• Wildlife Habitat on Grazed or Ungrazed Small Pond Shorelines in South Texas

      Whyte, R. J.; Cain, B. W. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      Three man-made ponds constructed in 1956 and fenced to exclude cattle from the shoreline were selected to study the effects of cattle on shoreline vegetation. These ponds were partially opened in 1977 to allow grazing on one-half of the shoreline. The vegetation was sampled monthly with an inclined 10-point frame placed at 1-m intervals along transects in the opened and fenced sections of the shorelines. In most areas the foliar cover and vegetation height were reduced by cattle pressure. The stable Long-tom Community and the Knotgrass-Smartweed Community were more affected by cattle pressure than the Transition Community which changed as the water level rose or dropped. The seasonal Aquatic Community was least affected by cattle pressure and thus maintained good stands of waterfowl food plants. Carefully planned grazing which allows key rest and grazing periods will control the impact of grazing on the shoreline vegetation. Stable waterfowl habitat on the shorelines of small man-made ponds in South Texas can best be protected by fencing at least one-half of the shoreline to restrict cattle use.
    • Vegetation Development over 25 Years without Grazing on Sagebrush-dominated Rangeland in Southeastern Idaho

      Anderson, J. E.; Holte, K. E. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      Data from permanent vegetation transects, established on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site in 1950, were analyzed to determine what changes had taken place in the vegetation complex over the past 25 years in the absence of grazing by domestic livestock. Cover of shrubs and perennial grasses has nearly doubled. Shrub cover in 1975 was 154% greater than in 1950; this change was almost entirely due to increases in cover of big sagebrush between 1957 and 1965. Cover of perennial grasses increased exponentially over the 25-year period, from 0.28% in 1950 to 5.8% in 1975. This was paralleled by significant increases in density and distribution of the four most important grasses on the study area. The 20-fold increase in perennial grass cover has not been at the expense of the shrub overstory. There was no obvious correlation between trends for perennial grass cover and precipitation patterns. Rather, the exponential growth is believed to reflect the availability of seeds as formerly depleted populations increase in size. No evidence of seral replacement, as predicted by classical succession, was found. The data seem more consistent with the "initial floristics/relative stability" concepts of vegetation development.
    • Understory Biomass Response to Microsite and Age of Bedded Slash Pine Plantations

      Ball, M. J.; Hunter, D. H.; Swindel, B. F. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      Understory standing crop biomass was studied on three culturally imposed microsites (bed, furrow, and flat) bedded slash pine (Pinus elliottii) plantations in north Florida. Biomass was clipped in the late spring of 1977 on plantations 2, 5, and 10 years old and separated into five classes: grass, forb, sedge, shrub, and litter (including standing dead). After an initial abundance following site preparation sedges and forbs dropped to relatively low levels within the first 5 years of plantations development. Grasses were the dominant live vegetation in two-year-old plantations. Shrubs became dominant by the fifth year and remained so through the 10th year. Litter, as a result of the lack of cultural treatments designed to remove accumulated dead vegetation, was the major biomass class (more than 8,000 kg/ha by the fifth year following pine establishment). Total live understory biomass increased from the second to the fifth year after which it decreased. Grass standing crop biomass was highest on the flats, lowest in furrows. Hence, forage inventories should be stratified by microsite. Prescribed burning on a properly managed cattle operation may prevent high accumulations of litter while effectively improving the availability of palatable forage. Forage may also be increased by decreasing the proportion of land occupied by the less productive microsites, namely the furrows and beds.
    • The Effects of Fall Defoliation on the Utilization of Bluebunch Wheatgrass and Its Influence on the Distribution of Deer in Spring

      Willms, W.; Bailey, A. W.; McLean, A.; Tucker, R. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      Deer and cattle grazing in spring preferred bluebunch wheatgrass plants that had been defoliated the previous fall to those that had not. Deer selected burned plants in greater proportion than grazed plants. Fall grazing by cattle affected the distribution of deer. Deer displayed preference for the fall grazed field after green growth exceeded the height of stubble.
    • The Effect of Strip Width on Helicopter Censusing of Deer

      Beasom, S. L.; Hood, J. C.; Cain, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      Evaluation of the numbers of white-tailed deer observed in the first (inside) 50 m compared to the second (outside) 50 m strips from helicopter census transects on brush-covered rangelands in Texas revealed from 34-73% fewer animals in the latter. The average reduction of approximately 53% suggests that helicopter censuses yield density estimates about 25% low. Correction for these underestimates could lead to more efficient management of the resource as well as elevated income in areas commercializing hunting.
    • Tetraploid Perennial Teosinte Seed Dormancy and Germination

      Mondrus-Engle, M. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      Tetraploid perennial teosinte is an endangered Mexican relative of maize with potential for use as a tropical rangeland and permanent pasture forage. Seeds are dormant when harvested, becoming more germinable as they afterripen. New-seed dormancy may be broken by pre-soaking seed in a gibberellic acid solution. Other pre-treatments are less effective or inhibit germination. Seeds enclosed in white fruitcases are less germinable than those in dark fruitcases, and frequently lack developed embryos./El teosinite tetraploide perenne es una gramínea rara, indígena a México y afín al maíz, que se puede utilizar en los pastizales y pastos permanentes tropicales. Las semillas están en estado durmiente al cosechar, y aumenta la germinación después de un período de maduración. El período durmiente de las semillas se puedc terminar por medio de remojarlas en una solución del ácido giberélico. Otros medidas de terminar el período durmiente son menos efectivas o impiden la germinación. Las semillas blancas son menos capaz de germinar que las de color oscur, y frecuentemente carecen del embrión.
    • Summer Diet of Spanish Goats Grazing Chaparral

      Sidahmed, A. E.; Morris, J. G.; Radosevich, S. R. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      The browsing preference and feed intake of Spanish goats was studied on a 0.2-ha chaparral field in which a wild fire had occurred 5 years earlier. The dominant shrub species were chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum), scrub oak (Quercus dumosa), eastwood manzanita (Arctostaphylos glandulosa), and ceanothus (Ceanothus greggii). Four goats with esophageal fistulae were used to sample the forage. The browsing preference of Spanish goats was highly directed (about 80%) towards scrub oak and chamise. The remainder of the diet was mostly grasses and forbs, while eastwood manzanita and cupleaf ceanothus made a negligible contribution. Shrub preference was not related to availability as manzanita and ceanothus had the highest volume and were the most abundant species. Regression models to estimate IVDMD from the diet's chemical and botanical contents were derived. IVDMD of esophageal samples was positively correlated with the content of grass and forbs and negatively correlated with the sum of the percentages of scrub oak and chamise.
    • Seed Production and Spring Seedling Establishment of Diffuse and Spotted Knapweed

      Schirman, R. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      Annual seed production of diffuse (Centurea diffusa) and spotted knapweed (Centurea maculosa) is reduced in dry years by a reduction in the number of viable seeds per seed head and increases when above-normal precipitation occurs by increase in the number of heads/flower stem. Seed production was approximately 1,000-fold that needed to maintain observed levels of infestation. Seedlings emerging in April had a high rate of survival with most plants flowering the following season, while those emerging after May 15 had a very low survival rate and almost no flower stem production the following season.
    • Seasonal Fluctuations of Blue Grama Roots and Chemical Characteristics

      Dormaar, J. F.; Smoliak, S.; Johnston, A. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      Root collections of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag.) were made at intervals near Manyberries, Alberta, over a 3-year period. Root samples, after being weighed, were analyzed for C,N, ethanol/benzene-extractable C, methoxyl groups, lignin, soluble and structural carbohydrates, and calorific value. Significant fluctuations occurred over the seasons for all characteristics. Over 50% of the root mass was lost between October and May. This occurred regardless of soil moisture levels. The relationship of (C:N)(% lignin)/(% carbohydrate^-0.5) showed significant differences between the roots collected in the fall and those collected in spring and early summer. The chemical composition of the roots in the fall may have to be considered in explaining root mass losses between October and May.
    • Responses of Vegetation and Cattle to Various Systems of Grazing on Seeded and Native Mountain Rangelands in Eastern Utah

      Laycock, W. A.; Conrad, P. W. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      Several grazing systems were compared on the Diamond Mountain Cattle Allotment of the Ashley National Forest in Utah. The area is about 8,000 ft in elevation and receives 20-25 inches of precipitation annually. On native sagebrush-grass range, a comparison of summer-long (July-September) grazing every year, summer-long in alternate years, and 3-unit rest-rotation systems revealed no differences between systems in cover, production, or species composition of vegetation after 7 years of grazing. Average daily gains of cattle over the entire period were the same for all systems. During the period of study on this range, which was in fair to good condition and grazed at a moderate intensity, rest-rotation was not a better system than summer-long grazing. The key to this lack of difference was management. Rest-rotation systems require intensive management of water, salt, riding, etc. All units in both systems in the study had good distribution of water and salt and adequate riding to insure uniform cattle distribution. The unit grazed summer-long every year received the same degree of management and thus remained as productive as ranges under rest-rotation management. On seeded units of the allotment, heavy grazing in June in alternate years increased production on areas dominated by crested wheatgrass and smooth brome.
    • Range Management Training in Developing African Nations

      Smith, A. D.; Dwyer, D. D. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      Assistance programs in range management to developing countries in Africa by the U.S. Agency for International Development historically have had a training program for nationals for the host countries as part of the package. These have been extremely valuable and, in the long run, are likely to provide the major benefits to recipient nations. They could become even more effective if closer coordination between U.S. universities, host government officials, and USAID personnel were achieved. This would result in more varied educational programs tailored to suit the needs of each student trainee and each host country, thus saving time and money.
    • Productivity Dynamics of a Native Temperate Grassland in Argentina

      Sala, O.; Deregibus, V. A.; Schlichter, T.; Alippe, H. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      Studies of aerial net primary productivity (ANPP) were made on a grassland that had been excluded from livestock grazing for four years. ANPP was calculated by summation of individual species and corrections based on fluctuations of standing dead litter. The grassland produced a minimum of 4 kg of dry material ha-1 d-1 in the fall and a maximum of 30 kg of dry materia ha-1 d-1 during the spring.
    • Nomographic Estimation o Forage Intake by White-tailed Deer

      Moen, A. N.; Scholtz, S. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      Forage intake may be estimated by dividing the nutrients required by the animal by the nutrients supplied by forage. These two variables may be used with nomogram to estimate intake necessary to meet specific requirements. For example, a white-tailed deer with an ecological metabolism of 1,600 kcal and a forage digestibility of 0.4 has an estimated intake of 1.0 kg. One with an ecological metabolism of 5,500 and a forage digestibility of 0.8 has an estimated intake of 1.8 kg. A nomogram is especially useful when making quick estimates for management purposes.
    • Japanese Brome Response to Atrazine in Combination With Nitrogen Fertilizer in the Mixed Prairie

      Hewlett, D. B.; Johnson, J. R.; Butterfield, R. I.; Mosley, V. K. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      Atrazine was used to control Japanese brome in conjunction with nitrogen fertilization to determine if herbage production could be increased more than by fertilization alone. Atrazine treatments included a single application, application in alternate years, and application for two or three consecutive years. Atrazine did not significantly increase production more than fertilizer alone and caused some decreases in western wheatgrass production at low rates of N in one year at one location. Unless atrazine was applied in two or more years, Japanese brome was a prevalent the second growing season after application as where it had never been controlled. Application of atrazine in consecutive years increased shortgrass production at one location.
    • Initial Establishment of Four Species on a Mine Spoils

      Holechek, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      Research was conducted in a greenhouse at Bozeman, Montana, and on coal mine spoils at Colstrip, Mont., in 1975 to determine the initial establishment of fairway crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum), critana thickspike wheatgrass (Agropyron dasystachyum), ranger alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens). Establishment of the four species in the greenhouse experiment was different from that in the field experiment. In both studies all four species showed good initial establishment. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer application after emergence had no effect on the survival of any species.
    • Grazing Animal Preferences for Cultivated Forages in Canada

      Gesshe, R. H.; Walton, P. D. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      Ten perennial forage species and one forage mixture were evaluated for yield and animal preference at three growth stages. The most preferred but lowest yielding grass was Russian wild rye. Intermediate wheatgrass yielded most but was less preferred. Bromegrass gave high yields and was a preferred species. For the legumes, birdsfoot trefoil had the highest preference rating and also gave some high yields. Alfalfa was a productive, preferred species. The advantages, in terms of both animal preference and production, of a mixed forage stand over pastures containing a single species were demonstrated. Plant moisture, crude protein, digestibility, and crude fibre all influenced preference at certain times of the growing season.
    • Effects of Tebuthiuron on Western Juniper

      Britton, C. M.; Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      A sagebrush-bunchgrass community supporting western juniper was treated with aerial applications of 2 or 4 kg/ha (active ingredient) of tebuthiuron pellets. The treatments did not effectively control western juniper and caused appreciable damage to herbaceous vegetation. Individual tree applications of tebuthiuron at rates of 20 or 40 g a.i./tree killed most of the western juniper less than 2 m tall.
    • Effects of Increased Precipitation and Grazing Management on Northeastern Montana Rangelands

      Branson, F. A.; Miller, R. F. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      To determine possible vegetation changes, 15 plant communities on public lands in the Willow Creek basin near Glasgow, Montana, that were sampled in 1960 were resampled in 1977. Most of the communities showed remarkable improvement in ground cover and forage production. Factors contributing to the changes included: (1) higher precipitation during the period between the first and second sampling than for the 10-year period prior to the first sampling, and (2) possibly, improved management practices, such as land treatments and application of rest-rotation grazing systems. These results are in conflict with the generally held view that western rangelands have deteriorated.
    • Effects of Defoliation on Net Photosynthesis and Regrowth of Western Wheatgrass

      Painter, E. L.; Detling, J. K. (Society for Range Management, 1981-01-01)
      Net photosynthesis (PN) and regrowth of 60-day old Agropyron smithii Rydb. plants were examined over a 10-day period following defoliation to simulate grazing. Plants grown hydroponically in full strength Hoagland's solution were moderately defoliated (1/2 tillers clipped at 5 cm), heavily defoliated (3/4 tillers clipped at 5 cm), or left as unclipped controls. Thirty minutes after clipping, PN rates of the youngest fully expanded leaf of a remaining undamaged tiller had declined by 6%-7% in both groups of defoliated plants. Rates of PN were subsequently monitored on the same leaves at 2-day intervals. By Day 2, PN (per unit of leaf area) of both defoliated groups had increased to rates 5-10% higher than those preceding treatment, while PN of control plants had decreased about 6%. From Day 2 through Day 10, PN rates of control plants averaged 90% of their preclipping PN rates, while PN rates of moderately and heavily defoliated plants averaged 106% and 114% of their preclipping rates, respectively. Defoliation had no significant effect on tiller production over this 10-day period. While total new biomass production of controls was almost twice that of either of the defoliated groups, the proportion of the new growth allocated to shoots, crowns and roots did not differ among the three groups.