• Application of Remote Sensing to Prairie Dog Management

      Dalsted, K. J.; Sather-Blair, S.; Worcester, B. K.; Klukas, R. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      The areal extent of prairie dog towns in Wind Cave National Park (WCNP) has increased at an alarming rate in the past 20 years. An inventory method was needed to replace the time and labor intensive ground survey method, i.e. rod and transit. Color infrared (CIR) aerial photography (1,370 m above ground) provided a useful product for rapidly and accurately delineating prairie dog towns. Extent was determined by measurements on the CIR film to be 608 ha or 5.3% of the total WCNP area. Ground measurements, taken near the time of the aircraft overflight, included general vegetation description of each prairie dog town and a vegetation sampling from 0.25 m2 plot on a stratified, random basis. The ground data helped explain and identify the variations recorded on the CIR film. Soil and topographic information were used with the CIR film to determine likely expansion potential and probable direction of growth of the 11 major prairie dog towns in WCNP. The prairie dog town inventory and expansion potential of each town has probable usefulness in the development of management plans.
    • Comparison of Herbage Production on Moderately Grazed and Ungrazed Western Ranges

      Lacey, J. R.; Van Poollen, H. W. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      The hypothesis that there is no difference in the total amount of herbage produced on moderately grazed and ungrazed Western ranges was proposed and rejected. It was rejected because published literature shows that annual herbage production averaged 68 +/- 46% higher when plots were protected from a moderate level of livestock grazing. Likewise, herbage production of individual plants averaged 59 +/- 50% higher when they were protected, rather than clipped at a moderate level of use.
    • Deer and Elk Use on Foothill Rangelands in Northeastern Oregon

      Miller, R. F.; Krueger, W. C.; Vavra, M. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      Forested foothills of the Wallowa Mountains in northeastern Oregon provide spring and early summer range for deer and elk. Deer and elk use varied both between plant communities and seasonally within plant communities. Plant species composition of big game diets also varied with season. Bunchgrass and logged communities collectively occupying 57% of the land area studied, provided 90% of the big game diet during spring and early summer. Grasses made up 52% of the diet, forbs 38%, and browse 10%. Timothy and western goatsbeard were the two most important species consumed by big game. Pellet groups did not reliably estimate the value of various communities to deer and elk for forage use.
    • Diameter-Length,—Weight Relations for Blackbrush [Coleogyne ramosissima] Branches

      Provenza, F. D.; Urness, P. J. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      Regression was used to relate branch diameter to branch length (r = 0.85) and weight (r2=0.94) for blackbrush plants in southwestern Utah. These regression equations were subsequently used to estimate blackbrush utilization by domestic goats in a browsing study. The diameter-length equation compared favorably with before-and-after measurements for accuracy and greatly reduced man-hour costs in determining utilization. Estimates of utilization based on the diameter-weight equation were less than estimates based on the before-and-after approach or the diameter-length equation; the diameter-weight equation accounted for leaves and thus provided a more accurate estimate of utilization.
    • Diet Selection of Hereford, Angus X Hereford and Charolais X Hereford Cows and Calves

      Walker, J. W.; Hansen, R. M.; Rittenhouse, L. R. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      Botanical composition of cattle diets of Hereford, Angus x Hereford and Charolais x Hereford cows and calves were compared to determine the effect of cattle age and/or breed on species selection. Multivariate analysis of variance showed small but significant differences between cow and calf diets and no differences among breeds. Similarity indices and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient showed a high degree of overlap and significant correlation between ages and among breeds. Differences between cow and calves among breeds were minor and of little value in range management.
    • Diets of Domestic Sheep and Other Large Herbivores in Southcentral Colorado

      MacCracken, J. G.; Hansen, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      The botanical composition of herbage consumed by domestic sheep, mule deer, domestic cattle and elk from critical big game winter ranges in southcentral Colorado was studied using the fecal analysis technique. The food habits of domestic sheep grazed during the late spring overlapped those of mule deer by 15%, elk 46%, and domestic cattle by 53%. Mule deer diets were 10% similar to cattle and 30% to elk. Elk and cattle diets averaged 39% identical on the study area. The low similarity in diet between domestic stock and mule elk suggests that livestock grazing in the study area could be made compatible with the winter range needs of mule deer, but the potential competition between elk and domestic stock needs additional study.
    • Effects of Range Improvement on Roosevelt Elk Winter Nutrition

      Mereszczak, I. M.; Krueger, W. C.; Vavra, M. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      Three pasture types dominate the Beneke Creek Wildlife Management Area on this Roosevelt elk winter range in northwestern Oregon. In winter, elk showed a strong preference for perennial ryegrass pastures that were hayed the previous summer and fall fertilized over bentgrass pastures also hayed and fertilized or unmanaged bentgrass pastures. These perennial ryegrass pastures provided forage that met minimal requirements for digestible protein and digestible energy all winter while both bentgrass pasture types were deficient in these nutrients through winter. Improvement of bentgrass pastures by conversion to ryegrass should result in higher rates of elk reproduction and better survival of offspring.
    • Esophageal, Fecal and Exclosure Estimates of Cattle Diets on a Longleaf Pine-Bluestem Range

      Johnson, M. K.; Pearson, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      Microhistological analysis of esophageal or fecal materials provides an accurate and efficient method for evaluating botanical compositions of cattle diets on native longleaf pine-bluestem range. For practical purposes fecal analysis is the preferred method. Plant species that were most important to cattle during the present study were the bluestems and panicums.
    • Estimating Twig and Foliage Biomass of Sagebrush, Bitterbrush, and Rabbitbrush in the Great Basin

      Dean, S.; Burkhardt, J. W.; Meeuwig, R. O. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      Shrub crown characteristics useful in regression equations for predicting two biomass components (annual production and fine fuels) were identified for six shrubs common to the Great Basin. Shrub characteristics most useful in these equations were maximum and minimum crown diameter, and crown denseness and depth. Prediction equations were developed for each species or subspecies included in this study. Additionally, biomass equations were developed for combined species or subspecies of morphological similarity within the Artemisia genus.
    • Forest Grazing: Past and Future

      Kosco, B. H.; Bartolome, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      Livestock have grazed western forests since the 1850's. Policy changes with the inception of government regulation and the end of the free open range brought profound changes in the livestock industry. With increasing demands for timber, recreation and wildlife, grazing began to decline in importance as a use of National Forest ranges. Yet, livestock grazing on forest range is critical to yearlong operations of the ranchers who use them. With proper management livestock can be increasingly important not only as meat and fiber producers, but as part of all land management on national ranges.
    • Herbage Capacitance Meter: an Evaluation of Its Accuracy in Florida Rangelands

      Terry, W. S.; Hunter, D. H.; Swindel, B. F. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      This paper reports results of regression analyses of the use of a capacitance meter to estimate herbage weight. Estimation of dry weights was found to be as accurate as estimation of green weights. Analysis of covariance for three factors, site, season of year, and year of data collection, showed only season significantly (P<.01) affected the relationship between herbage weight and meter reading. Simple linear regressions were compared to natural logarithmic regressions. Logarithmic regressions were found to be better predictors of herbage weight as determined by Furnival's Index. Winter and spring proved to be the best time to use the capacitance meter, probably due to decreased effect of moisture fluctuations on the meter's performance.
    • Livestock Grazing Impacts on Public Lands: A Viewpoint

      Holechek, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
    • Low-energy Grubbing for Control of Junipers

      Wiedemann, H. T.; Cross, B. T. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      Low-energy grubbing was effective and economical in controlling sparse to moderate stands of junipers infesting rangeland. A small, 48.5-kW (65-hp), shift-on-the-go crawler tractor, as compared to tractors larger than 74.5kW (100-hp) normally used, was adapted for grubbing by attaching a U-shape blade to the front mounted C-frame for root cutting at depths of 15 to 30 cm. A 98% plant kill was achieved because uprooting of trees below the bud-zone prevented sprouting. The newly designed hydraulic attachment significantly improved tree uprooting. Grubbing rate was a curvilinear function of juniper density and varied approximately from 4.0 to 0.5 ha/hr (10 to 1.25 ac/hr) to remove 80 to 500 trees/ha (30 to 200 trees/acre). Cost varied from $6.00 to $50.00/ha ($2.40 to $20.00/acre).
    • Mulching, Furrowing, and Fallowing of Forage Plantings on Arizona Pinyon-Juniper Ranges

      Lavin, F.; Johnsen, T. N.; Gomm, F. B. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      Mulching with plastic film, cinders, or juniper slash; deep furrowing; and fallowing increased penetration and retention of soil moisture, delayed soil surface crusting, and lowered seeding-zone temperatures in tests at five different pinyon-juniper range locations. Responses of seven forage species to these practices varied. The combination of plastic film mulching, deep furrowing, cinder mulching, and fallowing uniformly had resulted in greater soil moisture, more seedlings, and better early growth than other combinations. Plants under juniper slash had a longer growing season and were protected from excessive grazing by rabbits, with no evidence of toxic effects from the juniper. Cinder mulch increased seedling emergence and establishement, but in one year appeared to be toxic to the planted species. Deep furrowing generally had no advantage over surface drilling. Fallowing benefited pubescent wheatgrass and fourwing saltbush at a cold-moist pinyon-juniper site. The number of seedlings emerging gave little indication of the plant stand several years later.
    • Nodulation and Acetylene Reduction by Certain Rangeland Legume Species under Field Conditions

      Johnson, D. A.; Rumbaugh, M. D. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      Acetylene reduction rates, N2[C2H2], were obtained to estimate nitrogen fixation by several introduced and native range legume species. The N2[C2H2] fixation rates of excised root segments with attached nodules were measured in the field for legumes from two mountain grassland sites, one native sagebrush-dominated site, and three cultivated former big sagebrush study sites. Sampling was conducted in the driest part of the growing season. Even during this high stress period, nodules were present and active in some legume species. Medicago sativa plants were particularly notable because of their capability of being nodulated and ability to reduce acetylene in dry soils when other legumes were not active. In addition, under the most favorable environmental conditions in this study, nodules from M. sativa reduced acetylene most actively at a rate of 26.2 micromoles ethylene/h/g nodule fresh weight. Although nodulation was generally less successful in New World than Old World lupine species, Lupinus mutabilis was capable of reducing acetylene at a rate of 4.97 micromoles ethylene/h/g nodule fresh weight, even in a severely water stressed environment. These results suggested that some legume species may be capable of fixing significant amounts of nitrogen on semiarid range sites.
    • Preliminary Observations on the Performance of Some Exotic Species of Atriplex in Saudi Arabia

      Hyder, S. Z. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      Seeds of seven different Atriplex species (four from the United States and three from Australia) were germinated in the greenhouse and then transplanted to field plots at the Regional Agriculture and Water Research Center (RAWRC), located at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were obtained on vegetative growth, flowering, seed production, seed germination, and chemical composition of the plants. There were marked differences between species in vegetative growth. All flowered normally, but seed production and seed germination percentages differed among the species. All species were high in protein and ash content. Further field studies are underway at different sites within the Kingdom to test the potential value of Atriplex for the improvement of Saudi Arabian rangeland.
    • Response of Bobwhites to Cover Changes within Three Grazing Systems

      Hammerquist-Wilson, M. M.; Crawford, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      In south Texas bobwhites responded to short-term changes in the amount of vegetative cover within three grazing systems, two rotational and one continuous. Use by quail apparently was related to increases in amounts of bare ground and forb cover and decreases in grass cover.
    • Response of Western North Dakota Mixed Prairie to Intensive Clipping and Five Stages of Development

      Holderman, C. A.; Goetz, H. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      The effects of clipping to a 2.54 cm (1 inch) height at 5 stages of development of western North Dakota mixed prairie were investigated. Soil moisture content at the beginning of the growing season had a greater effect on yields than did the clipping treatments. Observations from this two-year study indicate that soil moisture removal was not affected by the clipping treatments. Clipping significantly affected peak yields by needle-and-threadgrass (Stipa comata) and the Carex species during 1977; and the miscellaneous grasses (Agropyron smithii and Agropyron subsecundum) during 1978, at the sandy loam site. No significant differences in yields were observed for the other species and groups at the sandy loam site, or, the species and groups at the loam site for the two-year-period.
    • Root Biomass Calculation Using a Modified Counting Technique

      Schafer, W. M.; Nielsen, G. A. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      Data on root weight, length, and surface area are useful in soil characterization, ecosystem description, and studies of plant-soil interaction. Characterization of root systems is often thought to be so laborious and inaccurate that little data are collected. Root counts are used in soil surveys to evaluate root abundance; but these counts are not useful in most applications where data on roots are needed. An improved counting method provided root count data which correlated with measured root weight (AW = 0.97 PW, r2=0.85) where AW = actual weight and PW = predicted weight. Counts were made in a dm2 plexiglass frame parallel to the soil surface under short-and mid-grass prairie vegetation. As many as 30 samples were necessary to estimate root biomass within 25% (P<.10) with either root weighing or counting methods. Total root biomass calculated from root counts in the upper 100 cm of 15 southeastern Montana soils and in mine spoils ranged from 310 to 1,610 g/m2 which is similar to published data on root biomass in other grassland communities.