucca-free rangeland. Herbage production was also significantly reduced by yucca during years with a higher soil water content. Partially thinning yucca densities did not increase soil water content. Soil water storage was increased only when all yucca was removed.
    • Soil Erosion Effects on Productivity in Rangeland Environments: Where is the Research?

      Gifford, G. F.; Whitehead, J. M. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      The importance of erosion on rangelands has been recognized for many years. However, the impact of erosion on site productivity (choose your own index of productivity) has not been quantified to any extent for any rangeland plant-soil complex in the western United States. It is hoped that researchers over the next few years will shift their efforts to this neglected yet very important information void.
    • Sheep Producers' Reasons for Ceasing Farm-Flock Operations in Kansas

      Robel, R. J.; Meduna, R. L. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      During a study of losses of sheep to canine predators in south-central Kansas, we surveyed sheep producers no longer in business to determine why they ceased operations. Advancing age and/or poor health and predator problems were the reasons most producers listed for quitting business.
    • Response of Livestock to Riparian Zone Exclusion

      Bryant, L. D. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      Fencing has been proposed as the best alternative for rapid restoration of streamside riparian zones. In this study the major portion of the streamside riparian zone was excluded by fencing. Use by cows with calves and by yearlings was evaluated on the remaining portion of the riparian and upland zones during the summer grazing season. Regardless of aspect, both classes of livestock generally selected the riparian zone over the uplands throughout most of the summer grazing season. Both classes of livestock reversed their selection in favor of upland vegetation in the latter part of the season. Slopes less than 35% were preferred throughout the grazing season. Cows were more selective in use of certain plant communities than yearlings and, contrary to usual findings, distributed themselves over the range better than yearlings. Neither salt placement nor alternate water location away from the riparian zone influenced livestock distribution appreciably.
    • Relationships between Performance, Intake, Diet Nutritive Quality and Fecal Nutritive Quality of Cattle on Mountain Range

      Holechek, J. L.; Vavra, M.; Arthun, D. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      Correlations were developed between average daily gain (ADG), forage organic matter intake (INT), fistula sample in vitro organic matter digestibility (DID), fistula sample nitrogen (DN), fecal sample in vitro digestibility (FID), and fecal sample nitrogen (FN) of cattle on forest and grassland range in northeastern Oregon. FN and FID were more closely associated with ADG and INT than DN or DID. Linear regression equations were developed between fistula and fecal samples for both N (r2=.83) and ID (r2=.71). The inclusion of FN as an independent variable with FID improved the equation for predicting fistula sample ID (R2=.83). Forage intake could not be well predicted from either FN or FID in either simple or multiple regression equations. The closer relationship between fecal sample nutritive quality and ADG compared to fistula sample nutritive quality and ADG is attributed to greater sampling precision for fecal nutritive quality. Fecal N and ID appear to be closely associate with DN and DID when grasses comprise most of the ruminant diet but this relationship may not hold when the diet is dominated by forbs and shrubs. Nutritive evaluation of feces shows potential for monitoring trends in ruminant diet quality and performance but much more research is needed before these procedures can be applied.
    • Relationships between Overstory Structure and Understory Production in the Grand Fir/Myrtle Boxwood Habitat Type of Northcentral Idaho

      Pyke, D. A.; Zamora, B. A. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      Relationships between overstory structure and understory current year production on 20 undisturbed sites of the grand fir/myrtle boxwood habitat type were studied in the Clearwater Mountains of northcentral Idaho. Overstory characteristics measured were tree canopy coverage, sum of the tree diameters, basal area, stand height, and stem density. Understory production was divided into four vegetation classes: (1) shrubs, (2) forbs, (3) graminoid and (4) total production. Regression models predicting current year production of each understory vegetation class were developed using all possible combinations of overstory parameters as independent variables. Canopy coverage and sum of the tree diameters were found to be the best indices of understory production. Canopy coverage was most significantly correlated with total understory production and shrub production. Canopy coverage and sum of the tree diameters were the most significantly correlated overstory parameters with forb production. Graminoid production was not significantly correlated to any of the measured overstory parameters. Basal area, tree density, and stand height were not statistically related to the understory production. Further examination of the models is needed to validate these relationships over the range of the grand fir/myrtle boxwood habitat type. The models are not applicable to areas where recent disturbance such as logging, fire, or disease has affected overstory structure.
    • Production and Nutritive Value of Aspen Understory, Black Hills

      Severson, K. E. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      Production of and nutrient concentrations in understory vegetation was measured in aspen stands representing three different seral stages in the Black Hills. There was little variation in concentrations of nutritive elements in the same plant species among stands. Differences in species composition and shrub, forb, grass, and total production caused some variation in total available nutrients. Production of aspen understory, while variable (676-1226 kg/ha), was one of the higher producing types in the area. Digestible dry matter, fiber, lignin, and calcium were at acceptable levels for white-tailed deer growth. Protein and phosphorus concentrations may be considered marginal, but variation in concentrations among plant species, the large number of plant species available, and the selective feeding habits of deer may preclude nutrient deficiencies in their diet. The value each of the seral stages has to livestock and wildlife is discussed and management suggested.
    • Preference of Pygmy Rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) for Various Populations of Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

      White, Susan M.; Flinders, J. T.; Welch, B. L. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      Pygmy rabbits were used in feeding trials to rate preference of 15 populations of 2 subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata). Monoterpenoid content of sagebrush was determined for each population in the feeding trials and related to food preference. The rabbits showed no significant preference for one Artemisia subspecies over the other; instead, selection was made at the population level. There was no significant correlation between monoterpenoid content and dietary preference of pygmy rabbits.
    • Predation Losses of Cattle in Alberta

      Dorrance, M. J. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      Coyotes (Canis latrans), black bears (Ursus americanus), and wolves (Canis lupus) were reported responsible for 35, 31, and 16%, respectively, of confirmed predation losses of cattle in Alberta during 1974-78. Coyotes selected for calves over adults, and adults over yearlings, black bears selected for calves over yearlings, and yearlings over adults, and wolves selected for calves and yearlings over adults. Predation of cattle by coyotes, bears, and wolves peaked during March-June, May-July, and August-September, respectively.
    • Optimum Allocation in Multivariate Double Sampling for Biomass Estimation

      Ahmed, J.; Bonham, C. D. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
    • Nutrient Contents of Major Food Plants Eaten by Cattle in the South Texas Plains

      Gonzalez, C. L.; Everitt, J. H. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      From May 1975 to November 1977, whole plant samples of 6 native and 2 introduced grass species, and top pads of 1 browse (pricklypear cactus) species were collected monthly and analyzed for crude protein (CP), P, Na, K, Ca, Mg contents, and digestible energy (DE) to determine their nutritive value as range forage. Digestible energy, CP and P levels, were deficient, especially in winter and early spring for lactating cows but were near to marginal for dry cows. All other elements, except Na, were present at amounts adequate to meet all cattle requirements. Sodium levels were low, but probably would not pose a problem if free choice salt was provided. Any deficiencies may be alleviated by cattle selection of higher quality plants, such as forbs and short-lived annual grasses. Pricklypear cactus had low levels of CP, P, and Na but high levels of estimated DE (2900 K cal/kg); however, pricklypear cactus is high in soluble ash (20%) and if expressed as in vitro digestible organic matter, DE is considerably reduced. These data suggest that protein should be supplemented to lactating cows in winter and early spring while P probably should be supplemented all year.
    • Mortality of Bitterbrush after Burning and Clipping in Eastern Oregon

      Clark, R. G.; Britton, F. A.; Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      Bitterbrush plants were burned or clipped to 5 cm, during fall and spring, under different soil moisture conditions on 2 sites in eastern Oregon. Treated plants on the Juniperus/Artemisia-Purshia site had an erect growth form while those on the Pinus-/Purshia site were a loq-growing, decumbent form. Sprouting after treatment was similar for the 2 sites and associated forms. Burning resulted in greater mortality than clipping. Spring treatments had less mortality compared to fall treatments. Artifically watering plants did not result in a substantial reduction in mortality. Over-winter mortality of sprouts reduced the number of bitterbrush plants alive in the second growing season.
    • Longleaf and Slash Pine Decreases Herbage Production and Alters Herbage Composition

      Wolters, G. L. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      An overstory or slash pine on the Palustris Experimental Forest in central Louisiana decreased herbage production as early as plantation age 17 for longleaf pine and plantation age 10 for slash pine. During the years of 1960 through 1975, from 80 to 85% of the variation in herbage production could be explained by the equations, Y = 2094.75 + 10.10P - 106.98BA for longleaf pine and Y = 1606.18 = 14.03P - 88.10BA for slash pine, in which Y = herbage production in kg/ha, P = April through October precipitation in cm, and BA = pine basal area in m2/ha. Pinehill and slender bluestem were the principal herbaceous species on nonforested plots in 1975, while a mixture of forbs, pinehill bluestem, and other bluestem grasses were most common on forested plots. The study quantifies data on herbage production and botanical composition over time and suggests ways for the forest manager to evaluate timber and herbage tradeoffs.
    • Impact of Burrowing Activity of the Banner-tail Kangaroo Rat on Southern New Mexico Desert Rangelands

      Moroka, N.; Beck, R. D.; Pieper, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      The impact of the burrowing activity of the bannertail kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis) on southern New Mexico desert rangelands was investigated. The study was conducted on black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda), dropseed (Sporobolus spp.), and mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) grassland vegetation types. Mound density was highest in the black grama type, somewhat intermediate in the dropseed type, and lowest in the mesquite-grassland type. The surface area occupied by mounds averaged 2% over all vegetation types in the study area. Plant cover was generally greater off mounds than on mounds. Annual plant cover was greater on mounds that off mounds, suggesting that activities of bannertail kangaroo rats promote the presence of annuals.
    • Impact of Burning and Grazing on Soil Water Patterns in the Pinyon-Juniper Type

      Gifford, G. F. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      Soil water patterns were studied from June 1973 to February of 1977 in pinyon-juniper woodland, on pinyon-juniper areas chained and windrowed (grazed and ungrazed), and on pinyon-juniper areas chained with debris-in-place (ungrazed; burned vs. unburned). The pinyon-juniper woodland always had the least soil water, regardless of the season. Grazing did not affect soil water patterns on the chained with windrowing treatment. Burning of debris on the debris-in-place treatment had little impact on water the first year, but significantly more water was measured on the burned treatment at the beginning of the second year. Soil water patterns previously established between the unburned debris-in-place and ungrazed windrowed treatment changed in August, 1974, and the two treatments were equivalent for the balance of the study. Prior to August of 1974 the unburned debris-in-place treatment had always had more soil water than the ungrazed windrowed treatment. These changes were attributed to possibly milder winters with decreased snowfall.
    • How Komondor Dogs Reduce Sheep Losses to Coyotes

      McGrew, J. C.; Blakesley, C. S. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      Nine Komondor dogs were observed guarding lambs in two 65-ha enclosures for 21 days each. Each enclosure had a resident coyote chosen for sheep-killing ability. Komondorok guarded sheep by being near the flock and actively defending it when necessary. Guarding was most effective in the area where the dogs spent most of their time. Aggressive dogs were generally more successful protecting their sheep. The sheep learned to run to or stand with the dogs when attacked, and usually bedded with the dog. The coyotes learned to attack the flock when the dog was not present. Effectiveness of Komondor dogs can be enhanced by exploiting breed characteristics.