Welcome to the Rangeland Ecology & Management archives. The journal Rangeland Ecology & Management (RE&M; v58, 2005-present) is the successor to the Journal of Range Management (JRM; v. 1-57, 1948-2004.) The archives provide public access, in a "rolling window" agreement with the Society for Range Management, to both titles (JRM and RE&M), from v.1 up to five years from the present year.

The most recent years of RE&M are available through membership in the Society for Range Management (SRM). Membership in SRM is a means to access current information and dialogue on rangeland management.

Your institution may also have access to current issues through library or institutional subscriptions.

Print ISSN: 0022-409x

Online ISSN: 1550-7424


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  • Toxic Extracts in Ponderosa Pine Needles that Produce Abortion in Mice

    Cogswell, C.; Kamstra, L. D. (Society for Range Management, 1980-01-01)
    A reliable method to measure presence and quantity of the toxic factor in needles of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) was developed using embryo implantation and gestation in laboratory mice as the basis of the assay. The abortiofacient factor was present in both aqueous and acetone extracts of ponderosa pine needles. Control animals had significantly (P<0.1) greater number of viable embryos at 124, 148, and 172 hr post-coitum than mice fed pine needle extracts. A gestation study verified results from the implantation experiment, as few mice fed pine needle extracts delivered normal litters. Frequently, mice receiving the concentrated aqueous extract had diarrhea and decreased feed intake. Failure of implantation by 124 hr postcoitum in bred mice fed aqueous or acetone extracts of ponderosa pine can be used as an index of the risk involved in grazing ponderosa pine ranges, but cannot be used to predict losses.
  • The Response of Native Vertebrate Populations to Crested Wheatgrass Planting and Grazing by Sheep

    Reynolds, T. D.; Trost, C. H. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
    Native vertebrate population levels were examined in grazed and ungrazed habitats dominated by big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) in southeast Idaho. Our objective was to determine the species diversity and relative density of birds, mammals, and reptiles in these habitats with and without grazing pressures by sheep. In a habitat dominated by sagebrush, grazing did not significantly alter the species diversity or the density of reptiles or nesting birds. However, both the diversity and the relative density of small mammals were significantly reduced. Crested wheatgrass plantings, regardless of sheep use, supported fewer nesting bird species and a lower density of birds, mammals, and reptiles than did areas dominated by sagebrush. The synergistic effects of planting with crested wheatgrass followed by grazing were most evident in (1) a significant reduction in the relative density of small mammals, and (2) the occurrence of only one nesting bird species: the horned lark (Eremophila alpestris).
  • The Rangelands of the Sahel

    Le Houerou, H. N. (Society for Range Management, 1980-01-01)
    This article is an attempt to review and synthesize the present state of knowledge on the Sahel rangelands in a concise way. Ecological conditions, land use practices, livestock numbers, and livestock production systems are briefly analysed. Range types, dynamics, production, development strategy, and outlook are also reviewed. The conclusion that emerges is that the Sahel should be kept as breeding ground and included in a livestock production stratification strategy which should also involve the higher potential zones further south in the Sudanian and Guinean ecological zones. Such a development stategy implies the improvement of the conditions of range utilization in the Sahel, in particular a better definition of basic resources ownership (range and water) as well as of the marketing and prices policies.
  • Seasonal Patterns of Soil Water Recharge and Extraction on Semidesert Ranges

    Cable, D. R. (Society for Range Management, 1980-01-01)
    Soil water is recharged in the semidesert Southwest during the usual winter precipitation season, and again during the usual summer rainy season. The amount and depth of recharge varies widely depending primarily on the amount of precipitation, and secondarily on storm character, soil texture, vegetation cover, and evapotranspiration. Soil water depletion patterns and amounts differed among species, between plants and bare soil, and between seasons. Compared to evaporation from bare soil, plants extracted water much faster, but at more variable rates. Essentially all available soil water was used by plants or evaporated during most depletion periods.
  • Root Distribution in 1- to 48-Year-Old Stripmine Spoils in Southeastern Montana

    Wyatt, J. W.; Dollhopf, D. J.; Schafer, W. M. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
    A study was initiated in June 1976 at Colstrip, Montana, to determine root distribution to 1- to 48-year-old stripmine spoils and in undisturbed soils of the area. Root distribution was determined using three methods: (1) soil profile description, (2) root biomass, and (3) radioactive tracer (32 P). Results from all three methods showed that old spoils had substantially more roots below 100 cm than new spoils or undisturbed soils. Differences in root abundance were attributed to species composition. Old spoils were dominated by half-shrubs, while new spoils and undisturbed soils were dominated by grasses and forbs. Root biomass in the upper 100 cm of new spoils was 44% less than in undisturbed soils and 43% less than in old spoils. Maximum rooting depths of 15 important plant species were determined using the radioactive tracer method.
  • Responses of Falsemesquite, Native Grasses and Forbs, and Lehmann Lovegrass after Spraying with Picloram

    Martin, S. C.; Morton, H. L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
    Aquecus sprays of picloram at the rate of 0.56 kg/ha (94 1/ha total volume) were applied to 5 plots each in May 1973 and August 1976 to control falsemesquite (Calliandra eriophylla) in southern Arizona. Falsemesquite was effectively controlled on both spraying dates. The greatest vegetation change on sprayed and unsprayed plots alike was the overwhelming natural increase in density and yield of Lehmann lovegrass, an introduced species. Perennial forbs were almost completely eliminated and densities of native perennial grasses were greatly reduced both on treated and untreated plots.
  • Range Grasses and Their Small Grain Equivalents for Wind Erosion Control

    Lyles, L.; Allison, B. E. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
    An equation that estimates potential wind erosion requires that all vegetative cover (dry weight per area) be expressed as a small grain equivalent. Wind-tunnel tests were used to determine that equivalent for selected range grasses, either as single species or mixtures, at three grazing-management levels. Compared with flat small grain, range grasses evaluated effectively prevented erosion, with buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides) the most effective and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi) the least effective among those tested. A possible procedure for extending the results to other grasses or mixtures is suggested. The data on range grass to small grain equivalent for erosion control may be used to predict the wind erosion potential of range sites or to determine the amounts of range grass needed to hold potential erosion to tolerable limits.
  • President’s Address: SRM's Future—Dreams or Opportunities

    Merkel, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
  • Perennial Grasses and Their Response to a Wildfire in South-central Washington

    Uresk, D. W.; Rickard, W. H.; Cline, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
    Three years of past burning responses of three perennial grasses were evaluated by comparing a burned area with an adjacent control (unburned) area. The average leaf length of Cusick bluegrass and Thurber needlegrass was shortened by burning in all 3 years, but leaf shortening was inconsistent for bluebunch wheatgrass. Burning increased the number of flowering culms per clump for Cusick bluegrass during the second year of postburning and for Thurber needlegrass during the third year. The average number of flowering culms per clump in bluebunch wheatgrass was greater in the burned area for all 3 years of postburning. Culm and spike lengths of bluebunch wheatgrass were increased by burning for the first 2 years. Cusick bluegrass and Thurber needlegrass generally responded to burning with shortened culms and spikes. The basal area of Cusick bluegrass and Thurber needlegrass was reduced by burning. Phytomass production of bluebunch wheatgrass showed an increase during the 3 years of postburning, whereas Cusick bluegrass and Thurber needlegrass showed a reduction in phytomass production. No single measurement provided a way to evaluate overall plant responses.
  • Organic Solvent-Soluble Organic Matter from Soils Underlying Native Range and Crested Wheatgrass in Southeastern Alberta, Canada

    Dormaar, J. F.; Johnston, A.; Smoliak, A. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
    Gas chromatographic patterns of organic solvent-soluble constituents present in alkaline hydrolysates of organic matter from soils underlying native range and crested wheatgrass were qualitatively, but not quantitatively similar. The peak at 222 degrees C or with a retention time of about 31 min was identified as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Larger quantities of the extracted compounds were obtained from the native range than from the crested wheatgrass soils. Fifty years was not long enough for organic matter of soil cultivated for only 5 years to regain its original quantitative chemical composition under the prevailing climatic conditions.
  • Nitrogen Fertilization of Range: Yield, Protein Content, and Cattle Behavior

    Samuel, M. J.; Rauzi, F.; Hart, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
    Effects of rate and season of nitrogen (N) application on the utilization, crude protein, and yield of mixed prairie in southeastern Wyoming were evaluated. Fertilization increased herbage production, crude protein content and utilization by cattle as measured by both frequency of grazing and forage removal by grazing. Yield and protein content increased linearly with increased amounts of fall applied N, but non-linearly to spring applied N. Forage removal showed a curvilinear response to both spring and fall applied N and was closely correlated with forage yield and frequency of grazing.
  • New Collections of Range Plants from the Soviet Union

    Dewey, D. R.; Plummer, A. P. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
    Range revegetation in the temperate arid and semiarid regions of the United States has been accomplished to a considerable extent with species introduced from Asia, particularly the Soviet Union. Only a small part of the Asian range-forage germplasm has been collected and evaluated in the United States. A 45-day plant-collecting expedition was authorized during the summer of 1977 to five locations in the U.S.S.R.-Stavropol, Tselinograd, Alma Ata., Dzhambul, and Chimkent. About 1,100 seed collections were made of 250 species, most of which were grasses and legumes from arid or semiarid sites. Large collections were made of Agropyron cristatum, A. desertorum, A. intermedium, A. repens, Bromus inermis, Dactylis glomerata, Festuca sulcata, Medicago falcataromanica, M. sativa, and Trifolium ambiguum. All collections have been established at Logan, Utah. Preliminary observations indicate that certain collections may be useful for forage or conservation purposes on rangeland. All accessions have been entered into the National Plant Germplasm System, and seed will be available for research and evaluation purposes in 1979 or succeeding years.
  • Microhabitat Relationships of Six Major Shrubs in Navajo National Monument, Arizona

    Fairchild, J. A.; Brotherson, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
    Six shrub species were studied to determine their microhabitat relationships as well as their effect on the immediate environment. Analysis of site characteristics and mineral composition of soils in open areas adjacent to shrubs and beneath shrubs allowed for comparison of the different habitats following shrub establishment. Soil pH differs beneath the various shrubs and all six species tended to create more alkaline soils beneath their canopy. All species showed increased soil salinity beneath their canopy. However, the concentration of total soluble salts in the soil surface beneath the shrubs varied with the species and was highest beneath fourwing saltbush. Significant increases in the concentration of magnesium and potassium ions beneath shrubs were observed. Nitrogen and phosphorus were also found in greater concentration beneath the shrub canopy. Soil depth differed beneath the shrub species, with sagebrush and fourwing saltbush growing on the deeper more highly developed types. There was a positive relationship between the presence of shrubs and the depth of the soil profile.
  • Management of Wild Ungulate Habitat in the Western United States and Canada: A Review

    Scotter, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1980-01-01)
    Conservation, use, and development of adequate habitat are probably the most important factors in wild ungulate management. As the various demands on the habitat heighten, pressure on this dwindling resource will increase. To maintain viable wild ungulate populations with high sustainable yields for the future enjoyment and use, habitat management will have to be intensified. This review discusses rehabilitation of wild ungulate habitat, modification of range and forest practices, better use of existing habitat, and manipulation of numbers and distributions of wild ungulates. The amounts and kinds of habitat needed to maintain wild ungulate populations require more long-term research and better application of existing knowledge. Determination of the requirements for a given species will demand a much better understanding of how animals select and use habitat.

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