• Townsend Ground Squirrel Diets in the Shrub-Steppe of Southcentral Washington

      Rogers, L. E.; Gano, K. A. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      Microscopic study of fecal pellets from Townsend ground squirrels occupying the shrub steppe region of southcentral Washington showed that squirrels preferred to feed on bluegrass (Poa sp.) and forbs (Descurainia pinnata and Lupinus laxiflorus); phlox (Phlox longifolia) may also be a favored food item. Bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum), six-weeks fescue (Festuca octoflora), and lomatium (Lomatium macrocarpum) were avoided. No significant differences between diets of ground squirrels occupying grazed and ungrazed study areas or between diets of male and female or adult and subadult ground squirrels were found.
    • Salt Tolerance of Two Saltbush Species Grown in Processed Oil Shale

      Richardson, S. G.; McKell, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      The tolerance of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens) and cuneate saltbush (Atriplex cuneata) to the salts in processed oil shale was studied in a greenhouse experiment over an Ece range of 4 to 38 mmho/cm. Growth responses differed, depending on the species and the particular salt or salts in the soil solution. Cuneate saltbush was more salt tolerant than fourwing saltbush, but both species survived and grew at salinities as high as 38 mmho/cm. Because of their high salt tolerance these saltbush species may be very important for use in the rehabilitation of processed oil shale disposal sites.
    • Response of Wavyleaf Oak to Nitrogen Fertilization

      Howard, V. W.; Cox, J. R.; Southward, G. M. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      This study was conducted to determine the response of wavyleaf oak to nitrogen fertilization, at rates of 0, 112, and 224 kg of elemental nitrogen per ha. Over the three years of the study, twigs were longer on fertilized areas than on unfertilized areas. Nitrogen at 112 kg/ha was generally as effective as 224 kg/ha in stimulating twig growth. Slope position did not have an effect on all sites. Where slope position was significant, plants on the upper and middle slopes responded better to fertilization than did plants growing on lower slopes. Site appeared to influence twig growth more than slope. Differences in twig growth among sites were attributed to differences in soil depth and density of vegetation. Twig length was significantly different among years due to uneven distribution of rainfall.
    • Plant Phenology in Galleta-Shadscale and Galleta-Sagebrush Associations

      Everett, R. L.; Tueller, P. T.; Davis, J. B.; Brunner, A. D. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      Plant phenology is described for plant species in galleta grass (Hilaria jamesii)-shadescale (Atriplex confertifolia) and galleta grass-sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) associations in Hot Creek and Reveille Valleys of Nevada. Species within both plant associations were separated into early, late, and indiscriminate flowering groups. Duration of the species phenology cycles varied from 72 days for Indian ricegrass (ryzopsis hymenoides) to 209 days for sagebrush. The phenological cycle of individual species varied as much as 62 days in length over a 4-year period. Phenology of species common to both galleta grass-shadscale and galleta grass-sagebrush associations was similar in the same year. Differences in species phenology patterns are speculated to indicate different approaches to plant survival and species proliferation, but no one phenology pattern was obviously superior.
    • Nutritive Content of Sheep, Goat, and White-tailed Deer Diets on Excellent Condition Rangeland In Texas

      Bryant, F. C.; Kothmann, M. M.; Merrill, L. B. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      A one-year study was initiated in August, 1975, to examine the nutritive content in diets of four kinds of sympatric ruminants on excellent condition rangeland of the Edwards Plateau in Texas. Sheep, Angora goat, and Spanish goat diets were collected from animals fitted with permanent esophageal cannulae. Nutritive content of white-tailed deer diets was estimated by hand-plucking representative forages as the deer were observed grazing them. Mean, annual levels of crude protein (CP) were similar among the four kinds of animals. All diets were lowest in CP during January and February, with livestock diets showing higher levels than deer. However, deer diets were higher in CP than sheep and goat diets during spring and summer. During January and February, the livestock diets warranted only minimum protein supplementation while deer diets were significantly below recommended levels. Digestible energy (DE) levels were higher for sheep diets than for diets of either goats or deer. Similarly, the goat diets were higher in DE than deer diets. The DE levels were generally adequate for sheep but critically low for Angora goats during late gestation. Deer diets were very low in DE during winter and again in early summer, coinciding with the period of peak lactation. Energy would appear to be more limiting for animal production than protein under the conditions of this research.
    • Nutritional Characteristics of High Yielding Exotic Grasses for Seeding Cleared South Texas Brushland

      McCawley, P. F.; Dahl, B. E. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      Three exotic grasses potentially useful converting south Texas brush rangeland to permanent pasture were evaluated in 1976 and 1977. Yearling cattle required 16.6, 23.1, and 34.8 kg of forage per kg of gain for coastcross-1 bermudagrass, kleingrass-75, and Bell rhodesgrass, respectively. Cattle gained 0.68, 0.56, and 0.33 kg/head daily grazing these species. They ate (forage disappearing) about 12 kg/head daily regardiess of species, so daily gains directly reflected differences in quality among the forages. Our data suggest that the quality measure most nearly deficient was the factor most limiting animal performance, e.g., correlation between average daily gain and P content was r = 0.89 for cattle grazing Bell rhodesgrass. Its P content varied from 0.16 to 0.06% from spring to fall compared to 0.24 to 0.15% from spring to fall for the other two forages. Overall, 24-hr IVDMD (fermentation only) best correlated with animal daily gain. Generally, Bell rhodegrass had lowest, coastcross-1 bermudagrass highest, and kleingrass-75 intermediate quality values, particularly for digestibility, crude protein, and digestible energy. Dry matter yields were 9.6, 11.6, and 11.8 thousand kg/ha for coastcross-1 bermudagrass, kleingrass-75, and Bell rhodesgrass in 1976.
    • Infiltration Rates on Rootplowed Rangeland

      Tromble, J. M. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      Infiltration and runoff from mechanically treated arid Southwestern rangeland were measured. Control plots dominated by creosotebush had greater infiltration rates than the 1972 and 1976 rootplowed and seeded treatments, stressing the importance of cover for reducing runoff and controlling erosion. Infiltration rates on dry soils were significantly higher on the 1972 rootplowed and seeded treatment compared with the 1976 rootplowed and seeded treatment, indicating the lack of soil structure in the 1976 treatment.
    • Historical Perspectives on Range Burning in the Inland Pacific Northwest

      Shinn, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      Ecological and historical data are combined in assessing the influence of cultural broadcast burning in the inland Pacific Northwest from the distant past into recent history. Twenty-four references to broadcast burning by native peoples were found in the journals of early explorers and settlers. Broadcast burning was apparently an ancient native tradition, derived from the earliest hunting cultures to enter the region. With the influx of European culture, misapprehensions about fire among whites disrupted the original influence of native cultural burning. Early irresponsible burning became associated with the deterioration of natural resources, and efforts to prevent or suppress all fires were incorporated in developing conservation policies. The reduction of burning, combined with markedly intensified grazing by European livestock, distorted the basic character of existing ecosystems and altered native plant communities. Early photographs of rangelands in east-central Oregon were gathered; their dates range from 1880 to the early 1930's. Photo-sites were re-photographed in 1976. Photoset comparisons show expansions of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) populations into adjacent rangeland ecosystems.
    • Factors Influencing Magnesium in High Plains Forage

      Fairbourn, M. L.; Batchelder, A. R. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted at the High Plains Grasslands Research Station to determine what might cause tetany-prone forage. The soil was analyzed for ammonium acetate-extractable cations, cation exchange capacity, and alkaline earth carbonates; and the successive harvests of forage plants were analyzed for magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and nitrogen (N). Forages used in the study included legumes: 'Lutana' Cicer milkvetch (Astragalus cicer L.), 'Remont' sainfoin (Onobrychis viciafolia Scop.), 'Dawson', 'Vernal', 'Team', and 'Fremont' alfalfas (Medicago sativa L.); and grasses: 'Latar' orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), 'Fawn' tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb), 'Regar' bromegrass Bromus biebersteinii Roem & Schult.), 'Manchar' smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss), 'Garrison' creeping foxtail (Alopercurus pratensis L.), 'Luna' pubescent wheatgrass [Agropyron trichophorum (Link) Richt.], and 'Greenar' intermediate wheatgrass [Agropyron intermedium (Host) Beauv.]. Forage Mg level increased when average soil temperature increased from 16.6 to 22.7 degrees C. Fertilization with 1,134 kg of Mg as MgSO4/ha did not increase forage Mg level. Later orchardgrass and Fawn tall fescue consistently produced forage containing more than 0.20% Mg, whereas wheatgrass species produced forage with Mg levels as low as 0.11%. All legumes had Ca levels ranging from 1.0 to 2.5%. One field crop of Later orchardgrass produced forage with a high K accumulation (K/Ca + Mg ratio of 2.7). Predication of blood-serum Mg from forage nutrient content indicated values from 17 to 31 mg/l in lactating cows.
    • Emergence of Bitterbrush Seedlings on Land Disturbed by Phosphate Mining

      Booth, D. T. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      A factorial experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of planting depth, number of seeds per seed spot, and the addition of fungicide and/or vermiculite on the emergence of bitterbrush planted on land disturbed by phosphate mining. Optimum emergence occurred from the 1.3 cm (0.5 in) planting depth. Less emergence was noted from plots of 20 seeds per seed spot than from plots with 1, 5, or 10 seeds per seed spot. The data indicate seedling emergence was enhanced with the addition of fungicide and vermiculite.
    • Effects of Grazing and Sagebrush Control on Potential Erosion

      Johnson, C. W.; Schumaker, G. A.; Smith, J. P. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      Canopy and ground cover data from 1972 through 1978 were used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation to compute potential soil loss on grazed and ungrazed areas subjected to brush treatment and no treatment at nine sites on the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in Southwest Idaho. Results showed the computed soil loss differences between grazed and ungrazed areas were not significant (P>.05) on five sites, were significant (P<.05) on two sites, and were highly significant (P<.01) on two sites. Soil loss differences between sagebrush and eradication treatments and untreated areas were not significant (P>.05) on four sprayed areas, but were highly significant (P<.01) on two areas where brush was cut and removed. Sediment delivery ratios, based on measured watershed sediment yield and computed soil loss, ranged from 0.15 to 0.47.
    • Effects of Atrazine, 2,4-D and Fertilizer on Crude Protein Content of Oklahoma Tallgrass Prairie

      Baker, R. L.; Powell, J.; Morrison, R. D.; Stritzke, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      Various combinations of atrazine, 2,4-D, and NPK fertilizer were applied initially in 1975 on a tallgrass prairie in good condition and again as a retreatment in 1976 on one-half of each treated area. Application of atrazine with fertilizer increased crude protein content, crude protein yield, and range condition during the summer. Differences in protein levels in dormant forage were not evident. Therefore the application of atrazine and fertilizer appears to be more feasible for summer grazing or production of high quality prairie hay than for yearlong or winter grazing.
    • Effect of Fertilizer and Brush Control on Soil Fertility

      McMurphy, W. E.; Rommann, L. M.; Stiegler, J. H.; Stritzke, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      Seven years after herbicide application was applied to reduce woody vegetation and increase native grass, there was no change in total available soil NO3- N, P, and K in the surface 15 cm. However, the area of native grass conversion had more soil K in the surface 5 cm and a higher pH in the surface 15 cm than the area supporting woody vegetation. Brush control followed by seeding of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and annual fertilization with N, P, and K increased total available soil P and K in the surface 15 cm. Most of the P increase was in the surface 5 cm. Fertilizer applied to areas seeded to fescue appeared to reduce soil pH from that of native grass conversion.
    • Diet Selection by Cattle Under High-Intensity Low-Frequency, Short Duration, and Merrill Grazing Systems

      Taylor, C. A.; Kothmann, M. M.; Merrill, L. B.; Elledge, D. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      A study was conducted to evaluate standing crop of forage and cattle diets for a 7-pasture high-intensity low-frequency (HILF) grazing system, and a 7-pasture short-duration grazing (SDG) system on the same area. A 4-pasture, 3-herd (Merrill) deferred rotation grazing system was sampled as a standard for comparison. Standing crop of forage was highest for the HILF grazing system compared to the SDG and Merrill grazing systems. The Merrill system with brush control (Pasture 10) had a greater standing crop than the Merrill system without brush control (Pasture 16) or the SDG system. Standing crop in Pasture 16 was comparable to the SDG system. Cattle diets from the HILF system varied significantly between collections at the beginning and end of each grazing period. A significantly higher percentage of forbs were consumed at the beginning of each grazing period (Period A) compared to the end (Period B). Cattle selected the greatest amounts of pricklypear at the end of each collection period during fall and spring, but not during the winter. Greater amounts of pricklypear were selected when mature grasses and oak and juniper browse were the primary alternatives. Crude protein (CP) levels of diets from the HILF system decreased with shifts in forage selection from Texas wintergrass and forbs (Period A) to pricklypear and dry grass (Period B). Diets from the SDG system were characterized by higher percentages of grass and less forbs and pricklypear compared to the HILF grazing system. Also, there were no major shifts in forage selection between collection period A and B for the SDG system. This resulted in a non-significant difference in CP values for diets collected in period A compared to period B. However, a significant decline was recorded for digestibility of diets between the two collection periods. CP and digestibility were higher for diets from the SDG system compared to the HILF grazing system. Botanical composition and diet quality were comparable for the SDG and Merrill grazing systems. Competition between different kinds of animals may be reduced by changing management from a HILF to a SDG system. This would be important where combinations of animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, and deer utilize a common range. Based on diet quality, livestock production from a SDG system should be equivalent to a Merrill system.
    • Control of Bitterweed with Herbicides

      Ueckert, D. N.; Scifres, C. J.; Whisenant, S. G.; Mutz, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      Herbicide 2,4-D was less effective for bitterweed control when applied at air temperatures below 14 degrees C compared to applications at 22 degrees C even when soil water was adequate for active plant growth. There was no difference in bitterweed control whether the ester or amine formulations of 2,4-D were used. At 22° C air temperature, 1.12 kg/ha of 2,4-D + dicamba (3:1), picloram, or 2,4,5-T + picloram (1:1) did not improve short-term control (36 to 182 days) of bitterweed compared to 2,4-D alone at the same rate. However, at 14 degrees C temperature or when bitterweed were in advanced phenological states (75% with inflorescences), these herbicides provided excellent short-term bitterweed control whereas 2,4-D was inconsistent. Mixtures of dicamba with 2,4-D slightly improved residual bitterweed control, compared to the same rate of 2,4-D alone. Picloram at 0.56 to 1.12 kg/ha controlled 60 to 100% of the bitterweed populations for a year or more following applications in winter or spring. Tebuthiuron at 0.56 to 1.12 kg/ha was not as effective as 2,4-D at 1.12 kg/ha relative to initial bitterweed control, but provided excellent residual control after 1 year following winter application.
    • Chemical Composition of the Sandlily (Leucocrinum montanum)

      Rauzi, F. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      At the Archer Substation near Cheyenne, Wyo., the leaves and flowers of the sandlily (Leucocrinum montanum) were collected separately between May 17 and 22 in 1976, 1977, and 1978 and their crude protein and mineral concentrations were determined. Average crude protein contents of leaves and flowers were 22.1 and 12.4%, respectively. The large difference in protein levels between the flowers and leaves may be a factor in the selective grazing of these parts by livestock. The mineral concentrations of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, and Zn in flowers and leaves were adequate for livestock nutrition and did not differ greatly except the Ca and K contents of leaves were higher than those of flowers.
    • An Aspect of Feeding Behavior and Its Importance to Grazing Systems

      Gluesing, E. A.; Balph, D. F. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      A study of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) showed significant (P<0.001) differences in the amount of time ewes walked while grazing in different pastures when the forage in the new pasture differed from that of the previous pasture. Ewes searched for alfalfa in a new pasture when it was a major constituent of the previous pasture, but did not appear to search for alfalfa in a new pasture if it was not a major constituent of the previous pasture. Ewes appeared to adjust to less preferred diets within a few days and modified their grazing behavior accordingly. The management implications of prior conditioning are discussed.