• A Modification of an Esophageal Fistula Plug That Allows Low Maintenance of Free-ranging Sheep and Goats

      Denney, G. D. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      A low cost plug constructed from polyethylene is described which reduces the maintenance problems associated with esophageally fistulated grazing animals.
    • A Simple and Economical Root Washer

      Nyren, P. E.; Goetz, H.; Williams, D. E. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
    • A Versatile Flail-Type Forage Plot Harvester

      Stubbendieck, J.; Fenster, C. R. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      A flail-type plot harvester was developed using commercially manufactured components and a specifically designed and constructed forage collection box. This forage plot harvester has been used successfully on experimental rangeland and seeded forage plots. The equipment is more versatile and less expensive than commercially manufactured plot harvesters.
    • An Approach to Plot Sampling for Canopy Volume in Shrub Communities

      Zamora, B. A. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      A method of plot sampling for canopy volume of shrubs in plant communities is described. The method requires a three dimensional plot and an estimation of canopy volume by classes for each species in the plot. Midpoint values for the volume classes are used to calculate averages from an appropriate sample size. The method eliminates the necessity of measuring height and canopy diameters of individual species and provides an acceptable index to species dominace in the vegetation.
    • An Assessment of Vigor and Production of Range Grasses Following Drought

      Ganskopp, D. C.; Bedell, T. E. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      In the growing season following a severe one-year drought in central and eastern Oregon (precipitation 49% of average), various parameters of individual ungrazed and grazed plants of bluebunch wheatgrass, Idaho fescue, Thurber needlegrass, and crested wheatgrass at 11 locations were evaluated. An average of 43% above-average precipitation occurred during the study growing season. Lightly grazed Idaho fescue and bluebunch wheatgrass produced as much, and in some cases, more height growth, final weight, and seed stalks than ungrazed plants. No differences occurred between moderately grazed and ungrazed bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue. Moderately grazed crested wheatgrass produced similarly to ungrazed plants but started growth more slowly. Grazing heavier than 70% reduced production and height of Idaho fescue and Thurber needlegrass but did not significantly impact bluebunch wheatgrass. No plant mortality occurred regardless of past grazing use.
    • Bison and Cattle Digestion of Forages from the Slave River Lowlands, Northwest Territories, Canada

      Hawley, A. W. L.; Peden, D. G.; Reynolds, H. W.; Stricklin, W. R. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      Dry matter disappearance (DMD) of native forages collected from the Slave River Lowlands (SRL), Northwest Territories, was consistently greater in bison (Bison bison) than in Hereford cattle (Bos taurus) when measured with a nylon bag technique. Overall average DMD values were 52% and 39% for bison and cattle, respectively. Mean percent DMD values for each plant species were: willow (Salix spp.), 56; slough sedge (Carex atherodes), 50; baltic rush (Juncus balticus), 47; aleppo avens (Geum aleppicum), 44; and northern reedgrass (Calamagrostis inexpanse), 39. Dry matter disappearance was inversely correlated (P < 0.05) with crude fiber content of the sample. Dependence of DMD on crude fiber content was less (P < 0.001) in cattle than in bison. Based on relative digestibilities and data on forage intake, we concluded that slough sedge was the most important bison forage in the study area. Average DMD was 44% greater (P < 0.01) in a Hereford fed hay than in a Hereford fed hay plus a concentrate supplement. There was no difference (P>0.05) in DMD between two bison fed the hay ration and two fed hay plus the supplement.
    • Developing a Useful, Personal Range Science Library

      Vallentine, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
    • Discussion of "Application of the Universal Soil Loss Equation to Rangelands on a Per-Storm Basis," by Trieste and Gifford in Journal of Range Management 33:66-70, 1980

      Foster, G. R.; Simanton, J. R.; Renard, K. G.; Lane, L. J.; Osborn, H. B. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
    • Drummond's Goldenweed and Its Control with Herbicides

      Mayeux, H. S.; Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      Several selective and nonselective foliar-active herbicides were applied alone and in 1:1 combinations as broadcast sprays in the spring for control of Drummond's goldenweed on the Coastal Prairie of Texas. Picloram at 0.56 kg/ha or picloram plus 2,4,5-T, glyphosate, or atrazine plus paraquat at 1.12 kg/ha consistently controlled the weed. Atrazine and 2,4-D, applied singly or in combination at 1.12 to 2.24 kg/ha total herbicide, effectively controlled Drummond's goldenweed only when soil-water content was high. Dicamba, like 2,4-D, was effective when applied in a "wet" year but not in a "dry" year. The effective herbicides controlled Drummond's goldenweed for at least 3 years. Although Drummond's goldenweed is morphologically similar to common goldenweed, it is apparently more susceptible to herbicides than its western counterpart.
    • Establishing Browse Utilization from Twig Diameters

      Jensen, C. H.; Urness, P. J. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      Measurement of twig lengths before and after browsing and measurement of twig diameter after browsing are two techniques to estimate utilization. The two techniques were compared for bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) and cliffrose (Cowania stansburiana). Utilization percentages determined from the two approaches were highly correlated. However, regression equations were not required to estimate utilization from the diameter measurements alone. Correction factors were obtained by subtracting the twig tip diameter of unbrowsed twigs from diameter at the browsed tip and from basal diameter; then dividing the corrected browsed-tip diameter by the corrected basal diameter and multiplying by 100. By using the correction factor, valid estimates of percentage utilization were obtained. The numerical value for twig-tip diameter can be obtained from measuring twig tips of a representative number of unbrowsed twigs. Estimating utilization from twig diameter has two major advantages: (1) accurate estimates of utilization can be reconstructed from postbrowsing measurement alone and (2) making a single annual visit to the rangeland can represent a considerable time saving.
    • Factors Involved in Estimating Green Biomass by Canopy Spectroreflectance Measurements

      Waller, S. S.; Brown, M. A.; Lewis, J. K. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      Factors involved in estimating dry green biomass (DGB) by canopy spectral reflectance were evaluated at six dates during the 1976 growing season. In situ measurements were taken in the Mixed Prairie of western South Dakota on replicated pastures in different range condition classes using a modified hand-held biometer. Canopy reflectance and calibration panel reflectance were determined at 0.675 μm and 0.800 μm. Factors considered in estimating DGB via stepwise multiple regression were the canopy reflectances, calibration panel reflectances, time of day, and coefficient of variability among vegetation samples in a pasture. Canopy reflectance readings were included as both a ratio of the two wave lengths and as two separate variables in two sets of analyses. Canopy reflectance readings alone were not acceptable estimates of DGB (R2=.029 for the ratio and .042 for the linear combination). The coefficient of variability of samples within a pasture improved the association (R2=.233 and .231) while further inclusion of both calibration readings resulted in a marked improvement in estimation of DGB (R2=.633$ and .899). These calibration readings corrected for sun angle and diffuse cloud cover so that time of day of measurement was not an important variable.
    • Food Habits of the Collared Peccary on South Texas Rangelands

      Everitt, J. H.; Gonzalez, C. L.; Alaniz, M. A.; Latigo, G. V. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      The food habits of the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) were determined from three locations in south Texas. From September 1976 through August 1978, peccaries' food preferences on the Zachry Ranch in Jim Hogg and Zapata Counties were 74.7% cacti, 15.3% woody plants, 5.1% forbs, 2.3% grasses, 2.3% unknown plants, and 0.3% animal matter. Pricklypear pads comprised the bulk of the diet from October through March, whereas pricklypear fruit and mesquite pods were the most important foods from April through September. During the fall and early winter period, peccaries' food preferences were determined on the Gonzalez Ranch in Starr County and the Yturria Ranch in Kenedy and Willacy Counties. Food preferences on the Gonzalez Ranch were 81.5% cacti, 13.6% forbs, 2.0% woody plants, 0.6% grasses, 2.3% unknown plants, and 0.1% animal matter, whereas food preferences on the Yturria Ranch were 48.1% forbs, 32.5% cacti, 8.3% woody plants, 5.7% grasses, 5.3% unknown plants, and 0.1% animal matter. Pricklypear had a relatively low density on the Yturria Ranch in comparison with higher densities on the Zachry and Gonzalez Ranches. This study indicated that pricklypear was the preferred food of peccaries in south Texas, but in areas of low pricklypear density, forbs are highly utilized.
    • Forage Plantings on Six Arizona Pinyon-Juniper Subtypes

      Johnsen, T. N.; Gomm, F. B. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      Forty-four species and varieties of forage plants, including 3 shrubs, 6 forbs, and 35 grasses, were planted at each of six sites in four Arizona pinyon-juniper climatic subtypes. Represented were cold-moist and cold-dry climatic subtypes each on medium and fine-textured soils; a warm-moist climatic subtype on fine-textured soil; and a warm-dry climatic subtype on medium-textured soil. Sites are described and classified to help identify planting potential and facilitate wider application of results. Data are given on plant emergence, establishment, survival during 12 growing seasons, and forage production. Agropyron smithii Rydb., A. intermedium var. trichophorum (Link) Halac., and Sitanion hystrix (Nutt.) J.G. Sm. successfully revegetated swelling clay soils. These three species, Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt., and Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. ex Steud. were the most widely adapted species tested.
    • Germination of Seed of Three Varieties of Spotted Locoweed

      Ziemkiewicz, P. F.; Cronin, E. H. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      Spotted locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus Dougl.), one of the principal locoweeds of western rangelands, consists of 36 varieties. The objectives of this study included the definition of some of the factors influencing seed germination of the species. Five seed collections were studied; they represented five different geographical and edaphic locations. Three varieties of spotted locoweed were represented by these collections. The seed coat of the varieties studied was impermeable to water. Seed also contained a water-soluble germination inhibitor. Germination was not affected by light. Optimal germination occurred at the temperature regime 7/13 degrees C. However, at -1/4 and 21/27 degrees C, though it was slower, high percentage germination was ultimately achieved. Although salinity inhibited germination, seed from the different sources showed different tolerances to salinity.
    • Herbage Production Following Tree and Shrub Removal in the Pinyon-Juniper Type of Arizona

      Clary, W. P.; Jameson, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      Herbage production was evaluated after overstory removal from different sites within the pinyon-juniper type. Average annual production varied from 43 to 643 kg/ha before treatment and 715 to 3,703 kg/ha after treatment. Production variation among sites was related to annual precipitation, pretreatment tree canopy, pretreatment nitrate-nitrogen, and presence or absence of limestone soils. Grasses increased in the composition from 46 to 73% on the average, while forbs decreased from 21 to 19%, and half-shrubs and shrubs decreased from 33 to 8%.
    • Potential Herbicides for Brush Control

      Bovey, R. W.; Meyer, R. E.; Baur, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      Several new herbicides and herbicide combinations were evaluated in the greenhouse for control of honey mesquite, huisache, whitebrush, live oak and Texas persimmon. Sprays of picloram, triclopyr ester and 3,6-dichloropicolinic acid at 0.56 kg/ha were the most effective herbicides in reducing the canopy of honey mesquite. Picloram at 0.14 to 0.56 kg/ha effectively defoliated huisache. At 1.12 kg/ha tebuthiuron, buthidazole, hexazinone and 3,6-dichloropicolinic acid also defoliated huisache. Whitebrush was effectively controlled with picloram, triclopyr ester, tebuthiuron, buthidazole, hexazinone, dicamba and ethidimuron at 0.56 kg/ha. None of the treatments was effective against live oak or Texas persimmon. Certain combinations of picloram plus triclopyr effectively defoliated whitebrush and honey mesquite. Picloram plus 3,6-dichloropicolinic acid was also effective for honey mesquite control.
    • Range Claypan Soil Improvement: Properties Affecting Their Response to Mechanical Treatment

      White, E. M.; Gartner, F. R. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      Improvement efforts for claypan range sites by mechanical treatment can be grouped into those that increase water infiltration, disrupt the exchangeable-Na-rich claypan layer, mix the claypan layer with other layers, or combinations of treatments. The beneficial effect of a treatment on range productivity depends mainly on the specific soil characteristics or adapting the treatment to the soil. Spacings between contour furrows, ripper teeth, or similar devices probably should coincide with the distance between large natural soil structure boundaries for maximum lasting effects.
    • Range Claypan Soil Improvement: Response from Furrowing and Ripping in Northwestern South Dakota

      White, E. M.; Gartner, F. R.; Butterfield, R. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      Ripping and furrowing increased water infiltration and herbage production on some claypan range soils for 4 to 13 years. Infiltrating water in the ripped or furrowed soil zones redistributed extractable Na and salt toward the soils between the disturbed soil zones. This distribution of the water probably accelerates natural soil processes and will give long term increased forage production on nonsaline sodic soils.