• Comparative Biomass and Water Status of Four Range Grasses Grown under Two Soil Water Conditions

      Pande, H.; Singh, J. S. (Society for Range Management, 1981-11-01)
      The influence of water stress on growth of four grasses was investigated. Panicum coloratum and Chloris gayana, the two C4 species, were more adversely affected, while the two C3 species (Poa pratensis and Lolium perenne) were found to tolerate the water stress conditions better as reflected by a comparatively smaller decline in their biomass.
    • Chemical Control of Crupina vulgaris, a New Range Weed in Idaho and the United States

      Belles, W. S.; Wattenbarger, D. W.; Lee, G. A. (Society for Range Management, 1981-11-01)
      Crupina vulgaris, crupina, a member of the Compositae family, is a recently introduced threat to the rangelands of Idaho. It is a competitive winter annual which, when established, develops nearly solid stands to the exclusion of desirable forage species. It was demonstrated by field trials that fall and spring application of picloram, glyphosate, dicamba, and 2,4-D (amine) were effective in greatly reducing or eliminating crupina for 2 years. Once crupina was removed by this effective management tool, desirable forage species replaced the unpalatable crupina.
    • Demography and Fire History of a Western Juniper Stand

      Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1981-11-01)
      The age, density, and fire history of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) trees growing on range sites of contrasting potentials were investigated. The 1,000-ha study area consisted of 65% big sagebrush [Artemisia tridentata Nutt. subsp. wyomingensis (Rybd.) Beetle] and 30% low sagebrush (A. arbuscula Nutt.) plant communities. Density of western juniper trees was 150 and 28 trees/ha on the big and low sagebrush sites, respectively. The oldest western juniper found growing in the big sagebrush communities became established in 1855, and 84% of the existing trees became established between 1890 and 1920. The oldest trees on the low sagebrush sites had established by 1600, and most of the existing trees established before 1800. At the beginning of the 20th century, the western juniper populations on big sagebrush sites were doubling in density every 3 years. The rate of establishment on these sites has slowed until 1,370 years would now be required to double the population size. The rate of population growth on low sagebrush sites has varied from decade to decade with a trend to double the population every 200 years and trees that become senescent at about 400 years of age. About 0.4% of western juniper on the low sagebrush sites had fire scars, some of which indicated the occurrence of multiple fires. These fire scars indicated that since 1600 there were periods of up to 90 years when no fires scarred the trees. Changes in the frequency of wildfires appear to be the most logical explanation for the sudden invasion of trees into big sagebrush communities, but current technologies for reconstructing fire chronologies are woefully inadequate in this environment.
    • Growth and Phenological Development of Rough Fescue in Interior British Columbia

      Stout, D. G.; McLean, A.; Quinton, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1981-11-01)
      Growth and phenological development of rough fescue (Festuca scabrella) in interior British Columbia have been documented for a 3-year period. The plants began growing around mid-April and normally ceased growing in late June. Culm growth began in late May and ceased at approximately the time leaf growth ceased. However, leaf and culm elongation ceased before the plants reached their full weight. Rough fescue headed out between May 14 and June 10 and seed shattering occurred between July 13 and July 24. Seed head production per plant was variable from year to year. Fall regrowth occurred in September one year, in October another year, and not at all the other year.
    • Guide a Range Curriculum with an Educational Needs Assessment

      Norton, B. E.; Eastmond, J. N. (Society for Range Management, 1981-11-01)
      This study, undertaken as a cooperative effort between the Utah State University Range Science Department and the Instructional Development office, surveyed 138 alumni of the department to assist in the identification of needs for curriculum improvement. Strong support for the following educational concerns was evident: (1) a practical and pragmatic emphasis in the curriculum, including focus upon political and economic aspects of range management; (2) an emphasis upon communication skills, particularly oral communication, and dealing with "people problems"; (3) a field component to complement the classroom wherever possible. Findings from the study have led to the revision of two courses, the beginning of two others, and have endorsed a core course on land management policy recently introduced into the College of Natural Resources. The results of the survey have assisted curriculum development in the Range Science Department at Utah State University and may prove helpful for other educators in the field.
    • In Vitro Digestibility among Accessions of Big Sagebrush by Wild Mule Deer and Its Relationship to Monoterpenoid Content

      Welch, B. L.; Pederson, J. C. (Society for Range Management, 1981-11-01)
      Results of in vitro digestibility trials indicate that big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) is a highly digestible browse for wintering mule deer. Subspecies tridentata (62.1% digested dry matter) was more highly digested than subspecies vaseyana (53.2% digested dry matter) and subspecies wyomingensis (51.4% digested dry matter). On an accession level, some accessions of big sagebrush were more highly digested than others. The accessional range was from 44.6% digested dry matter to 64.8%. No relationship was found between total monoterpenoids (essential or volatile oils) content and digestibility.
    • Increased Soil Water Storage and Herbage Production from Snow Catch in North Dakota

      Ries, R. E.; Power, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1981-11-01)
      This study documents the effect of three grass stubble heights (15, 30, and 60 cm) on overwinter storage of soil water and the subsequent effect on forage production the following growing season. Soil water was increased over the winter by 0.24 cm for each centimeter of grass stubble left between 15 and 60 cm in height. Each centimeter increase in soil water stored over the winter increased forage production by 115 and 62 kg/ha for introduced and native species, respectively. Results indicate the importance of stubble height in increasing forage production from grasslands of the Northern Great Plains by trapping snow and storing soil water for use by the plant community the following growing season.
    • Rootplowing, Front-end Stacking, and Seeding Effects on Herbaceous Plant Species Composition

      Gonzalez, C. L.; Latigo, G. V. (Society for Range Management, 1981-11-01)
      Effects on herbaceous plant species composition of two mechanical brush manipulation treatments (rootplowing and front-end stacking) with and without grass seeding were investigated in the Rio Grande Plain of Texas. Clearing of brushy rangeland by either rootplowing or front-end stacking increased native grass and forb diversity. During the first year after treatment, forbs accounted for about 70% of plant species composition based on density, but by the third and fifth year, they decreased to 25%. Plots seeded to native or introduced grasses established good stands, and by the second year, desirable forage had increased. Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), an introduced seeded species, was the most aggressive species. Five years after mechanical brush manipulation, this species accounted for a major portion of the plant composition in both seeded and nonseeded treatments.
    • Seasonal Nutrient Content in Food Plants of White-tailed Deer on the South Texas Plains

      Everitt, J. H.; Gonzalez, C. L. (Society for Range Management, 1981-11-01)
      From September 1976, through August 1978, 34 white-tailed deer food plants were collected during the months they were eaten by deer on the H.B. Zachry Randado Ranch in south Texas and analyzed for crude protein (CP), P, Ca, K, Mg, and Na. In vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD) was measured on foods collected only during the first year of the study. Mean levels of CP, Ca, K, and Mg were adequate for deer throughout the year. The P levels were generally inadequate except during spring, whereas Na levels probably were deficient throughout the year. However, these may not be as deficient as indicated because deer select higher quality plants and plant parts. Crude protein content of browse species was generally higher than that of forbs and cacti. Forbs were generally higher in P and Na than were browse and cacti. Although pricklypear cactus generally had low levels of CP, P, and Na, it had a higher DMD (greater than or equal to 76%) than all other species. However, because of its high soluble ash content (20%), pricklypear cactus averaged about 56% in vitro digestible organic matter. Our data indicated that range managers should provide a diversity of plant species to provide an optimum habitat for deer.
    • Rooting of Mesquite (Prosopis) Cuttings

      Felker, P.; Clark, P. R. (Society for Range Management, 1981-11-01)
      Natural mesquite stands and other seed-propagated mesquite are extremely variable because of mesquite's obligately outcrossed breeding mechanism. Clonal propagation methods are required to reduce genetic variation in controlled experiments and for propagation of ornamentals. Cuttings of six species of Prosopis (mesquite) representing Hawaiian, North American, and South American germplasm were successfully rooted using a translucent high humidity chamber, greenhouse-grown cutting stock, a foliar dithane (fungicide) spray, and a 3 sec. 100% dimethylsulfoxide dip containing (mg/L):indolebutyric acid (6,000), napthaleneacetic acid (9,000), boric acid (100), calcium chloride (200), thiamine (100), and Banrot (100).
    • Predator Control in Relation to Livestock Losses in Central Texas

      Pearson, E. W.; Caroline, M. (Society for Range Management, 1981-11-01)
      Records of the 1971-76 federal-state Animal Damage Control (ADC) program in central Texas reflected 0.27% annual domestic sheep and goat losses to predators despite intensive control efforts. Sheep and goat numbers decreased, but their value, cattle numbers, and cattle values increased. Losses to coyotes and bobcats were proportionately greatest in brushy, uneven terrain on the periphery of the Edwards Plateau. In 1975, cooperative ADC predator control efforts protected 438,649 (40%) of the sheep and goats on 8,912 km2 (3,441 mi2), or 15.5% of the total land area in 21 counties studied at an average cost of 46 cents for each sheep or goat protected. Heaviest losses to predators occurred from October to May when small lambs were present; control efforts were most successful during winters. An estimated cost-benefit ratio to measure the effectiveness of the ADC program was 1:4.5 for 1975. We observed that losses to predators were lowest when annual precipitation was highest; high losses coincided with dry years, which were probably the periods of lowest wild prey abundance.
    • Insects Associated with Broom Snakeweed [Xanthocephalum sarothrae] and Threadleaf Snakeweed [Xanthocephalum microcephala] in West Texas and Eastern New Mexico

      Foster, D. E.; Ueckert, D. N.; DeLoach, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1981-11-01)
      Immature and adult insects representing 8 orders, 86 families, and 338 species were collected from broom snakeweed (Xanthocephalum sarothrae) or threadleaf snakeweed (X. microcephala) in the western half of Texas and eastern New Mexico during 1976 and 1977. Most of the 46 sampling locations were visited three times each year. Insects were collected by hand, sweep net, or D-Vac. The aboveground vegetation of 30 plants and the root systems of 10 plants were sampled at each location during most visits. Immature forms were determined by rearing or association. Several native insect species inflict damage to broom snakeweed and threadleaf snakeweed, including a leaf-tying moth, (Synnoma lynosyrana), a weevil (Myrmex sp. nr. lineata), roundheaded borers (Crossidius discoideus and Crossidius pulchellus), a flatheaded borer (Agrilus gibbicollis), and two species of mealybugs (Phenacoccus helianthi and Eriococcus cryptus).
    • Soil Ecology of a Lichen Heath at Spitsbergen, Svalbard: Effects of Artificial Removal of the Lichen Plant Cover

      Sendstad, E. (Society for Range Management, 1981-11-01)
      The Norwegian MAB project conducted research on the possible effects of overgrazing in winter pastures of the Spitsbergen reindeer (R. tarandus playtyrhyncus, Vrolik). In a 25- m2 area of a lichen heath at Svalbard, (79 degrees N, 12 degrees E), the lichen plant cover was artificially removed. This was done to simulate the effects of heavy grazing, resulting in the disappearance of the lichens. The experiment resulted in a significant decrease in total soil respiration. A corresponding effect was found on the population development of the Collembola species Hypogastrura tullbergi (Schaffer). This species may, therefore, be a good indicator as to the long-term effects on soil microflora. It is also shown that the population development of the different Collembola species is not regulated through Aranea predation. The removal of the lichen plant cover did effect a decrease in the soil content of organic matter and macronutrients.
    • Timber Thinning and Prescribed Burning as Methods to Increase Herbage on Grazed and Protected Longleaf Pine Ranges

      Wolters, G. L. (Society for Range Management, 1981-11-01)
      Selective commercial timber thinning and prescribed burning are effective tools in maintaining a productive forage resource on stocked range of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris). Productive mixtures of herbaceous species can be sustained through periodic timber thinning to maintain 12 to 20 m2/ha of longleaf pine basal area and rotational winter burning, at 3-year intervals. Two to three years of heavy use can be expected after patch cutting if the area of patch cuts constitute a minor percentage of the total grazed range unit. Heavy use may convert patch cuts predominantly to carpetgrass and forested range to a mixture of forbs.
    • Yield and Quality of Creeping Bluestem as Affected by Time of Cutting

      Kalmbacher, R. S.; Martin, F. G.; Andrade, J. M. S. (Society for Range Management, 1981-11-01)
      Creeping bluestem (Schizachyrium stoloniferum Nash.) is a rhizomatous native grass that is the dominant species on many Florida rangelands. To evaluate its grazing potential, dry matter yield, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL), were measured in plants cut at 10 and 20 cm stubble heights during 70-day intervals from June to October (summer), August to December (summer-fall), and October to February (winter). Winter yields were significantly greater (2,090 kg/ha) than summer yields (1,600 kg/ha) with summer-fall yields intermediate (1,860 kg/ha). After 3 years there was a significant decline in dry matter in plants cut at 10 cm, but yield was sustained in plants cut at 20 cm. Herbage regrowth in July to August was high in IVOMD (37.8%). Crude protein and IVOMD percentages were also greater in November to December regrowth (7.5 and 36%, respectively) and January to February regrowth (6.8 and 37%, respectively). However, since forage yield was lowest at the time, yield of protein and digestible organic matter were lowest. Percent NDF, ADF, and ADL were not greatly affected by initial growth or regrowth periods and averaged 80.0, 42.3 and 5.8%, respectively. Creeping bluestem may be one of Florida's greater yielding native grasses, but will require protein and energy supplements to provide good livestock performance.
    • Diet of Pronghorn in Western Kansas

      Sexon, Mark L.; Choate, Jerry R.; Nicholson, Robert A. (Society for Range Management, 1981-11-01)
      Pronghorn were common throughout most of Kansas before settlement of the region by European man. They had begun to decline in numbers, even in sparsely populated western Kansas, by 1877, and were nearly extirpated in the state by 1915. However, small herds of pronghorn persisted along the Kansas-Colorado state line, and these were augmented by herds introduced into several regions of Kansas during the years 1964-1979. The diet of the most successful population of pronghorn in western Kansas was found to consist largely of forbs in late spring, summer, and early autumn, of forbs supplemented with wheat and other dicots in late autumn and early spring, and of wheat in winter. Pronghorn are able to live and reproduce where 30% of the land is used for cultivated crops at least in part because they are able to use those crops as food during months when native foods are in short supply.