• Historical Perspectives on Range Burning in the Inland Pacific Northwest

      Shinn, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      Ecological and historical data are combined in assessing the influence of cultural broadcast burning in the inland Pacific Northwest from the distant past into recent history. Twenty-four references to broadcast burning by native peoples were found in the journals of early explorers and settlers. Broadcast burning was apparently an ancient native tradition, derived from the earliest hunting cultures to enter the region. With the influx of European culture, misapprehensions about fire among whites disrupted the original influence of native cultural burning. Early irresponsible burning became associated with the deterioration of natural resources, and efforts to prevent or suppress all fires were incorporated in developing conservation policies. The reduction of burning, combined with markedly intensified grazing by European livestock, distorted the basic character of existing ecosystems and altered native plant communities. Early photographs of rangelands in east-central Oregon were gathered; their dates range from 1880 to the early 1930's. Photo-sites were re-photographed in 1976. Photoset comparisons show expansions of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) populations into adjacent rangeland ecosystems.
    • Infiltration Rates on Rootplowed Rangeland

      Tromble, J. M. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      Infiltration and runoff from mechanically treated arid Southwestern rangeland were measured. Control plots dominated by creosotebush had greater infiltration rates than the 1972 and 1976 rootplowed and seeded treatments, stressing the importance of cover for reducing runoff and controlling erosion. Infiltration rates on dry soils were significantly higher on the 1972 rootplowed and seeded treatment compared with the 1976 rootplowed and seeded treatment, indicating the lack of soil structure in the 1976 treatment.
    • Nutritional Characteristics of High Yielding Exotic Grasses for Seeding Cleared South Texas Brushland

      McCawley, P. F.; Dahl, B. E. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      Three exotic grasses potentially useful converting south Texas brush rangeland to permanent pasture were evaluated in 1976 and 1977. Yearling cattle required 16.6, 23.1, and 34.8 kg of forage per kg of gain for coastcross-1 bermudagrass, kleingrass-75, and Bell rhodesgrass, respectively. Cattle gained 0.68, 0.56, and 0.33 kg/head daily grazing these species. They ate (forage disappearing) about 12 kg/head daily regardiess of species, so daily gains directly reflected differences in quality among the forages. Our data suggest that the quality measure most nearly deficient was the factor most limiting animal performance, e.g., correlation between average daily gain and P content was r = 0.89 for cattle grazing Bell rhodesgrass. Its P content varied from 0.16 to 0.06% from spring to fall compared to 0.24 to 0.15% from spring to fall for the other two forages. Overall, 24-hr IVDMD (fermentation only) best correlated with animal daily gain. Generally, Bell rhodegrass had lowest, coastcross-1 bermudagrass highest, and kleingrass-75 intermediate quality values, particularly for digestibility, crude protein, and digestible energy. Dry matter yields were 9.6, 11.6, and 11.8 thousand kg/ha for coastcross-1 bermudagrass, kleingrass-75, and Bell rhodesgrass in 1976.
    • Nutritive Content of Sheep, Goat, and White-tailed Deer Diets on Excellent Condition Rangeland In Texas

      Bryant, F. C.; Kothmann, M. M.; Merrill, L. B. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      A one-year study was initiated in August, 1975, to examine the nutritive content in diets of four kinds of sympatric ruminants on excellent condition rangeland of the Edwards Plateau in Texas. Sheep, Angora goat, and Spanish goat diets were collected from animals fitted with permanent esophageal cannulae. Nutritive content of white-tailed deer diets was estimated by hand-plucking representative forages as the deer were observed grazing them. Mean, annual levels of crude protein (CP) were similar among the four kinds of animals. All diets were lowest in CP during January and February, with livestock diets showing higher levels than deer. However, deer diets were higher in CP than sheep and goat diets during spring and summer. During January and February, the livestock diets warranted only minimum protein supplementation while deer diets were significantly below recommended levels. Digestible energy (DE) levels were higher for sheep diets than for diets of either goats or deer. Similarly, the goat diets were higher in DE than deer diets. The DE levels were generally adequate for sheep but critically low for Angora goats during late gestation. Deer diets were very low in DE during winter and again in early summer, coinciding with the period of peak lactation. Energy would appear to be more limiting for animal production than protein under the conditions of this research.
    • Plant Phenology in Galleta-Shadscale and Galleta-Sagebrush Associations

      Everett, R. L.; Tueller, P. T.; Davis, J. B.; Brunner, A. D. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      Plant phenology is described for plant species in galleta grass (Hilaria jamesii)-shadescale (Atriplex confertifolia) and galleta grass-sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) associations in Hot Creek and Reveille Valleys of Nevada. Species within both plant associations were separated into early, late, and indiscriminate flowering groups. Duration of the species phenology cycles varied from 72 days for Indian ricegrass (ryzopsis hymenoides) to 209 days for sagebrush. The phenological cycle of individual species varied as much as 62 days in length over a 4-year period. Phenology of species common to both galleta grass-shadscale and galleta grass-sagebrush associations was similar in the same year. Differences in species phenology patterns are speculated to indicate different approaches to plant survival and species proliferation, but no one phenology pattern was obviously superior.
    • Response of Wavyleaf Oak to Nitrogen Fertilization

      Howard, V. W.; Cox, J. R.; Southward, G. M. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      This study was conducted to determine the response of wavyleaf oak to nitrogen fertilization, at rates of 0, 112, and 224 kg of elemental nitrogen per ha. Over the three years of the study, twigs were longer on fertilized areas than on unfertilized areas. Nitrogen at 112 kg/ha was generally as effective as 224 kg/ha in stimulating twig growth. Slope position did not have an effect on all sites. Where slope position was significant, plants on the upper and middle slopes responded better to fertilization than did plants growing on lower slopes. Site appeared to influence twig growth more than slope. Differences in twig growth among sites were attributed to differences in soil depth and density of vegetation. Twig length was significantly different among years due to uneven distribution of rainfall.
    • Salt Tolerance of Two Saltbush Species Grown in Processed Oil Shale

      Richardson, S. G.; McKell, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      The tolerance of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens) and cuneate saltbush (Atriplex cuneata) to the salts in processed oil shale was studied in a greenhouse experiment over an Ece range of 4 to 38 mmho/cm. Growth responses differed, depending on the species and the particular salt or salts in the soil solution. Cuneate saltbush was more salt tolerant than fourwing saltbush, but both species survived and grew at salinities as high as 38 mmho/cm. Because of their high salt tolerance these saltbush species may be very important for use in the rehabilitation of processed oil shale disposal sites.
    • Townsend Ground Squirrel Diets in the Shrub-Steppe of Southcentral Washington

      Rogers, L. E.; Gano, K. A. (Society for Range Management, 1980-11-01)
      Microscopic study of fecal pellets from Townsend ground squirrels occupying the shrub steppe region of southcentral Washington showed that squirrels preferred to feed on bluegrass (Poa sp.) and forbs (Descurainia pinnata and Lupinus laxiflorus); phlox (Phlox longifolia) may also be a favored food item. Bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum), six-weeks fescue (Festuca octoflora), and lomatium (Lomatium macrocarpum) were avoided. No significant differences between diets of ground squirrels occupying grazed and ungrazed study areas or between diets of male and female or adult and subadult ground squirrels were found.