• A 3-Year Evaluation of Taste Aversion Coyote Control in Saskatchewan

      Gustavson, C. R.; Jowsey, J. R.; Milligan, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
      Taste aversion programs using lithium chloride (LiCl) in sheep baits and carcasses have been applied in Washington to one sheep herd for 2 years; applications have been made in California and in Saskatchewan on 46 herds over 3 years. Ten of these 46 herds were available for statistical analysis, indicating a significant reduction in the percent of sheep lost to coyotes. All applications have suggested reduced sheep losses to coyotes (Canis latrans). This method of predation control may cost less than traditional techniques, save sheep, and should allow coyotes to carry out positive functions in the ecosystem.
    • A Dissimilarity Coefficient and Its Use

      Bonham, C. D. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
      A coefficient of dissimilarity was used to test hypotheses concerned with standing crop of individual plant species occurring on two soil types and subjected to two levels of cattle grazing. It was concluded that variations in relative biomass of individual species changed with grazing, but biomass by species did not vary over the growing season on deep sandy soils.
    • Reseeding by Eight Alfalfa Populations in a Semiarid Pasture

      Rumbaugh, M. D. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
      Eight alfalfa populations were seeded in a dryland pasture in northern Utah. Densities of mature plants, seeds, seedlings, and 1-year-old plants were measured in each of 3 years. The populations did not differ for mature plant stands or seed production. There was a higher rate of seedling survival for populations that primarily originated from Medicago sativa rather than M. falcata. All populations had some one-year-old plants persisting to replace mature plants killed by disease or rodents.
    • A Durable Livestock Exclosure for Herbage Production and Utilization Sampling

      Hinnant, R. T.; Kothmann, M. M. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
    • A Method for Forecasting Potential Losses from Grasshopper Feeding on Northern Mixed Prairie Forages

      Hewitt, G. B.; Onsager, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
      Information on the potential loss of forage that might be expected from grasshopper feeding in a given season would benefit ranchers and land managers if the loss could be estimated in the spring before peak forage production. A method was developed for forecasting such losses on the northern mixed prairie when most species of grasshoppers are in the 3rd and 4th instars. The method is based on the assumptions that forage losses (forage consumed + destroyed) are directly proportional to grasshopper size and density and that during the period between the 3rd instar and death, which usually does not exceed 46 days, density decreases linearly to 0. Using feeding ratios (weight of forage destroyed/weight of adults), losses/day were calculated for each of 26 grasshopper species and for 3 groups of species separated by weight. Forecasted loss estimates for any population can be estimated if the density and species are determined, or a loss of 43 mg/grasshopper feeding day could be used as a general average if species cannot be identified. Forecasted losses are related to grasshopper density and to observed losses at one site in Montana during a 3-year period.
    • Cattle Diets in the Blue Mountains of Oregon, I. Grasslands

      Holechek, J. L.; Vavra, M.; Skovlin, J.; Krueger, W. C. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
      Esophageally fistulated cows were used to determine cattle diets on grassland range in northeastern Oregon in 1976, 1977, and 1978. Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, and Sandberg bluegrass were the most common species in the diets. Forb consumption declined while grass consumption increased with seasonal advance from late spring to fall. Food habits depended largely on phenological development of forage species. Forbs were preferred over grasses early in the grazing season; then after forbs reached maturity, cattle were selective for the plants that remained green. Diet similarities were compared between periods within years, and between years within periods. When diets were pooled into late spring, early summer, late summer and fall groups, late spring diets were least similar to the others. Diet variation from year to year was also less later in the grazing season. Utilization of Idaho fescue and bluebunch wheatgrass should be considered in grazing management decisions on grasslands in the Blue Mountains.
    • Bottom Sediment: a Reservoir of Escherichia coli in Rangeland Streams

      Stephenson, G. R.; Rychert, R. C. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
      Escherichia coli concentrations of bottom sediment and overlying water were determined from a variety of streams in southwestern Idaho by a one-step most probable number technique. Results show E. coli concentrations of bottom sediments to be from 2 to 760 times greater than from the overlying water. E. coli concentrations of bottom sediment were found to be resuspended following disturbance simulation and a rainstorm event, contributing to pollution of the overlying waters. It is, therefore, suggested that microbial analysis of bottom sediments be considered a part of water-quality evaluations for rangeland streams.
    • Brush Control with Herbicides on Hill Pasture Sites in Southern Oregon

      Norris, L. A.; Montgomery, M. L.; Warren, L. E.; Mosher, W. D. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
      Silvex alone or with 2,4-D in a 1:1 ratio at about 3 to 4 kg/ha gave 60 to 100% control of many brush species including poison oak, Oregon oak, and maples. Picloram at 1 kg/ha plus 2,4-D at 4 kg/ha was most effective with respect to the amount of picloram; however, the mixture of 1 kg/ha plus 2 kg/ha respectively, was nearly as good. Complete pasture renovation in this area requires brush control, burning, fertilization, and seeding of desirable species. Picloram and 2,4-D disappear from soils in 29 months with no significant leaching into the soil profile at these study sites. Herbicide discharge in streamflow was small, representing 0.35% and 0.014% of applied picloram and 2,4-D. We believe that nearly all of the herbicide discharged from these watersheds represents residue deposited in dry stream channels or that mobilized by fall rains from adjacent streambanks. Significant overland movement of herbicides from upslope did not occur on these study areas. The probability of crop damage from irrigation with water from these watersheds is low.
    • Chemical Quality and Sediment Content of Runoff Water from Southeastern Montana Rangeland

      Neff, Earl L. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
      Chemical quality of surface runoff water from rangeland sites with fine-textured soils in southeastern Montana was good to excellent with average total dissolved solids<300 mg/liter. This quality is better than that of most municipal water supplies in the same geographic area. Erosion from these sites was also low, averaging <1,500 kg/ha per year.
    • Cattle Grazing Influence on a Mountain Riparian Zone

      Roath, L. R.; Krueger, W. C. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
      A combination of management and physical topographic constraints caused cattle to concentrate on the riparian zone early in the grazing season in 1977 and 1978. A large percentage of cattle days and vegetation utilization on the riparian zone occurred in the first 4 weeks of the grazing period. Utilization on herbaceous vegetation was 76 and 72% in 1977 and 1978, respectively. Impact of grazing on the most prevalent species, Kentucky bluegrass was minimal. Shrub use increased with increased maturity of herbaceous vegetation. Utilization of major shrubs was not excessive in either year, and very likely had no long-term effects on either the abundance or vigor of the shrubs.
    • Chemical Composition of Native Range Grasses Growing on Saline Soils of the South Texas Plains

      Everitt, J. H.; Alaniz, M. A.; Gerbermann, A. H. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
      During the growing seasons of 1976 and 1977, six native range grass species and a composite of miscellaneous grasses growing on Saline Clay and Rolling Hardland range sites (both sites have saline soils) in south Texas were analyzed for percentage content of crude protein (CP), P, Ca, Mg, K, and Na. Levels of CP, P, K, and Na were generally highest after periods of adequate rainfall in late spring, summer, and early fall and lowest in late fall as the grasses went into dormancy. Levels of Ca and Mg remained relatively stable through the growing season and showed little relationship to rainfall. Grasses from the Saline Clay site had slightly higher levels of the chemical constituents than those grasses from the Rolling Hardland site.
    • Comparison of Four Methods to Estimate the Dissolved Nitrogen Fraction in Range Plants

      Simonson, D. J.; Hansen, R. M.; Trlica, M. J. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
      Aboveground biomass of four range species was collected at several phenological stages and total nitrogen was determined. The dissolvable nitrogen fraction within these samples was estimated utilizing four techniques: (1) in vivo nylon bag digestion in a rumen-fistulated Bison bison; (2) in vitro Tilley and Terry plus pepsin; (3) neutral detergent fiber; and (4) laboratory detergent fiber. Total nitrogen concentration in all plant species studied was highest during early growth and decreased with advancing maturity. A similar amount of nitrogen was removed from dead or dormant plant materials using any technique, but significantly more nitrogen was removed from green succulent material utilizing the nylon bag technique than was removed with the three laboratory assays. The amount of nitrogen removed from plant foliage was highly correlated among techniques. Equations were developed to predict nitrogen losses with the nylon bag technique using dissolved nitrogen values obtained from any of the other three techniques.
    • An Esophageal Fistula Dilator

      Anderson, D. M.; Mertz, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
      An esophageal fistula dilator is described. The tool can be used to exert an even pressure around the fistula perimeter to stretch a shrunken fistula and allow the successful insertion of a closure device larger in diameter than that of the original fistula. With this instrument the process of enlarging the esophageal fistula is accomplished immediately in a time-saving, efficient manner compared to increasing the diameter of the fistula gradually by periodically increasing the diameter of the closure device.
    • Biomass Estimation in a Young Stand of Mesquite (Prosopis spp.), Ironwood (Olneya tesota), Palo Verde (Cercidium floridium, and Parkinsonia aculeata), and Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala)

      Felker, P.; Clark, P. R.; Osborn, J. F.; Cannell, G. H. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
      Simple methods for estimating standing biomass in a stand of tree legumes containing the genera Prosopis, Cercidium, Olneya, Leucaena, and Parkinsonia are reported. Fresh and dry biomass were related to height and stem diameter measurements for 212 leguminous trees ranging in biomass from 0.04 to 17.8 kg using linear regression. The dry matter content of the above-ground biomass of these genera ranged from 40 to 56% and the stem dry matter percentage ranged from 70 to 96%. The best functional form of the model was log10 dry weight (kg) = 2.55 log basal diameter (cm)-1.25, which had an r2 of 0.956 for 212 samples.
    • Defoliation Impacts on Quality and Quantity of Forage Harvested from Big Sacaton (Sporobolus wrightii Munro)

      Haferkamp, M. R. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
      Forage quality and quantity and stand vigor of big sacaton were evaluated for seven defoliation systems during 1977 and 1978. Big sacaton plants were either shredded monthly, shredded in spring/midsummer, spring/early summer, spring, spring/late summer/fall, midsummer/fall, or late winter. Forage quality of big sacaton was improved by defoliation during both years. With few exceptions, crude protein content was highest in plants defoliated the previous month. IVDOM contents were also improved by defoliation. Digestibility decreased to below 50% in early summer in nonshredded plants and in mid summer in all plants regardless of prior defoliation treatment. IVDOM increased to above 50% in late summer and fall in plots defoliated the previous month. Forage harvests during the growing season were greatest from plots that were defoliated three or more times and were defoliated in the fall. The least amounts of forage were harvested from the plots defoliated in spring, spring/early summer and spring/midsummer. In the fall and winter the nonshredded and spring defoliated plots supported relatively large amounts of forage, and the spring/early summer and spring/midsummer plots supported intermediate amounts of forage for winter grazing. Stand vigor was maintained best by brief periods of defoliation in the spring or spring/early summer, followed by defoliation of old forage in late winter. Vigor appeared to be decreased by early fall defoliations to a 7.5 cm stubble height. The spring/early-summer system provided large amounts of high quality forage and maintained stand vigor. This system defoliated plants when soil moisture was usually adequate for plant regrowth, provided nutritious forage during the growing season and provided adequate standing forage for fall and winter grazing and protection against damage due to low temperature.
    • Decomposition of Common Curlymesquite Herbage on Edwards Plateau Rangeland, Texas

      George, J. F.; Smeins, F. E. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
      Decomposition of common curlymesquite herbage from a continuously, heavily grazed pasture and one pasture of a 4-pasture deferred rotation grazing system was investigated on the Edwards Plateau of Texas. Decomposition of herbage in litterbags was similar for both pastures. Approximately 40% of the original herbage weight was lost during the 345-day study. Average decomposition rate was 2.19 mg/g/day. Rate of decomposition during a 238-day period was significantly related to antecedent potential evaporation and precipitation since the preceding collection date and cumulative time. Percentage nitrogen and percentage ash content increased while percentage carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio decreased over time in the decomposing herbage.
    • Forage Good Enough for Cattle Production: When!

      Beaty, E. R.; Calvert, G. V.; Engel, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
    • Growth Response of Two Saltbush Species to Nitrate, Ammonium and Urea Nitrogen Added to Processed Oil Shale

      Richardson, S. G.; McKell, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
      Nitrate nitrogen promoted good growth of cuneate saltbush (Atriplex cuneata) and gardner saltbush (A. gardneri) on processed oil shale in a glasshouse pot experiment, but ammonium and urea nitrogen were not utilized effectively in growth.
    • Identification of Subspecies of Big Sagebrush by Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry

      Shumar, M. L.; Anderson, J. E.; Reynolds, T. D. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
      The three subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) are dominant shrubs over much of the Intermountain West. Because the subspecies differ in palatability and habitat requirements, researchers and resource managers have become increasingly concerned with their identification. Subspecies have been identified by leaf morphology, ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence, or chromatography. Fluorescence of leaf extracts under short-wave UV light provides a convenient technique for distinguishing between A.t. vaseyana and the other two subspecies, but this technique will not distinguish between A.t. tridentata and A.t. wyomingensis. Chromatographic techniques can differentiate between all of the subspecies, but the methods are tedious. We describe a technique for distinguishing all three subspecies by UV spectrophotometry. Alcohol leaf extracts of the three subspecies produce relative absorbance graphs that differ markedly from one another between 230 and 280 nm.