Now showing items 1-20 of 29

    • Woody Plant Control in the Post Oak Savannah of Texas With Hexazinone

      Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Hexazinone, applied as spheres or pellets (1.27 cm in diameter) in grid patterns (1.5 or 3 m spacings) at 2 or 4 kg/ha effectively controlled post oak and blackjack oak in east central Texas. The herbicide also appeared promising for control of water oak, American elm, and downy hawthorne. Willow baccharis and winged elm appeared to be moderately susceptible to 2 kg/ha of the herbicide and were controlled by 4 kg/ha. Yaupon canopies were initially reduced by the herbicide but had begun to recover by the second or third growing season after application and replaced the oaks as the primary limitation to range improvement following treatment, regardless of hexazione rate applied. Saw greenbrier, mustang grape, southern dewberry, American beautyberry, and woolly-bucket bumelia were not controlled by hexazinone.
    • Vegetation Response to Prescribed Fire in a North Florida Flatwoods Forest

      Moore, W. H.; Swindel, B. F.; Terry, W. S. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Selected naturally regenerated flatwoods forests were burned in preparing a large, long-term study of the effects of several multiple use management practices on forest vegetation and wildlife. Early effects of burning on understory vegetation are reported here. Fire reduced woody understory coverage (from 72 to 66% of surface area), and increased herbaceous species frequency (from 60 to 81%) and herbaceous standing biomass (from 124 to 245 kg/ha). Graphical analyses show an increase in herbaceous species diversity as a result of burning.
    • Understory Herbage Production as a Function of Rocky Mountain Aspen Stand Density

      Woods, R. F.; Betters, D. R.; Mogren, E. W. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      The effects of aspen overstory basal area on herbaceous understory production on the Bears Ears District of the Routt National Forest in northwest Colorado were investigated. Using regression, a coefficient of determination of .61 was found between herbage production and overstory basal area. For overstory basal areas less than 10.0 meter2}/hectare, herbaceous understory production varied considerably and was often double that found at higher densities of overstory basal area. Herbage production at higher densities (10.0 to 18.9 $m2/ha) showed less variation with an average production of 1100 kilograms/hectare. The best opportunities for herbaceous understory production in unmanaged, pure aspen stands occur at overstory basal areas less than 10.0 m2/ha.
    • Soil Loss, Runoff, and Water Quality of Seeded and Unseeded Steep Watersheds Following Prescribed Burning

      Wright, H. A.; Churchill, F. S.; Stevens, W. C. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Seeding of steep slopes (37 to 61%) after burning on the Edwards Plateau in central Texas reduced soil losses 78 to 93%. Moreover, the major impact of burning on soil losses was significantly reduced in 3 months on burned and seeded watersheds, but not for 15 to 18 months on unseeded watersheds. Stability (soil losses comparable to pretreatment levels) was reached in 6 months on burned and seeded watersheds. Soil loss rates stabilized when cover (live vegetation plus litter) reached 64 to 72% during normal to wet years or 53 to 60% during dry years. Thus, amount of precipitation and cover are closely tied to soil losses. Overland flow stabilized in 4 to 5 years on unseeded watershed and in 1 to 2 years on seeded watersheds. Water quality, lowered slightly by burning, returned to preburn levels within 2 years after seeding. Without seeding it took 4 years to reach preburn levels. Overall, water quality change following burning was not considered to be serious.
    • Short Duration Grazing at the Texas Experimental Range: Effects On Forage Quality

      Heitschmidt, R. K.; Gordon, R. A.; Bluntzer, J. S. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Variation in percent crude protein (% CP) of available forage was examined at the Texas Experimental Ranch as a function of grazing treatment, plant species, physiological age of plant tissue, and season. Results indicate that % CP content varied as much as function of physiological age of plant tissue as a function of plant species. Although quantity of crude protein of total standing crop averaged significantly more in an ungrazed treatment than in a short duration grazing treatment, % CP was generally greater in the grazed than the ungrazed treatment. It is suggested that an increase in quality of forage may be a primary mechanism facilitating energy flow through short duration grazing systems whereby dramatic increases in livestock carrying capacity may be realized.
    • Short Duration Grazing at the Texas Experimental Ranch: Weight Gains of Growing Heifers

      Heitschmidt, R. K.; Frasure, J. R.; Price, D. L.; Rittenhouse, L. R. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Total and average daily gains of Hereford/Angus crossbred growing heifers were contrasted between a continuously grazed (CG) treatment and a 10-pasture, 1-herd rapidly rotated short duration grazing (SDG) treatment. Stocking rate in the CG was 0.48 ha/AUM, a moderate rate, while stocking rate in the SDG treatment was 0.24 ha/AUM. Trials were conducted during the 1978 and 1979 growing seasons. Both total and average daily gains were similar in both treatments both years. Because of the two-fold difference in rate of stocking, production/ha was approximately double in the SDG to that in the CG treatment. It is tentatively concluded from the results of this and previous studies that a properly managed SDG system may satisfactorily support livestock at rates of stocking appreciably greater than that normally expected from conventional grazing schemes.
    • Short Duration Grazing at the Texas Experimental Ranch: Effects on Aboveground Net Primary Production and Seasonal Growth Dynamics

      Heitschmmidt, R. K.; Price, D. L.; Gordon, R. A.; Frasure, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      The effects of short duration grazing on aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and seasonal growth dynamics were evaluated. Total ANPP was estimated to be 234 g/m2 in 1978 in the ungrazed control plot as compared to 330 g/m2 in the grazed treatment plot. ANPP estimates in 1979 were 352 and 268 g/m2 in the ungrazed and grazed treatments, respectively. Close examination of growth dynamics suggest that under certain environmental conditions grazing accelerated vegetative growth.
    • Recovery of Streamside Woody Vegetation After Exclusion of Livestock Grazing

      Rickard, W. H.; Cushing, C. E. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Removal of livestock grazing along a small, perennial desert stream allowed the reestablishment of woody vegetation (Salix amygdaloides) in the riparian zone within 10 years.
    • Recovery of Cryptogamic Soil Crusts from Grazing on Utah Winter Ranges

      Anderson, D. C.; Harper, K. T.; Rushforth, S. R. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Range exclosures located throughout Utah in cool desert shrub communities were analyzed to determine, (1) the response of cryptogamic crusts to grazing, (2) soil variables that influence the development of cryptogamic crusts and (3) the time needed for reestablishment of cryptogamic communities after disturbance. The amount of lichen, moss and algal cover was found to be considerably reduced by domestic grazing. Sites with moderate to high as opposed to light cryptogamic cover were characterized by significantly heavier textured soils and greater salinity. Cryptogamic cover increased from 4% to 15% during the first 14-18 years of exclusion from grazing, but increased only 1% during the next 20 years. Reestablishment of a cryptogamic crust occurs in at least 14-18 years and possibly sooner.
    • Punch Planting to Establish Grass Seed

      Hauser, V. L. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Perennial grasses are difficult to establish from seed in the Southern Great Plains. The conventional planting practice is to plant grass seeds 1 to 2 cm deep in the soil; but that soil layer often dries quickly, thus preventing plant establishment. I investigated punch planting, which may avoid the problem of soil drying around grass seeds. Punch planting is defined as the placement of seeds in open, small-diameter holes, punched in the soil to a much greater depth than conventional planting. Under drying conditions, punch planting produced satisfactory stands for 5 grasses, but conventional planting produced failures. Where the soil was kept wet, both methods produced satisfactory grass stands. Optimum depth of punch planting was related to seed size and seedling vigor. Small-diameter holes (0.6 cm) produced best plant emergence, because soil at the bottom of these holes dried slower than at the bottom of large holes. Punch planting may offer a solution to the problem of seeding failures.
    • Legume Establishment on Strip Mined Lands in Southeastern Montana

      Holecheck, J. L.; Depuit, E. J.; Coenenberg, J. G.; Valdez, R. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Research was conducted on topsoiled strip mined lands at Colstrip, Mon., over a 6-year period to evaluate germination, survival, productivity, and cover characteristics of Eski sainfoin (Onobrychis viciaefolia), Lutana cicer milkvetch (Astragalus cicer), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), and ranger and spreader alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer were applied at a low rate during the first year of study. None of the experimental units received irrigation. Lutana cicer milkvetch and both varieties of alfalfa demonstrated good establishment, survival, canopy cover, and productivity characteristics. Eski sainfoin showed good initial establishment but declined in following years. Birdsfoot trefoil appeared to be unsuitable for revegetation of mined lands at Colstrip. Spreader alfalfa was superior to ranger alfalfa in the parameters evaluated. Lutana cicer milkvetch showed much potential for mined lands revegetation in the study area because of site stabilization, persistence, palatability, nitrogen fixation, and productivity characteristics.
    • Influence of Crusting Soil Surfaces on Emergence and Establishment of Crested Wheatgrass, Squirreltail, Thurber Needlegrass, and Fourwing Saltbush

      Wood, M. K.; Eckert, R. E.; Blackburn, W. H.; Peterson, F. F. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Crusting soil surfaces with vesicular pores occur in arid and semiarid regions of the world where herbaceous vegetation is sparse. Morphological properties of crusting surfaces can impair seedling emergence and plant establishment. This study evaluated site preparation and seeding methods and species useful for encouraging successful stand establishment in such soils. Plowing to prepare a seedbed reduced seedling emergence on some soils but increased plant establishment on all soils. More seedlings emerged and established on non-crusting coppice soil beneath shrubs than on crusting interspace soil between shrubs. Crested wheatgrass was the most successful species followed closely by squirreltail and distantly by Thurber needlegrass and fourwing saltbush. Fourwing saltbush seedlings became established and grew well in some treatments. Seedling emergence and establishment were highest with the deep-furrow seeding technique on the non-crusting coppice soil. The standard-drill technique gave the best stand on the site with the largest surface cover of bare, crusting interspace soil.
    • Habitat Preferences of Feral Hogs, Deer, and Cattle on a Sierra Foothill Range

      Barrett, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      The relative habitat preferences of feral hogs (Sus scrofa), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), and cattle were assessed for 17 habitat types by sampling the distribution and abundance of fecal sign on a northern California annual range. Hogs preferred oak thickets and irrigated pastures; deer preferred brushland and oak woodland; and cattle preferred level topography and sites with relatively high herbage production including irrigated pastures, upland plains, and oak savanna-woodland. Deer and cattle used the study area during winter only, whereas the hogs were permanent residents. An association analysis indicated the greatest potential for interspecific competition would be between cattle and deer on foothill ridge tops and between cattle and hogs on irrigated pastures.
    • Growth Rate Differences among Big Sagebrush (Artemisis Tridentata) Accessions and Subspecies Utah

      McArthur, E. D.; Welch, B. L. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Even-aged plants of 21 big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) accessions were grown in a uniform garden to test growth parameter variation. Growth parameters measures (height, crown diameter, yield, and annual nonfloral leader growth) were scored after the 1975, 1976, and 1977 growing seasons. Nested analyses of variance and mean comparison tests showed significant (p<0.05) accession and subspecies differences in each measure, each year. On a subspecies level, basin big sagebrush (A.t. ssp. tridentata) exceeded the other two subspecies (mountain big sagebrush = A.t. vaseyana, Wyoming big sagebrush = A.t. wyomingensis) for each character. In general, the values for the last two subspecies were not significantly different, but mountain big sagebrush tended to have larger values. Using 1975 data for yield and 1976 data for the other growth parameters, basin big sagebrush accessions averaged 147.9 +/- 14.7 (se) cm in height, 193.0 +/- 12.1 cm in maximum crown spread, 2217 +/- 444 g current yield, and 12.7 +/- 1.1 cm in annual leader growth. Corresponding values for mountain big sagebrush were 95.8 +/- 2.2 cm, 157.3 +/- 3.4 cm, 890 +/- 77 g, and 8.8 +/- 0.6 cm. For Wyoming big sagebrush the values were 77.1 +/- 4.1 cm, 129.6 +/- 6.4 cm, 545 +/- 84 g, and 8.5 +/- 1.1 cm. Comparison of three accessions' performances at two uniform gardens and their native sites indicated that growth parameters, while subject to environmental influences, are under genetic control. The fastest growing and largest growing plants of this study were diploid, 2n = 18, whereas, the slowest growing ones were tetraploid, 2n = 36. Growth rate characteristics of big sagebrush should be considered for management purposes and in plant improvement programs.
    • Grazing Management of Crested Wheatgrass Range for Yearling Steers

      Daugherty, D. A.; Britton, C. M.; Turner, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Sixty, spring-born, yearling steers of Angus-Hereford breeding were used to compare continuous vs short duration grazing on crested wheatgrass range. Grazing trials were conducted in two successive years. Grazing fields to remove about 30% of available forage and then moving to a fresh field increased (P<.05) daily gains of steers compared to continuous grazing. However, this increase occurred late in the grazing season with no apparent initial advantage for short duration grazing. The effect of grazing treatments on forage yields and quality resulted in several management implications. These implications and further research needs are discussed.
    • Forage Production and Removal from Western and Crested Wheatgrasses Under Grazing

      Hart, R. H.; Balla, E. F. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Forage production and removal from tillers of western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii Rydb.) and crested wheatgrass [Agropyron desertorum (Fisch. ex Link) Schult.] were studied at two stocking rates with long-interval time-lapse photography. As stocking rate increased, frequency of grazing increased markedly, but the proportion of available herbage removed at each grazing event increased only in 1977 on western wheatgrass. Forage production per tiller of western wheatgrass was usually higher under light than under heavy stocking, and in one year production of grazed tillers under light stocking was often higher than production of ungrazed tillers. Production per tiller of crested wheatgrass under grazing was marginally less than that per ungrazed tiller, with no difference between stocking rates. Patterns of forage removal with grazing were markedly different from those with clipping, and removal with grazing was much less severe than that imposed in most clipping studies reviewed.
    • Fire, Lichens, and Caribou

      Klein, D. R. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Continental populations of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) usually winter in the northern taiga. Fire is a natural feature of the ecology of the taiga but its effect on the winter range of caribou has been the subject of conflicting reports in the literature. Lichens, which are an important component of the diet of caribou in winter, are associated with late successional stages in the post fire sequence; therefore their loss when old growth forests burn has been considered detrimental to caribou. On the other hand, several authors have suggested that lichens are not essential for caribou in winter and therefore their loss through forest fires does not seriously affect caribou. Recent nutritional investigations with reindeer and caribou have demonstrated the importance of lichens in their winter diet. Botanical studies have shown that fires are essential for the long-term productivity of the boreal forest and they account for much of the habitat diversity that characterizes caribou winter range. Extremely old forest stands show reduced lichen productivity. I conclude that, when viewed on a short-term basis of 50 years or less, fire may destroy lichens and other forage, thus reducing the taiga's potential to support caribou. Over long-time periods, often of a century or more, fire appears essential for maintaining ecological diversity and forage production for caribou.
    • Establishment, Growth, Utilization and Chemical Composition of Introduced Shrubs on Oklahoma Tall Grass Prairie

      Stidham, N. D.; Powell, J.; Gray, F.; Claypool, P. I. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      On April 1, 1977, 14 species of containerized shrubs grown from seed in a greenhouse were transplanted onto North-Central Oklahoma tallgrass prairie to determine first-year growth and survival and fall utilization and forage quality of the shrubs. Plants of each species were transplanted onto Lucien loam (Udic Ustochrepts) and onto Grainola silt loam (Vertic Haplustalfs) soils. Grazing was permitted on one-half of the plants of all species during the fall. Growth and survival were greater on the more mesic Grainola soil, whereas utilization was greater on the more xeric Lucien soil. Early winter N, P, K, and Ca contents and in vivo dry matter digestibility were two or three times greater in shrubs than in native herbaceous plants collected from the same area at the same time. Based on survival, growth, fall utilization and early winter forage quality, seven species deserve additional study under different soil, weather and management conditions. Atriplex canescens, Fallugia paradoxa, and Cowania mexicana var. stansburiana are the most promising winter browse plants for Oklahoma tallgrass prairies.
    • Electric fencing reduces coyote predation on pastured sheep in North Dakota, Kansas

      Linhart, S. B.; Roberts, J. D.; Dasch, G. J. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Field tests to evaluate electric fencing for protecting pastured sheep from coyote predation were conducted in North Dakota and Kansas in 1977 and 1978. In 1979, 37 western sheep producers using electric fences to exclude coyotes were interviewed and relevant data were recorded and analyzed. An all-electric 12-wire, 168-cm-high fence with alternately charged and grounded wires spaced 13 and 15 cm apart stopped ongoing coyote predation on the two North Dakota test sites. Four or five strands of electrified wire, offset 13 cm from existing woven and barbed wire sheep fences, effectively prevented further coyote predation at two Kansas sites. Sheep producers interviewed expressed a high to moderate degree of satisfaction with the use of electric fencing as a coyote management technique. However, sheep management practices on two-thirds of the ranches remained unchanged after electric fence installation and nearly all producers continued to use other control methods. Sixty percent of the producers stated that they experienced some type of maintenance problems but many of these problems may have been due to poor construction techniques or a failure to check their fences periodically. Cost-benefit factors associated with the use of electric fencing, study limitations, and further research needs are discussed.