• Potential Herbicides for Brush Control

      Bovey, R. W.; Meyer, R. E.; Baur, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      Several new herbicides and herbicide combinations were evaluated in the greenhouse for control of honey mesquite, huisache, whitebrush, live oak and Texas persimmon. Sprays of picloram, triclopyr ester and 3,6-dichloropicolinic acid at 0.56 kg/ha were the most effective herbicides in reducing the canopy of honey mesquite. Picloram at 0.14 to 0.56 kg/ha effectively defoliated huisache. At 1.12 kg/ha tebuthiuron, buthidazole, hexazinone and 3,6-dichloropicolinic acid also defoliated huisache. Whitebrush was effectively controlled with picloram, triclopyr ester, tebuthiuron, buthidazole, hexazinone, dicamba and ethidimuron at 0.56 kg/ha. None of the treatments was effective against live oak or Texas persimmon. Certain combinations of picloram plus triclopyr effectively defoliated whitebrush and honey mesquite. Picloram plus 3,6-dichloropicolinic acid was also effective for honey mesquite control.
    • Temperature Profiles for Germination of Bluebunch and Beardless Wheatgrasses

      Young, J. A.; Eckert, R. E.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      The germination of seeds of beardless and bluebunch wheatgrasses was investigated over a wide range of constant and alternating temperatures. Seeds of 'Whitmar' beardless wheatgrass, a collection from Nevada, and numbered accessions of bluebunch wheatgrass were used. Seeds of 'Whitmar' beardless wheatgrass germinated at 87% of the 55 temperature regimes tested with a mean germination of 52%. Germination at 42% of the temperature regimes was optimum [defined as not significantly (P = 0.01) different from maximum], with a mean of 84%. Freshly harvested seeds of the Nevada source of bluebunch wheatgrass germinated at 78% of the temperature regimes with a mean of 40%. Comparable figures for fully ripened seeds 5 months after harvest were 84% with a mean of 62%. The germination response of 1-month old bluebunch wheatgrass seeds indicated that germination could occur at the high seedbed temperatures encountered in a late summer moisture event. The temperature-germination profiles for the numbered accessions of bluebunch wheatgrass had the same general pattern as the Nevada source. Generally, seeds were highly germinable at a number of temperatures. Optimum germination of all the sources of seed occurred at 37 temperature regimes at least once and always occurred at 15 temperatures ranging from an alternating 5/15 degrees C through a constant 25 degrees C. This range of germination temperatures is much wider than that exhibited by squirreltail and Sandberg bluebunch. The bluebunch wheatgrass material has the inherent potential to germinate and to be highly germinable at a wide range of temperatures.
    • Winter Variation in Nutrient and Fiber Content and In vitro Digestibility of Gambel Oak (Quercus gambellii) and Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) from Diversified Sites in Colorado

      Kufeld, R. C.; Stevens, M.; Bowden, D. C. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      Nutrient and fiber content and in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) were measured in Gambel oak (Quercus gambellii) and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) samples collected during January from nine geographic areas distributed widely throughout the western half of Colorado, and representing three vegetation types. Coefficients of variation among areas were less than 10% in both species in dry matter content, IVDDM and most cell and cell wall components. Variation appears to be small enough to permit application of a suitably selected, constant value, which would reflect winter nutrient content, fiber content or digestibility of these species, regardless of where collected in Colorado, in surveys where winter nutritional status of big game rangelands is being estimated for management purposes.
    • Use of a Profile Board in Sand Shinnery Oak Communities

      Guthery, F. S.; Doerr, T. B.; Taylor, M. A. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      A profile board adapted to sand shinnery oak communities gave highly accurate structural profiles of the vegetation. Using actual estimates of percentage screening of strata by foliage was more accurate than using percentage screening classes. The procedures used to adapt the profile board to sand shinnery oak communities can be used in other plant communities.
    • Sheep Use on Mountain Winter Range in New Mexico

      McDaniel, K. C.; Tiedeman, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      Sheep were found to be affected by several factors related to the mountainous terrain. Slope steepness, percent bareground, and position on slope were the three most important factors influencing sheep distribution and utilization. Sheep favored mountain ridgetops for bedgrounds and grazing. Sheep utilization was relatively uniform on all side slopes less than 45%, but utilization was reduced from 50% to 75% on steeper slopes. Sheep were not limited by distance from water in the mountainous country of this study area. Sheep used severely eroded slopes less than slightly eroded slopes.
    • Sage Grouse Leks on Recently Disturbed Sites

      Connelly, J. W.; Arthur, W. J.; Markham, O. D. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      Three sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) leks located on recently disturbed areas within the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site are described. A possible increase in the grouse population and lack of suitable natural clearings in the general vicinity of these leks are suggested as reasons for the bird's use of these areas. This species' acceptance of newly cleared sites for display areas may have potential as a management tool.
    • An Approach to Plot Sampling for Canopy Volume in Shrub Communities

      Zamora, B. A. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      A method of plot sampling for canopy volume of shrubs in plant communities is described. The method requires a three dimensional plot and an estimation of canopy volume by classes for each species in the plot. Midpoint values for the volume classes are used to calculate averages from an appropriate sample size. The method eliminates the necessity of measuring height and canopy diameters of individual species and provides an acceptable index to species dominace in the vegetation.
    • A Simple and Economical Root Washer

      Nyren, P. E.; Goetz, H.; Williams, D. E. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
    • A Modification of an Esophageal Fistula Plug That Allows Low Maintenance of Free-ranging Sheep and Goats

      Denney, G. D. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      A low cost plug constructed from polyethylene is described which reduces the maintenance problems associated with esophageally fistulated grazing animals.
    • Bison and Cattle Digestion of Forages from the Slave River Lowlands, Northwest Territories, Canada

      Hawley, A. W. L.; Peden, D. G.; Reynolds, H. W.; Stricklin, W. R. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      Dry matter disappearance (DMD) of native forages collected from the Slave River Lowlands (SRL), Northwest Territories, was consistently greater in bison (Bison bison) than in Hereford cattle (Bos taurus) when measured with a nylon bag technique. Overall average DMD values were 52% and 39% for bison and cattle, respectively. Mean percent DMD values for each plant species were: willow (Salix spp.), 56; slough sedge (Carex atherodes), 50; baltic rush (Juncus balticus), 47; aleppo avens (Geum aleppicum), 44; and northern reedgrass (Calamagrostis inexpanse), 39. Dry matter disappearance was inversely correlated (P < 0.05) with crude fiber content of the sample. Dependence of DMD on crude fiber content was less (P < 0.001) in cattle than in bison. Based on relative digestibilities and data on forage intake, we concluded that slough sedge was the most important bison forage in the study area. Average DMD was 44% greater (P < 0.01) in a Hereford fed hay than in a Hereford fed hay plus a concentrate supplement. There was no difference (P>0.05) in DMD between two bison fed the hay ration and two fed hay plus the supplement.
    • Developing a Useful, Personal Range Science Library

      Vallentine, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
    • Discussion of "Application of the Universal Soil Loss Equation to Rangelands on a Per-Storm Basis," by Trieste and Gifford in Journal of Range Management 33:66-70, 1980

      Foster, G. R.; Simanton, J. R.; Renard, K. G.; Lane, L. J.; Osborn, H. B. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
    • Drummond's Goldenweed and Its Control with Herbicides

      Mayeux, H. S.; Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      Several selective and nonselective foliar-active herbicides were applied alone and in 1:1 combinations as broadcast sprays in the spring for control of Drummond's goldenweed on the Coastal Prairie of Texas. Picloram at 0.56 kg/ha or picloram plus 2,4,5-T, glyphosate, or atrazine plus paraquat at 1.12 kg/ha consistently controlled the weed. Atrazine and 2,4-D, applied singly or in combination at 1.12 to 2.24 kg/ha total herbicide, effectively controlled Drummond's goldenweed only when soil-water content was high. Dicamba, like 2,4-D, was effective when applied in a "wet" year but not in a "dry" year. The effective herbicides controlled Drummond's goldenweed for at least 3 years. Although Drummond's goldenweed is morphologically similar to common goldenweed, it is apparently more susceptible to herbicides than its western counterpart.
    • Range Claypan Soil Improvement: Response from Furrowing and Ripping in Northwestern South Dakota

      White, E. M.; Gartner, F. R.; Butterfield, R. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      Ripping and furrowing increased water infiltration and herbage production on some claypan range soils for 4 to 13 years. Infiltrating water in the ripped or furrowed soil zones redistributed extractable Na and salt toward the soils between the disturbed soil zones. This distribution of the water probably accelerates natural soil processes and will give long term increased forage production on nonsaline sodic soils.
    • Response of Muhlenbergia porteri Scribn. to Season of Defoliation

      Miller, R. F.; Donart, G. B. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      Removing 65% of the leaf area of bush muhly in three consecutive years during the growing season reduced plant vigor regardless of season of clipping. Late or continuous season defoliation had the greatest impact on food reserves, production, crown diameter and number of stem internodes. Defoliation during the vegetative stage had the least effect of the clipping treatments.
    • Range Claypan Soil Improvement: Properties Affecting Their Response to Mechanical Treatment

      White, E. M.; Gartner, F. R. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      Improvement efforts for claypan range sites by mechanical treatment can be grouped into those that increase water infiltration, disrupt the exchangeable-Na-rich claypan layer, mix the claypan layer with other layers, or combinations of treatments. The beneficial effect of a treatment on range productivity depends mainly on the specific soil characteristics or adapting the treatment to the soil. Spacings between contour furrows, ripper teeth, or similar devices probably should coincide with the distance between large natural soil structure boundaries for maximum lasting effects.
    • A Versatile Flail-Type Forage Plot Harvester

      Stubbendieck, J.; Fenster, C. R. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      A flail-type plot harvester was developed using commercially manufactured components and a specifically designed and constructed forage collection box. This forage plot harvester has been used successfully on experimental rangeland and seeded forage plots. The equipment is more versatile and less expensive than commercially manufactured plot harvesters.
    • An Assessment of Vigor and Production of Range Grasses Following Drought

      Ganskopp, D. C.; Bedell, T. E. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      In the growing season following a severe one-year drought in central and eastern Oregon (precipitation 49% of average), various parameters of individual ungrazed and grazed plants of bluebunch wheatgrass, Idaho fescue, Thurber needlegrass, and crested wheatgrass at 11 locations were evaluated. An average of 43% above-average precipitation occurred during the study growing season. Lightly grazed Idaho fescue and bluebunch wheatgrass produced as much, and in some cases, more height growth, final weight, and seed stalks than ungrazed plants. No differences occurred between moderately grazed and ungrazed bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue. Moderately grazed crested wheatgrass produced similarly to ungrazed plants but started growth more slowly. Grazing heavier than 70% reduced production and height of Idaho fescue and Thurber needlegrass but did not significantly impact bluebunch wheatgrass. No plant mortality occurred regardless of past grazing use.