• Influence of fertilizer, aspect, and harvest date on chemical constituents and in vitro digestibility of tall fescue

      Probasco, G. E.; Bjugstad, A. J. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      The nutritional benefits of fertilization on Ozark forest range for the late spring and summer period are questionable. Fertilizer application did not enhance either protein or calcium content, but did increase phosphorus. Acid detergent fiber (ADF) increased on fertilized plots while in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) decreased. An interaction between harvest date and fertilizer treatment revealed higher IVDMD for fertilized plots in May, but the relation then reversed for the remainder of the study. Harvest date proved to be the most influential treatment in the study. The changes associated with harvest date reflect the normal phenological development of tall fescue. The forage becomes less nutritious and less digestible as it approaches maturity and dormancy in July and August. Aspect significantly influenced ADF content and IVDMD. ADF content was lower and IVDMD higher on south-facing slopes.
    • Influence of Simulated Grazing (Clipping) on Pinegrass Growth

      Stout, D. G.; McLean, A.; Brooke, B.; Hall, J. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Pinegrass (Calamagrostis rubescens) was clipped at several frequencies and intensities at three sites in the Douglasfir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) zone of British Columbia. The effect of herbage removal on pinegrass vigor could be assesed by measuring tiller height, tiller number/m2, or yield/m2 the year following clipping. Variability in pinegrass cover at a site necessitated measuring initial plot cover so than an analysis of covariance could be done to statistically isolate its effect. Initial pine grass cover did not affect the tiller height measurement however. Plant vigor decrease due to herbage removal depended upon the degree and time of herbage removal and either the environmental conditions during the year of clipping or plant history before herbage removal or both. Pinegrass vigor was most sensitive to clipping during the last half of July and early in August. This is the time when pinegrass growth is slowing down and summer dormancy is settling in. It is recommended that pinegrass be grazed for a short time while it is actively growing (early in June) and then later when mid-summer dormancy is well established (August) to maintain its vigor. If pinegrass must be grazed during July, then it should be rested durying July the following year. Further work is required to establish grazing schemes that will maximize animal production and maintain adequate pinegrass vigor.
    • Oak (Quercus spp.) Sprouts Growth Rates on a Central Oklahoma Shallow Savannah Range Site

      Powell, J.; Lowry, D. P. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
    • Plant Phenology as a Guide in Timing Grasshopper Control Efforts on Montana Rangeland

      Hewitt, G. B. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      The flowering of 28 forb species at two locations was correlated with grasshopper development in 1977 and 1978. Indicator plants whose flowering phenology was associated with grasshopper hatching included: Zygadenus elegans, Allium textile, Delphinium bicolor, Oxytropis sericea, Erysimum asperum, Leucocrinum montanum, and Astragalus gilviflorus. The ideal time for controlling grasshoppers (when most of the population is in the 3rd instar) was associated with the flowering phenology of the following indicator plants: Yucca glauca, Helinathus petiolaris, Opuntia polyacantha, Sphaeralcea coccinea, Antennaria dimorpha, Tragopogon dubius, Cryptanthe celosioides, Allium textile, Delphinum bicolor, Zygadenus elegans, and Erysimum asperum.
    • Potential Soil Erosion of Selected Habitat Types in the High Desert Region of Central Oregon

      Buckhouse, J. C.; Mattison, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      During the summers of 1975 and 1976, an infiltration/sedimentation study was conducted in the Bear Creek watershed of central Oregon. A Rocky Mountain infiltrometer was used to simulate high intensity rainfall over 468 sediment plots. The Bear Creek watershed was divided into seven ecological land units which were further refined into ten tentative habitat types based upon an associated table developed from vegetation and soils field data. Tractor logging in the mixed forest caused a significant increase in soil loss. In nonforested units, a high natural variability in sediment production within sites tended to mask any differences that may have resulted from a management treatment. Significant differences that did occur appeared to be closely related to differences in soils and ecological condition. Beyond the identification of specific sediment production potentials, this work investigated the value of the habitat type level of ecological refinement in relation to hydrologic response.
    • Precipitation, Temperature, and Herbage Relationships for a Pine Woodland Site in Northeastern Oregon

      Pumphrey, F. V. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Nine years of herbage yield data from nonfertilized and nitrogen (N) fertilized plots of introduced grasses on a foothill, woodland meadow were correlated with monthly precipitation and temperature. Herbage yields from nonfertilized plots were poorly correlated with monthly precipitation or combinations of monthly precipitation. Fifty-five and 71% of the year-to-year variations in yields of N fertilized grass stands were associated with April and April-through-May precipitation, respectively. Yields from N fertilized stands were nearly 2,000 kg/ha larger than yields from nonfertilized stands. Mean monthly temperature were not well correlated with yields.
    • Range Relationships of Feral Horses with Wild Ungulates and Cattle in Western Alberta

      Salter, R. E.; Hudson, R. J. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Spatial and foraging relationships between feral horses and coexisting ungulates were studied in the foothills of western Alberta. Distribution patterns of horses were compared to those of cattle, elk (Cervus elaphus), deer (Odocoileus hemionus and O. virginianus), and moose (Alces alces) using indices of spatial and habitat use overlap. Horses were more ubiquitous in their distribution than any other ungulate and utilized sites also used by other species. Lack of behavioural interactions and dietary differences suggested ecological separation of horses from deer and moose. Although horses and elk both used dry grasslands during winter and spring, competition for forage was minimal due to the low number of elk present. During spring horses occupied some areas later preferred by cattle but range use was not excessive prior to the turn-out of cattle. There was little contemporaneous spatial overlap of horses and cattle even though their summer diets showed 66% overlap. Potential for competition appeared highest between horses and cattle but grazing relationships were complex.
    • Response of Curlleaf Mountain Mahogany to Pruning Treatments in Northern Utah

      Austin, D. D.; Urness, P. J. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Production of curlleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius) within browsing height of big game on winter ranges was increased 500-900% when 90-99% of the canopy was pruned from mature trees. However, since adventitious sprouting did not occur, numerous live twigs must be present in the browsing zone before treatment for any practical benefit to accrue. Pruning at less than 90% canopy removal and girdling showed positive but smaller vegetative responses, while 100% canopy removal and application of pruning paint to wound surfaces in an attempt to eliminate sap flow had no effect on forage production available to big game.
    • Spraying of Big Sagebrush With 2,4-D Causes Negligible Stream Contamination

      Schroeder, M. H.; Sturges, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      The maximum level of 2,4-D detected in stream water was 5 ppb following aerial application of 2.2 kg/ha herbicide to a 238-ha watershed for big sagebrush control. Careful placement of the aerially applied herbicide, leaving an unsprayed buffer strip 30 m wide bordering the stream channel, and the presence of a snowdrift over the channel, prevented significant water contamination. Surface snow within the unsprayed buffer zone averaged 35 ppb of 2,4-D. Herbicide levels in a stream .5 km downwind from the sprayed watershed did not exceed 2 ppb immediately following spraying even though wind speeds exceeded 2.2 m/s during much of the spray period.
    • Using Sodium Carbonate to Seal Leaky Stock Ponds in Eastern Montana

      Neff, E. L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Mixing sodium carbonate into the top 100 to 150 mm of soil in three farm ponds constructed in calcareous soil in eastern Montana effectively reduced seepage losses for about 3 years following treatment. Seepage rates the first year after treatment were decreased to 20 to 40% of the pretreatment rate, but they were 60 to 100% of the pretreatment rate 4 years after treatment.
    • Vivipary, Proliferation, and Phyllody in Grasses

      Beetle, A. A. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Some temperate grasses have the ability to produce in their inflorescence modified spikelet structures that act to reproduce the species vegetatively. These types may be either genetically fixed or an occasional expression of environmental change.