• Changes in Mountain Big Sagebrush Habitat Types Following Spray Release

      Miller, R. F.; Findley, R. R.; Alderfer-Findley, J. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Three habitats dominated by mountain big sagebrush were sprayed with 2,4-D butyl ester. Shrub cover in sprayed mountain big sagebrush communities was significantly less than unsprayed. Perennial grass production and density were twice as high across sprayed stands as compared with nonsprayed stands. Across the three habitat types bluebunch wheatgrass productivity was more responsive on the sprayed stands than Idaho fescue. Production and density of tailcup lupine, the most abundant forb across the three sites, was significantly less in sprayed communities, causing total forb production to be lower. Other forbs either showed little or no difference in production and density between the sprayed and nonsprayed communities.
    • Crown Temperature of Whitmar Wheatgrass as Influenced by Standing Dead Material

      Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      The impact of standing dead material upon the crown temperature, yield, and crude protein concentration of Whitmar wheatgrass was studied. During the day standing dead material significantly lowered temperature in the crown but influenced temperatures during the night only slightly. Herbage yield of new growth was greater and its crude protein concentration lower on plots with than without standing dead material.
    • Decomposition of Native Herbage and Filter Paper at Five Meadow Sites in Sequoia National Park, California

      Ratliff, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Rate of herbage decomposition may be related to maintenance and improvement of mountain meadows and may provide a guide to proper use. Weight losses from buried and unburied native herbage and filter paper were studied at five meadows in Sequoia National Park from 1972-1975. Aim of the study was to find a suitable technique for estimating and to obtain some estimates of decomposition of rates in meadows. Native herbage samples gave more precise measures of decomposition than did filter paper, and use of unburied herbage samples was accepted as the most preferred technique. Ranges of yearly weight losses and standard statistical errors for that technique were: losses, from 49% to 78% and errors, from 1.4% to 5.8%.
    • Effects of Increased Rainfall on Native Forage Production in Eastern Montana

      Newbauer, J. J III.; White, L. M.; Moy, R. M.; Perry, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Basal area data, collected from five sites in 1963 and 1976, were compared to determine the effects of 13 years of above-average rainfall in the growing season (April through September) on native range vegetation of the northern Great Plains. Changes in basal area, composition, and forage production were analyzed for five major grass and grass-like species. During the 13-year above-average rainfall period, western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii), needleandthread (Stipa comata), and prairie junegrass (Koeleria cristata) established or increased on all sites. Threadleaf sedge (Carex filifolia) increased on the silty thin hilly range sites but decreased on the sandy range sites. Blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) decreased on all sites. Calculated forage yield of these five species more than doubled on the silty (110%) and thin hilly (109%) range sites and increased 61% on the sandy range sites. The increase in forage yield decreased the amount of land needed for grazing by 1.6, 0.7, and 2.4 ha/cow-month for the silty, sandy, and thin hilly range sites, respectively.
    • Effects of Season and Frequency of Burning on a Phryganic Rangeland in Greece

      Papanastasis, V. P. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Phryganic rangelands dominated by Sarcopoterium spinosum, a thorny and unpalatable dwarf shrub, are a common vegetation type over the eastern Mediterranean countries. In such a rangeland of northern Greece, the effect of early spring and fall burning, applied once, twice, and three times in a 3-year period, was studied. Season of burning did not have any significant effect on the dominant shrub. Frequency of burning, however, significantly reduced the plant yields but altered species composition only slightly and had no effect on soil organic matter and acidity. Burning has only temporary effects on phryganic rangelands due to the high regeneration capacity of the component species. If prescribed, fire can be used a a tool to suppress the shrub and increase the availability of herbage for the benefit of the grazing animals.
    • Effects of the Subterranean Aphid [Geoica utricularia (Passerini)] on Forage Yield and Quality of Sand Lovegrass

      Vogel, K. P.; Kindler, S. D. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      In 1977 at Mead, Nebraska, replicated plots in two sand lovegrass (Eragrostis trichodes) nurseries naturally infested with root aphids (Geoica utricularia Passerini) were treated with soil drenches of carbofuran and disulfoton (2.24 kg/ha AI) to quantify the economic importance of these aphids. In a nursery of 'Nebraska 27' sand lovegrass, the carbofuran and disulfoton treated plots produced 45% and 16% more forage, respectively, than the untreated plots. In a nursery of another Nebraska experimental strain, the treated plots produced more forage than the untreated plots but the differences were not significant. There were no differences among treated and control plots in either nursery for dry matter, protein, and in vitro dry matter digestibility percentages.
    • Evaluation of Double-Sampling Estimators of Subalpine Herbage Production

      Reese, G. A.; Bayn, R. L.; West, N. E. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Electronic capacitance metering, relative and dry weight estimations, and canopy cover estimation of herbaceous standing crops were statistically evaluated with respect to sampling costs, precisions, and the vegetal and environmental factors which affected their double-sampling correlations. Twenty-four factors were investigated using stepwise regression analysis. Minimum sampling costs were achieved when the double-sampling estimator technique was compatible with the characteristics of the sampling site. Relative and dry weight estimations were found to be consistently precise estimators in meadow, aspen, fir, and spruce-fir, and spruce-fir vegetation types. Both were successfully used by workers with no prior experience or training. The sampling techniques were capable of providing, at equal sampling cost, up to a 4-fold increase in sample size over that of clipping along, depending on the vegetation type.
    • Influence of fertilizer, aspect, and harvest date on chemical constituents and in vitro digestibility of tall fescue

      Probasco, G. E.; Bjugstad, A. J. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      The nutritional benefits of fertilization on Ozark forest range for the late spring and summer period are questionable. Fertilizer application did not enhance either protein or calcium content, but did increase phosphorus. Acid detergent fiber (ADF) increased on fertilized plots while in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) decreased. An interaction between harvest date and fertilizer treatment revealed higher IVDMD for fertilized plots in May, but the relation then reversed for the remainder of the study. Harvest date proved to be the most influential treatment in the study. The changes associated with harvest date reflect the normal phenological development of tall fescue. The forage becomes less nutritious and less digestible as it approaches maturity and dormancy in July and August. Aspect significantly influenced ADF content and IVDMD. ADF content was lower and IVDMD higher on south-facing slopes.
    • Influence of Simulated Grazing (Clipping) on Pinegrass Growth

      Stout, D. G.; McLean, A.; Brooke, B.; Hall, J. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Pinegrass (Calamagrostis rubescens) was clipped at several frequencies and intensities at three sites in the Douglasfir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) zone of British Columbia. The effect of herbage removal on pinegrass vigor could be assesed by measuring tiller height, tiller number/m2, or yield/m2 the year following clipping. Variability in pinegrass cover at a site necessitated measuring initial plot cover so than an analysis of covariance could be done to statistically isolate its effect. Initial pine grass cover did not affect the tiller height measurement however. Plant vigor decrease due to herbage removal depended upon the degree and time of herbage removal and either the environmental conditions during the year of clipping or plant history before herbage removal or both. Pinegrass vigor was most sensitive to clipping during the last half of July and early in August. This is the time when pinegrass growth is slowing down and summer dormancy is settling in. It is recommended that pinegrass be grazed for a short time while it is actively growing (early in June) and then later when mid-summer dormancy is well established (August) to maintain its vigor. If pinegrass must be grazed during July, then it should be rested durying July the following year. Further work is required to establish grazing schemes that will maximize animal production and maintain adequate pinegrass vigor.
    • Oak (Quercus spp.) Sprouts Growth Rates on a Central Oklahoma Shallow Savannah Range Site

      Powell, J.; Lowry, D. P. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
    • Plant Phenology as a Guide in Timing Grasshopper Control Efforts on Montana Rangeland

      Hewitt, G. B. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      The flowering of 28 forb species at two locations was correlated with grasshopper development in 1977 and 1978. Indicator plants whose flowering phenology was associated with grasshopper hatching included: Zygadenus elegans, Allium textile, Delphinium bicolor, Oxytropis sericea, Erysimum asperum, Leucocrinum montanum, and Astragalus gilviflorus. The ideal time for controlling grasshoppers (when most of the population is in the 3rd instar) was associated with the flowering phenology of the following indicator plants: Yucca glauca, Helinathus petiolaris, Opuntia polyacantha, Sphaeralcea coccinea, Antennaria dimorpha, Tragopogon dubius, Cryptanthe celosioides, Allium textile, Delphinum bicolor, Zygadenus elegans, and Erysimum asperum.
    • Potential Soil Erosion of Selected Habitat Types in the High Desert Region of Central Oregon

      Buckhouse, J. C.; Mattison, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      During the summers of 1975 and 1976, an infiltration/sedimentation study was conducted in the Bear Creek watershed of central Oregon. A Rocky Mountain infiltrometer was used to simulate high intensity rainfall over 468 sediment plots. The Bear Creek watershed was divided into seven ecological land units which were further refined into ten tentative habitat types based upon an associated table developed from vegetation and soils field data. Tractor logging in the mixed forest caused a significant increase in soil loss. In nonforested units, a high natural variability in sediment production within sites tended to mask any differences that may have resulted from a management treatment. Significant differences that did occur appeared to be closely related to differences in soils and ecological condition. Beyond the identification of specific sediment production potentials, this work investigated the value of the habitat type level of ecological refinement in relation to hydrologic response.
    • Precipitation, Temperature, and Herbage Relationships for a Pine Woodland Site in Northeastern Oregon

      Pumphrey, F. V. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Nine years of herbage yield data from nonfertilized and nitrogen (N) fertilized plots of introduced grasses on a foothill, woodland meadow were correlated with monthly precipitation and temperature. Herbage yields from nonfertilized plots were poorly correlated with monthly precipitation or combinations of monthly precipitation. Fifty-five and 71% of the year-to-year variations in yields of N fertilized grass stands were associated with April and April-through-May precipitation, respectively. Yields from N fertilized stands were nearly 2,000 kg/ha larger than yields from nonfertilized stands. Mean monthly temperature were not well correlated with yields.
    • Range Relationships of Feral Horses with Wild Ungulates and Cattle in Western Alberta

      Salter, R. E.; Hudson, R. J. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Spatial and foraging relationships between feral horses and coexisting ungulates were studied in the foothills of western Alberta. Distribution patterns of horses were compared to those of cattle, elk (Cervus elaphus), deer (Odocoileus hemionus and O. virginianus), and moose (Alces alces) using indices of spatial and habitat use overlap. Horses were more ubiquitous in their distribution than any other ungulate and utilized sites also used by other species. Lack of behavioural interactions and dietary differences suggested ecological separation of horses from deer and moose. Although horses and elk both used dry grasslands during winter and spring, competition for forage was minimal due to the low number of elk present. During spring horses occupied some areas later preferred by cattle but range use was not excessive prior to the turn-out of cattle. There was little contemporaneous spatial overlap of horses and cattle even though their summer diets showed 66% overlap. Potential for competition appeared highest between horses and cattle but grazing relationships were complex.
    • Response of Curlleaf Mountain Mahogany to Pruning Treatments in Northern Utah

      Austin, D. D.; Urness, P. J. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Production of curlleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius) within browsing height of big game on winter ranges was increased 500-900% when 90-99% of the canopy was pruned from mature trees. However, since adventitious sprouting did not occur, numerous live twigs must be present in the browsing zone before treatment for any practical benefit to accrue. Pruning at less than 90% canopy removal and girdling showed positive but smaller vegetative responses, while 100% canopy removal and application of pruning paint to wound surfaces in an attempt to eliminate sap flow had no effect on forage production available to big game.
    • Spraying of Big Sagebrush With 2,4-D Causes Negligible Stream Contamination

      Schroeder, M. H.; Sturges, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      The maximum level of 2,4-D detected in stream water was 5 ppb following aerial application of 2.2 kg/ha herbicide to a 238-ha watershed for big sagebrush control. Careful placement of the aerially applied herbicide, leaving an unsprayed buffer strip 30 m wide bordering the stream channel, and the presence of a snowdrift over the channel, prevented significant water contamination. Surface snow within the unsprayed buffer zone averaged 35 ppb of 2,4-D. Herbicide levels in a stream .5 km downwind from the sprayed watershed did not exceed 2 ppb immediately following spraying even though wind speeds exceeded 2.2 m/s during much of the spray period.
    • Using Sodium Carbonate to Seal Leaky Stock Ponds in Eastern Montana

      Neff, E. L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Mixing sodium carbonate into the top 100 to 150 mm of soil in three farm ponds constructed in calcareous soil in eastern Montana effectively reduced seepage losses for about 3 years following treatment. Seepage rates the first year after treatment were decreased to 20 to 40% of the pretreatment rate, but they were 60 to 100% of the pretreatment rate 4 years after treatment.
    • Vivipary, Proliferation, and Phyllody in Grasses

      Beetle, A. A. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Some temperate grasses have the ability to produce in their inflorescence modified spikelet structures that act to reproduce the species vegetatively. These types may be either genetically fixed or an occasional expression of environmental change.